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During menopause, the ovaries provide the woman Estrogen production a. This time means a great physical and mental change for every woman. Symptoms of menopause include among others Hot flashes, insomnia, vaginal dryness, and depression. Hormone therapies can alleviate these symptoms. The following text explains which therapy options are available and what should be considered during and after the menopause.

What happens during menopause?

Menopause is the time when a woman's ovaries begin to produce less estrogen and eventually stop producing completely. This will also no fertile eggs more manufactured. This leads to the occurrence of the Menstrual perioduntil this is complete fails to appear. The last menstrual period that occurred is called menopause designated. Pass away after this last menstruation twelve months without further bleeding, the process is considered complete and the beginning period is referred to as postmenopausal. Women can from this point onwards no longer pregnant become.

The estrogen deficiency can have a major impact on a woman's well-being or it can lead to little or no symptoms. Some women feel more comfortable with hormonal treatment. For women who have had their uterus but not their ovaries removed (hysterectomy), it can be difficult to tell when the menopause is over. In most cases, however, the remaining symptoms can be used as a guide.

When does menopause occur?

A woman has her last menstrual period on average at age 51. Most of the time, however, already begin up to five years in advance the symptoms of menopause. The bleeding may also become lighter, more irregular and less frequent in the time before the final no menstruation. From the age of 45 a woman can expect the onset of menopause. Stay already before the age of 45 menstrual bleeding should stop, however doctor be visited to measure the hormone levels and, if necessary, to find out the causes of this early menopause.

What are the symptoms of menopause?

One of the most common symptoms during menopause is that Hot flashes. Women describe it as the onset of warmth in the chest, which then spreads over the whole body and lasts about two to four minutes. These hot flashes vary in frequency, from daily to hourly. Especially at night, hot flashes are more common and can cause too Night sweats to lead. Both the heat and the subsequent cold from sweat can cause the Disturb night sleep and to Daytime sleepiness and Exhaustion to lead. Even regardless of temperature fluctuations, sleep disorders can occur during menopause - this can be both A- as well as that Sleep through the night affect.

Since estrogen is normally responsible for moisturizing the vaginal lining, it can increase during menopause Dryness of the vagina and urethra come. This can Itching, burning, and pain, especially during sexual intercourse.

Also the Mood can be influenced by hormonal changes. depressions or Mood swings are not uncommon, especially among women who have previously suffered from a depressive episode in their life. However, depression can be treated well.

How can menopause symptoms be treated?

Menopause symptoms do not need to be treated automatically, and women are not forced to take medication during this time. However, they suffer greatly from the symptoms like hot flashes that offers Hormone replacement therapy With Estrogens and one progesterone-like substance is a great way to relieve discomfort. The treatment can be compared to taking birth control pills. Since estrogen alone can lead to overgrowth of the uterine lining, a progesterone preparation should always be added to estrogen therapy in women who have not had their uterus removed. Women without a uterus can use pure estrogen supplements. There are many different dosage forms, among other things as a tablet, plaster or vaginal ring. Hormone therapy can slightly increase the risk of a heart attack, stroke or breast cancer and should be discussed with the gynecologist on a case-by-case basis. Women tend to suffer only from Vaginal dryness, can a estrogen-containing cream help.

Often so-called natural preparations advertised, which are mostly herbal in nature and also contain hormones. However, since these substances do not come under the normal drug law, they are less strictly controlled and it is unclear what amounts of hormones they contain. The amount can be very different between two packs and accordingly develop different effects. From a scientific point of view, this is why these preparations advised against.

If depression occurs during menopause, it can be associated with a number of different things Antidepressants be treated. If sleep disorders are present at the same time, these can also be treated by choosing the right antidepressant.

How should contraception be used during menopause?

A woman's fertility naturally decreases with age. However, until the bleeding has stopped for twelve months, the possibility of becoming pregnant should still be assumed. Because of this, they should be started Contraceptive measures until the definitive end of menopause continued become. However, it can be difficult to tell when menopause is occurring while taking the pill. Maybe you should therefore rely on a non-hormonal contraception how to change condoms. A similar problem arises with the intrauterine device, also known as an IUD. It, too, can lead to a natural absence of menstruation and thus mask the menopause. In most cases, it is advisable to keep the IUD for its entire shelf life (five to ten years) and then remove it when the average age of 51 years has been exceeded.

After menopause must be no contraception be used more. However, there is still a risk of dealing with sexually transmitted infections to infect. Especially if the vaginal dryness persists, the mucous membrane is more susceptible to cracks and thus the entry of pathogens. For this reason, reliable contraception (e.g. with Condoms) should be chosen when new sexual contacts are made.

How do women feel during menopause?

Every woman deals with menopause differently, but for many women it is one great physical and mental change. While some women suffer from the fact that they are no longer fertile and therefore feel that they are “less feminine”, other women welcome the dwindling risk of becoming pregnant. Entry into a new stage of life can be done with Adjustment difficulties and a reassessment of the life lived so far and in particular with the lack of estrogen to be linked to depression and Mood swings to lead. The relative now increased testosterone levels however, it can also lead to an energy boost and, for example, increased sexual desire.

Can bleeding still occur after the menopause?

Bleeding may occur after intercourse if the vaginal skin, which is drier due to the lack of estrogen, is injured. After menopause, however, you should no vaginal bleeding occur more. Even if there is even a small amount of bleeding, one should Gynecologist be visited, because then the Uterine lining on Growths needs to be investigated.

What should be considered after menopause?

Postmenopausal women have a higher chance of getting on because of the lowered estrogen level osteoporosis to get sick. This decreased bone density can be too Broken bones lead to even harmless falls. For this reason, postmenopausal women in particular should take adequate care Calcium and vitamin D intake pay attention and have yourself checked regularly.

In addition to the risk of osteoporosis, the risk for after menopause also increases Cardiovascular diseases how Strokes and heart attacks. In order to keep this risk as low as possible, a balanced diet and sufficient exercise Be respected to the Blood lipids keep in good balance. Risk factors like Smoke and Obesity should be avoided. high blood pressure and a possibly existing diabetes mellitus should be adjusted as best as possible.

A problem that does not necessarily have to be related to menopause, but often occurs at the same time, is that Urinary incontinence. In most cases this is due to a flaccid pelvic floor muscle culture, but it can have various causes. Because incontinence in most cases is great well treatable women should not be afraid to address this problem to their general practitioner or gynecologist.

Women should continue to have sex even after the menopause regularly at the gynecologist imagine and the Medical checkupssuch as the PAP smear or mammography.

See also:

OsteoporosisDepressionEndometriosisVitamin D Deficiency


German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics: Guideline for hormone therapy in the peri- and postmenopause. 2009. Online at, accessed on April 2nd, 2016

D. von Fournier: Gynecology and Obstetrics - Textbook for study and practice. Schattauer Verlag, Stuttgart, 2007. S. 81ff. Online at, accessed on April 2, 2016

North American Menopause Society. "Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of The North American Menopause Society." Menopause (New York, NY) 2/17 (2010): 242.

P. Kaufert, et al. "Women and Menopause: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors. The North American Menopause Society 1997 Menopause Survey." Menopause 5.4 (1998): 197-202. Menopause Guidelines Revision Task Force, A. A. C. E. "American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and treatment of menopause." Endocrine practice 12.3 (2006): 315-337.

Important NOTE: This article contains only general information and descriptions about menopause. It is not suitable for self-diagnosis or self-treatment and under no circumstances can it replace a doctor's visit.

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