What is your 5 step life plan

"From activity to learning" according to Hans Aebli, taking practical examples into account.

CONTENT

1 Introduction
2. On Hans Aebli’s work
2.1. About Hans Aebli
2.2. To his works
2.2.1. "Twelve Basic Forms of Teaching"
2.2.2. "Basics of Teaching"

3. From activity to learning according to Hans Aebli
3.1. Living and learning activities.
3.1.1. Learning as a by-product of attractive activities
3.1.2. The cube
3.1.3. Behavioral knowledge and world knowledge
3.1.4. Location and life plan.
3.1.5. The didactic short circuit
3.1.6. Scientific or practical
3.2. Three qualities of doing ..
3.2.1. truth
3.2.2. beauty
3.2.3. quality
3.2.4. motivation
3.3. From activity to learning
3.3.1. Structural learning ..
3.3.2. Reinforcement learning
3.3.3. From learning to teaching.
3.3.4. Appropriateness
3.3.5. aesthetics
3.3.6. Doing good
3.4. Summary

4. Presentation of the school project.
4.1. Condition determination
4.1.1. School factor
4.1.2. The class
4.1.3. Learning requirements
4.2. Presentation of the teaching units
4.2.1. Preliminary considerations ..
4.2.2. Lesson "Experimentation" on the topic of water.
4.2.3. Factual analysis: what is an experiment?
4.3. Prepare lessons for painting with ice cubes
4.3.1. Learning requirements
4.3.2. Started
4.3.3. Work phase ..
4.3.4. graduation
4.3.5. aims
4.3.6. reflection

5. Processing of the school project according to Hans Aebli
5.1. Choosing the school lesson ..
5.2. Application of Aebli’s theory to the school project
5.2.1. Matches and compares
5.2.2. Practical knowledge ..
5.2.3. On the taxonomy of activities

6. Parallels of an art teacher

7. Closing words

Explanation

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1 Introduction

In this work I will first go into the work of Hans Aebli and himself. There are two books, "The Twelve Basic Forms" and "Fundamentals of Teaching".

Then I will specifically go into the first part of his second book "Teaching: Leading from doing to learning" and explaining it as well as possible in order to take a position on the question "How can I convert material into activity?"

To be a little more practical then, I will present one of my school projects. It is an art lesson in a third grade.

I will try to work it out according to Hans Aebli in order to establish a connection between my school project and the principle “from activity to learning”.

I will then make a further connection in a next and last point between the subject of art and general psychological didactics.

Finally, I want to summarize my impressions and the traces that this work has left behind.

2. On Hans Aebli’s work

2.1. About Hans Aebli

Hans Aebli was born in Zurich in 1923. He completed his studies in psychology, philosophy and education at the Universities of Geneva and Minnesota / USA. From 1962 to 1966 he was professor of psychology at the Free University

Berlin. From 1966 to 1971 he held the position of one

full professor of psychology and was head of the psychology department of the Center for Educational Research at the University of Konstanz and finally he became director of the department of educational psychology at the University of Bern. He lived in Burgdorf near Bern until his death in July 1990. His research concerns the

Developmental psychology, the psychology of thought and action and its application to teaching and education.

2.2. To his works

At first he had only written one book, namely “Basic Forms of Teaching”, but over the years he had to make changes again and again and at some point it looked like an old house with lots of extensions and was sometimes confusing. So he and his team decided to completely overhaul it. The external result was the division of his work into two parts. He started revising the “Twelve Basic Forms of Teaching”, it was published in 1983. However, the second had to be waited longer due to a research project and health problems. “The Basics of Teaching” was completed in early spring 1987. The chapters on the curriculum, examining and grading are missing in the "Twelve Basic Forms", but they can be found in the second book, "The Basics of Teaching." At the same time, a few new points of view are added in the second book.

2.2.1. "Twelve Basic Forms of Teaching"

The book "Twelve Basic Forms" is, so to speak, the first new part of the basic forms of teaching. What is new about the "Twelve Basic Forms"? Four things: the structure of the book, the four new chapters, the detail of the psychological and pedagogical reasons and the broader comprehensibility of the examples.

The attempt to be understandable and practical at the same time has remained the same, so that it is understandable for 18-year-old students and also for trained teachers.

