What does Jjada mean in Korean

Introduction to Korean script and pronunciation

Transcript

1 Introduction to Korean Script and Pronunciation The Korean language Korean is spoken by more than 70 million people, making it the 13th largest language in terms of its prevalence. The Korean script 한글 Hangeul is considered to be one of the most scientific and systematic scripts in the world. It has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. In South Korea it is celebrated on October 9th with the Hangeul Nal Memorial Day. The Origin of the Korean Alphabet In 1443, King Sejong and his officials invented a script for the Korean consonants and vowels 한글 Hangeul and officially announced it three years later in the book 훈민정음 Hunminjeongeum (meaning: The right sounds for teaching the people). At that time, the Korean language borrowed a large number of Chinese words and sounds. King Sejong realized that there was a need for a uniform Korean script that the people could learn because most Koreans could neither write nor read. So he invented an easy-to-use font. Hangeul is designed in such a way that you can use it to reproduce and record all possible onomatopoeia and sounds. The goal of King Sejong was to give the people the opportunity to express their opinion in language and in writing. At the same time, through literacy, he was able to announce his reforms in the areas of agriculture and arable farming and implement political measures more easily. Origin of writing Originally 17 consonants and 11 vowels were created, of which 14 consonants and 10 vowels are used today. The shape of the basic consonants is based on the shape of the mouth, throat and tongue during articulation. Further consonants were formed from the basic consonants by adding a horizontal or vertical line. The 5 basic consonants: ㄱ, ㄴ, ㅅ, ㅁ, ㅇ were expanded with one or more horizontal or vertical lines and thus 14 basic consonants were formed: ㄱ - ㅋ, ㄴ - ㄷ - ㄹ - ㅌ, ㅅ - ㅈ - ㅊ, ㅁ - ㅂ - ㅍ, ㅇ - ㅎ Double consonants or compound consonants can be formed from the basic consonants. The 5 double consonants are: ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, ㅉ The 11 compound consonants are: ㄱㅅ, ㄴㅈ, ㄴㅎ, ㄹㄱ, ㄹㅁ, ㄹㅂ, ㄹㅅ, ㄹㅌ, ㄹㅍ, ㄹㅎ, ㅂㅅ The basic vowels are based on the philosophy of heaven, the earth and man Menschen ㅡ created. Among the 3 basic vowels, the vowel has been lost and is no longer in use. Building on the basic vowels, additional basic vowels were formed by adding a horizontal or vertical line. The 10 basic vowels are: ㅏ, ㅑ, ㅓ, ㅕ, ㅗ, ㅛ, ㅜ, ㅠ, ㅡ, ㅣ Compound vowels can be formed from the basic vowels: The 11 compound vowels are: ㅐ, ㅒ, ㅔ, ㅖ, ㅘ, ㅙ , ㅚ, ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅟ, ㅢ PONS GmbH 1

2 Principles of Syllable Structure A Korean syllable combines at least one consonant (K) with a vowel (V). The syllables are written in imaginary squares of the same size. You write from left to right and from top to bottom. A syllable is formed as follows: 1. V 아, 야, 어, 여, 오, 요, 우, 유, 으, 이 You cannot build a syllable with a vowel alone. Instead of a consonant, a ㅇ that is not spoken is used as a placeholder. With a vertical vowel stroke (ㅏ, ㅑ, ㅓ, ㅕ, ㅣ) stands ㅇ or another consonant to the left of the vowel and with a horizontal vowel stroke (ㅗ, ㅛ, ㅜ, ㅠ, ㅡ) stands ㅇ or another consonant above the Vocal. 2. K V 가, 냐, 더, 려 / K V 모, 뵤, 수, 쥬, 크 You cannot form a syllable with a consonant alone. You absolutely need a vowel. 3. K V 간, 넉, 남, 잘, 한 / K V K 몽, 불, 틈, 춤, 골 In this case the last consonant is called the final consonant 받침 batchim. A single syllable can be made up of up to 5 different letters. Here are the 5 possible combinations. 아, 어, 우, 으, 이 o placeholder V / o placeholder V 구, 다, 스, 츄, 흐 KV KV 강, 남, 롱, 툴, 한 KV KKVK 꿀, 떡, 뿔, 썸, 짱 (double consonants above ) 굶, 덟, 많, 앉, 짧 (compound consonants below) On the next few pages you will learn the basics of Korean pronunciation. You can also listen to numerous audio samples that you can download as MP3 files at the same location as this PDF. When you see this symbol, you can listen to the associated text: 5 PONS GmbH 2