This first volume of general didactics on a psychological basis now includes the following basic forms:

1. Tell a story
2. Present
3. Look
4. Reading
5. Write texts You explain the structure
6. an act
7. an operation
8. a concept that includes the learning process
9. Problem solving
10. Working through
11. Practice, repeat and
12. Apply

2.2.2. "Basics of Teaching"

The basics of teaching are an independent part of the twelve basic forms of teaching. Both books together resulted in the old "basic forms". He adjusted the structure in the "12 basic forms". But now the chapters on the curriculum, testing and grading were missing. These chapters are available in revised form in the new volume. At the same time, he raised a number of questions about the effects of curriculum and examination problems on further learning. In this part he will take a deeper and more systematic approach to the problem of teaching goals. To do this, one had to ask how learning comes about in natural life situations, and what it takes to ensure that this also works in the school situation. The guiding principle here is activity, but which activities? He suggests an 8-part taxonomy of activities in the classroom. They correspond to eight learning areas. Among these, he particularly deepens social learning in this volume. Furthermore, he goes into learning motivation, learning to learn, getting along with one another, curricula and testing.

3. From activity to learning according to Hans Aebli

3.1. Life and learning activity

3.1.1. Learning as a by-product of attractive activities

In this case I am mainly interested in its first part and will therefore explain it first.

He calls his first part "Teaching: leading from doing to learning". In the first chapter he first goes into life activities and learning activities. He asks a very elementary question: Why is learning and teaching so much fun in leisure time and in “real” life? There are countless examples that show us very clearly that learning and teaching can be fun. We just need to think of things like driving a car or learning to swim. You felt that you were progressing, that new possibilities were opening up, that you could act more effectively, see further or deeper. Shouldn't that be fun? He sees it the same way with teaching. There are countless situations in which one can clearly see that teaching can be fun. For example, parents who “teach” their children something, such as the new train or new words. When we teach something, we take part in the development of the learner; one relives the adventure of discovery. We see the learner progress and that takes you a little further.

All well and good, but why doesn't this principle work in school? Hans Aebli clarifies this question in this first chapter.

Why don't students and teachers look forward to the end of the holiday? Both should really look forward to the adventure of learning and teaching. Unfortunately, it doesn't seem to be a great adventure for everyone.

The teachers usually cite the pressure of the material, difficult pupils or a lack of motivation to learn as the reason for the “reluctance”. Schoolchildren, on the other hand, complain of too high demands and uninteresting subject matter.

That would mean that what is worked on in school is boring, for example, and things that are learned in leisure time are not. But that's not the case, after all, hardly a learner driver would complain that he has to learn the function of the starter or the clutch. Why is such a material more interesting? Because he doesn't push. And why doesn't he push? Aebli is looking for answers.

What should schools and lessons look like in which learning is fun? In what form must learning material appear so that it is readily accepted by the students? What do we mean when we talk about material? And above all, we need to understand how an environment must be designed to attract everyone involved, students and teachers.

The examples of driving a car or swimming clearly show that it is not the subject matter that is attractive, but rather what you do. Learning takes place in the course of their work. It is, so to speak, a by-product of the activity. A child does not want to learn, but rather to master an activity and achieve a certain result, for example to move more freely and faster, to create a specific product or to be looking for an experience. In summary, we can say that all activities are attractive which lead to a visible result, to expanded possibilities for action or to an experience-like alternation between tension and rest. Two conditions must be fulfilled for this: the activity must have an internal order or lead to a better order or structure and the activity must succeed. At least it should bring the learner closer to his goal and the person must be able to perceive that.

So what conditions must be met for an activity to be successful? The task must be adapted to his performance or his level of development. Aebli speaks of an optimal fit of task and means to solve it. Here the importance of order becomes clear, a successful activity has its order, failure always means confusion, conflict and contradiction. The inner order of the activity ensures alternation between tension and calm and that is the decisive factor that attracts and satisfies. Mere restlessness or insecurity is not attractive.

Aebli does not want to ban the "materials" from school and only maintain the processes, but "material" cannot be conveyed "net". It must be in the context of attractive activities. But how? So he sets himself the next task, activities in which a student acquires knowledge and appropriates “substances” whose knowledge opens up today's world to him.

3.1.2. The cube

If school wants to fulfill its task, then activities that take place in modern society must find their place in school and they must generate the corresponding knowledge. He speaks of developing a taxonomy of forming activities and for this meaningful knowledge, which allows the goals of activity and knowledge acquisition - i.e. learning goals to be defined.