3 Sentence structure and properties of Korean The Korean language belongs to the Ural-Altaic languages ​​and is an agglutinating language, i. H. grammatical functions such as B. Time and case are attached to the root of the word using affixes. Special features of Korean are: 1. The sentence sequence in Korean is subject object verb Both subject and object can be at the beginning of a sentence, but the verb must be at the end of a sentence. The sentence position of the question sentence corresponds to that of the statement sentence, i. H. the verb is at the end of the sentence. By adding independent affixes (suffix and infix) to the verb and the noun (postpositions), the respective forms (e.g. case, tense, etc.) are formed. Adjectives and modifying verbs (present participle, future participle, perfect participle) are placed in front of the specific noun. 2. The honorary system of Korean, that is, the gradation of the degree of politeness in address and language, is very systematic and complex. A distinction is made between the following four different forms of politeness. Two formal forms of politeness that add - 십니다 or - 습니다 to the verb stem, and two informal forms of politeness that end in - 세요 or - 요. The different levels of politeness are based on age, professional position and the type of relationship. So use z. B. Friends among each other have a lower speaking level than colleagues. In order to know in which form the interlocutor must be addressed, Koreans want to know their age, title and social position. One of the two formal forms of politeness, the one that ends in - 십니다, is rarely used. Therefore it is not presented here. 3. In Korean, the subject can sometimes be omitted if the context reveals who it is. z. B. 선생님 은 어디에 가세요? Where are you going, teacher? (literal: the teacher go where?) = 어디에 가세요? Where you go? (literally: where to go?) 4. The verb is the most important element in Korean. There are two different types of verbs: Verbs that describe activities or a process: e.g. B. 가다 walk, 보다 see, 먹다 eat and attribute verbs that describe a condition or a quality: e.g. B. 싸다 be cheap, 예쁘다 be pretty, 춥다 be cold 5. In Korean there is no gender, no article and no relative clauses. PONS GmbH 3

4 Romanization / Transcription Today, various Romanizations d. H. Transcriptions of Korean used. The most widely used Romanization is the so-called McCune-Reischauer Romanization, which was developed in the 1930s. Another transliteration that is often used is the Yale Romanization. In 2000, the so-called official Romanization was introduced by the Korean Ministry of Education. According to this transcription system, books, place names, signs, etc. were changed. However, the new regulations have not yet been implemented in all areas. So far there is no suitable Romanization that corresponds to the German pronunciation. The following example shows the different possibilities of transcription. 훈민정음 Hunminjeongeum (2000, official Romanization) Hunminjŏng ŭm (McCune-Reischauer) Hunmincengum (Yale Romanization) Hunminjŏŋŭm Hunminchŏngŭm Here the official Romanization of South Korea is used and all Korean words and sentences are transcribed accordingly. PONS GmbH 4

5 Hangeul: basic vowels / basic consonants The Korean alphabet consists of 10 basic vowels and 14 basic consonants. You write them from top to bottom and from left to right. Consonants and vowels are combined into syllables and written in (imaginary) squares of the same size. Basic vowels 1 The 10 basic vowels in alphabetical order are: Vowels transcription / pronunciation Vowels transcription / pronunciation ㅏ a ㅛ yo ㅑ ya ㅜ u ㅓ eo ㅠ yu ㅕ yeo ㅡ eu ㅗ o ㅣ i You cannot form a syllable with the vowel alone. For this you always need ㅇ as an initially silent placeholder. For vowels with a vertical vowel line (ㅏ, ㅑ, ㅓ, ㅕ, ㅣ) the consonant is to the left of the vowel. With a horizontal vowel stroke (ㅗ, ㅛ, ㅜ, ㅠ, ㅡ) the consonant is above the vowel. Basic consonants The 14 basic consonants in alphabetical order are: Consonant Transcription / Pronunciation Name of the consonant ㄱ g, k Giyeok ㄴ n Nieun ㄷ d, t Digeut ㄹ r, l Rieul ㅁ m Mieum ㅂ b, p Bieup ㅅ s Siot ㅇ ng Ieung ㅈ j Jieut ㅊ ch Chieut ㅋ k Kieuk ㅌ t Tieut ㅍ p Pieup ㅎ h Hieut ㄱ, ㄷㅂ are transcribed and pronounced in front of a vowel as g, d, b and in front of consonants or at the end of a syllable as k, t, p. ㅇ is pronounced as ng as the final consonant. PONS GmbH 5

6 Hangeul: Basic combinations of vowels and consonants Basic combinations 2 The following table shows the basic combinations of Hangeul: ㄱ g, k ㄴ n ㄷ d, t ㄹ r, l ㅁ m ㅂ b, p ㅅ s ㅇ ng ㅈ j ㅊ ch ㅋ k ㅌ t ㅍ p ㅎ h ㅏ a ㅑ ya ㅓ eo ㅕ yeo ㅗ o 가갸 거겨 고교 구규 그기 나냐 너녀 노뇨 누뉴 느니 다댜 더뎌도 됴두 듀드 디 디 라랴 러려 로 료 루류 르리 마먀 머며 모묘 무뮤 므미 바뱌 버벼 보뵤 부뷰 브비 사샤 서셔 소쇼 수슈 스시 아야 어여 오요 우유 으이 자쟈 저져 조죠 주쥬 즈지 차챠 처쳐 초쵸 추츄 츠치 카캬 커켜 코쿄 쿠큐 크키 타탸 터텨 토툐 투튜 트티 파퍄 퍼펴 퍼펴 포표 푸퓨 프피 프피 하햐 허혀 호효 후휴 흐히 ㅛ yo ㅜ u ㅠ yu ㅡ eu ㅣ I Here are some sample words: 3 고기 gogi 나라 nara 다리미 darimi 라디오 radio 모자 moja 바다 bada 소리 sori meat country iron radio hat, cap sea loud 성공 seonggong 자유 jayu 치다 chida 크다 keuda 토마토 tomato 허수아비 heosuabi success freedom beat big tomato scarecrow PONS GmbH 6

7 Read and listen. 1. 기차 gicha train 2. 나비 nabi butterfly 3. 다리 dari leg 4. 토마토 tomato tomatoes 5. 소 so cow 6. 사랑 sarang love 7. 바구니 baguni basket 8. 사자 saja lion 9. 지도 jido map 10. 커피 keopi coffee 4 Hangeul: Double consonants / compound vowels Double consonants There are 5 double consonants that are pronounced as a tension sound. The 5 double consonants in alphabetical order are: Double consonant Pronunciation Name ㄲ kk Ssanggiyeok ㄸ tt Ssangdigeut ㅃ pp Ssangbieup ㅆ ss Ssangsiot ㅉ jj Ssangjieut Please pay close attention to the difference in pronunciation between the basic consonants, the aspirated basic consonants and the double consonants. Some words only differ in one of these consonants and have completely different meanings. Basic consonants Basic consonants Double consonants ㄱ g ㅋ k ㄲ kk ㄷ d ㅌ t ㄸ tt ㅂ b ㅍ p ㅃ pp ㅅ s ㅆ ss ㅈ j ㅊ ch ㅉ jj Here are some example words: 5 까치 kkachi magpie 가짜 gajja falsification 타다 driving tada 따다 picking ttada 바쁘다 bappeuda be busy 아프다 apeuda be sick 사다 buy sada 싸다 ssada cheap 자다 jada sleep 차다 chada bump 짜다 jjada be salty PONS GmbH 7

8 Compound vowels The basic vowels can be combined to form compound vowels. The 11 compound vowels in alphabetical order are: 6 compound vowels ㅐ ㅒ ㅔ ㅖ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅢ Transcription / Pronunciation ae yae e ye wa wae oe wo we wi ui 개미 gaemi ant 얘기 yaegi entertainment 체조 chejo gymnastics 세계 segye world 사과 sagwa apple 돼지 dwaeji pig 외래어 oeraeeo foreign word 추워요 chuwoyo It's cold 궤도 gwedo rail 귀 gwi ear 의자 uija chair 7 Hangeul: final consonants The 14 basic consonants and the two double consonants ㄲ and ㅆ can also be used as final consonants. The following table shows the pronunciation rules: Consonant as final consonant Pronunciation Consonant as final consonant Pronunciation ㄱ, ㅋ, ㄲ -k ㅁ -m ㄴ -n ㅂ, ㅍ -p ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅌ, ㅎ, ㅆ -t ㅇ - ng ㄹ -l 1. ㄱ, ㅋ, ㄲ -k: 국 guk soup 독 dok poison 밖 bak outside 부엌 bueok kitchen 2. ㄴ -n: 눈 now snow, eye 돈 don money 산 san mountain 시간 sigan time 3. ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅌ, ㅎ, ㅆ -t: 듣다 hear deutda 솥 sot pot 있다 itda be there 낫 nat sickle 낮 nat noon 낯 nat visage 4. ㄹ -l: 말 times language 달 dal moon 서울 seoul Seoul 5. ㅁ -m: 봄 bom spring 꿈 kkum dream 밤 bam night 김치 gimchi Gimchi 6. ㅂ, ㅍ -p: 밥 bap rice 답 dap answer 앞 ap front 숲 sup forest 7. ㅇ -ng: 강 gang river 빵 ppang bread 가방 gabang Bag PONS GmbH 8

9 Some rules of pronunciation 1. Liason: when the vowel initial sound follows the consonant final. 국 이 guk-i gugi 할아버지 hal-a-beo-ji harabeoji 2. Nasal assimilation: when ㄱ comes before ㄴ, ㅁ, ㄱ is pronounced as ㅇ jak-mun jangmun 직녀 jik-nyeo jingnyeo when wenn comes before ㄴ, ㅁ , ㄷ is pronounced as ㄴ 믿는 with-nine minnine 빗물 bit-mul binmul if ㅂ is before ㄴ, ㅁ, ㅂ is pronounced as ㅁ 집만 jip-man jimman 톱니 top-ni tomni 3rd aspiration: when ㄱㄷㅂㅈ come together with ㅎ, if they are aspirated 국학 guk-hak gukak 좋게 joh-ke joke 맏형 mad-hyeong matyeong 넣다 neoh-da neota 입학 ib-hak ipak 맞히다 maj-hida machida 4. If ㄹ precedes consonants other than ㄴ, ㄹ, ㄹ is pronounced as ㄴ . 삼라 sam-ra samna 동료 dong-ryo dongnyo * This can then be followed by nasal assimilation (see 2). 국립 kuk-rip 국닙 kuk-nip 궁닙 kungnip 5. When ㄴ and ㄹ come together, they are pronounced as ll 신라 sin-ra silla 팔년 pal-nyeon pallyeon 6. If ㄹ is between vowels or between vowels and ㅎ, ㄹ becomes as r pronounced 일 해요 il-haeyo ir (h) aeyo 머리 meori 7.If ㄷ and ㅌ come before the vowel ㅣ (vowels with ㅣ), they become ㅈ or ㅊ. 같이 gat-i gachi 굳이 gud-i guji Read and hear the following sample words: 8 1. 한국 Korea 역 train station 2. 낚시 fishing 밖 outside 3. 문 door 전화 telephone 4. 숟가락 spoon 곧 soon 5. 젓가락 chopsticks 옷 clothing 6. 늦다 being late 낮잠 afternoon nap 7. 꽃 flower 낯 face 8. 밑 bottom 끝 end 9. 있다 have 갔다 going exist (past tense) 10. 술 alcohol 가을 autumn 11. 남자 man 아이스크림 ice cream 12. 입 mouth 비빔밥 bibimbap (dish) 13 . 무릎 knee 늪 swamp 14. 방 room 수영장 swimming pool PONS GmbH 9

10 Hangeul: final compound consonants Final compound consonants There are 11 compound consonants that can only be used as final consonants. Consonants as final consonants Pronunciation ㄳ -k ㄵ -n ㄶ -n ㄺ -k ㄻ -m ㄼ -l / -p ㄽ -l ㄾ -l ㄿ -p ㅀ -l ㅄ -p When pronouncing either the last or the first is used Consonant gone. If the next syllable starts with a vowel, both consonants are also realized. Example: 몫 mok 몫 이 moksi Greet yourself / ask how you are 안녕하세요? 이민수 씨! annyeonghaseyo iminsussi Hello, Mr. Min-Su Lee! 안녕하세요? 박지영 씨! annyeonghaseyo bakjiyeongssi Good afternoon, Ms. Ji-Yeong Park! 어떻게 지내 세요? eotteoke jinaeseyo how are you? 잘 지내요. 감사 합니다. jal jinaeyo gamsahamnida Good. Thank-you. 9 In Korean, the family name, which is usually monosyllabic, is given first, and then the first name. The first name is then followed by 씨 [ssi], which means something like Mr or Mrs. The old transcription is often used for Korean names. PONS GmbH 10

11 Introduce yourself 안녕하세요? annyeonghaseyo good afternoon! 제 소개 를 하겠습니다. je sogaereul hagesseumnida May I introduce myself? 제 이름 은 이민수 입니다. je ireumeun iminsuimnida My name is Min-Su Lee. 성함 이 어떻게 되세요? seonghami eotteoke doeseyo what's your name? 저는 박지영 입니다. jeoneun bakjiyeongimnida I am Ji-Yeong Park. 만나서 반갑 습니다. mannaseo bangapseumnida Nice to meet you. 저도 만나서 반갑 습니다. jeodo mannaseo bangapseumnida Likewise. 10 State nationality / origin / place of residence 독일 사람 이세요? dogil saramiseyo Are you German? 네, 저는 독일 에서 왔어요. ne jeoneun dogireseo wasseoyo Yes, I come from Germany. 박지영 씨 는 요? bakjiyeongssineunyo And you, Ms. Ji-Yeong Park? 저는 한국 사람 이에요. jeoneun hanguk saramieyo I am Korean. 어디에 사세요? eodie saseyo Where do you live? 저는 베를린 에 살아요. jeoneun bereulline sarayo I live in Berlin. 박지영 씨 는 요? bakjiyeongssineunyo And you, Ms. Ji-Yeong Park? 저는 서울 에 살아요. jeoneun seoure sarayo I live in Seoul. 11 PONS GmbH 11