Action or activity

In a separate part he deals with the term “activity”. He separates the term “activity” from the term “action”. The difference is as follows: An action has a goal of which the agent is aware and to which he consciously assigns all individual steps. An activity also has its goal, but the person doing the job is often only partially or not at all aware of this. This is especially the case when it is controlled by someone else or in a collective activity

Example in a production company. Here the worker is aware of his or her function

Part of the plot in the clear, but not over the entire process. His motivation is his partial action. However, the boundaries between action and activity are fluid. If the active person becomes aware of the overall goal and consciously uses the partial actions in order to achieve this, the activity becomes an action.

Its taxonomy has three dimensions with two values ​​each. Their multiplication (2 x 2 x 2) leads to a cube-shaped body that consists of eight sub-cubes. Each represents a specific activity.

Figure not included in this excerpt

First dimension:

Relevant activity: Operate a pump

Social activity: Asking a classmate for information

Second dimension:

Manufacturing activities:

Related: Filling a vessel with water Social: Writing a letter

Performing activities:

Related: Observing a substance dissolving in a liquid. Social: Representing a historical event

Third dimension:

Real activities:

1. Manufacturing relevant: Baking bread
2. Representative: build a model
3. Manufacturing socially: Form a working group, real cooperation between students
4. Representing social: You talk about a social event. Role play symbolic activities (e.g. language):
5. Manufacturing pertinent: how a road link between x and y could be
6. Representing factually: Representing what you have observed on an excursion.
7. Manufacturing social: Establishing relationships through e.g. language. Comfort someone.
8. Representing social: history, literature, for example, represent interpersonal processes.

The eight forms of activity correspond to eight forms of ability and knowledge.

I think Aebli’s description of the cube is a bit irritating due to the use of the word disk and therefore not easy to understand, so on the next pages I will mark the cube in color to match its description.

The upper, horizontal pane (manufacturing / representing factually related): Expertise and ability:

The lower, horizontal disc (producing / representing social): interpersonal and social knowledge and ability:

The left, backward running (producing social / factual): Practical knowledge and ability:

The right, backward running (representing social / factual): the knowledge about people and things:

The front transverse pane (real): represents the knowledge and skills acquired in direct contact with reality:

The rear transverse disk (symbolic): Linguistic knowledge and skills acquired with other symbolic means:

The whole thing is a taxonomy, i.e. a system of order. He uses this theoretical structure so that you can, so to speak, look again and again and yourself

can be accountable for planning the lessons, which ones

Activities that trigger and convey knowledge. It would be best to create a balance between the various activities, as an imbalance has a negative effect on the motivation to learn.

3.1.3. Behavioral basis and world knowledge

However, the point is not that we only crank up activities, but rather that the students should learn something, acquire knowledge. We know how activities and knowledge relate to one another, the relationship is simple: every activity leaves a trace and repetition makes it more likely and easier to follow the trail. If you z. B. starting a complicated pump several times is always easier. You have acquired skills. Aebli calls it Practical knowledge. This also applies to social activities.

If you look several times z. B. inquires in English, one knows how to inquire. This is then a social action knowledge. If you have changed a tire several times, you have real practical knowledge.

Activities in the area of ​​observing and interpreting objects and processes are reflected in the human mind as ideas, concepts, more comprehensively than theories. That is world knowledge, i.e. knowledge of how the world works, factually as well as humanly, linguistically or vividly. Through observations that are acquired through one's own senses and stored as images. That is why one speaks of Worldview.

So far we have only spoken of the fact that activities are reflected as knowledge; the reverse is also the case. No activity without knowledge. That is why knowledge is called the basis of behavior, the Behavioral basis.

There is an inner relationship between practical knowledge and world knowledge, in order to To be able to operate a pump correctly, for example, I have to know something about its structure, but conversely, you also acquire something while dealing with things in your environment

(World) knowledge about them.

There is also a relationship between factual and social knowledge. For example, in a theater performance you need technical and social knowledge.

With the front and rear panes of the cube, i.e. real and symbolic activities, one recognizes a basic problem in our schools. If these two parts are not evenly related, they both suffer.The symbolically encoded knowledge becomes sterile without concrete graphic meanings, and practice without theory becomes mere routine. So both are necessary, one wither away without the other. "Theory gives insight into reality and human action, concrete knowledge creates close contact with the reality of factual and human processes".

3.1.4. Location and life plan

After we have got to know the overall view of activities and knowledge, one should also think about the totality of what people do and know. Will our schools reflect the disoriented pluralism of our culture today? After all, the student's self cannot be defined outside of school. Man is what he knows and what he does.

The activities can be integrated into a classification system, but what about the life path of an adolescent? Do we help him through our teaching, his actions and his knowledge to give him a certain order, an inner connection, unity and identity? Does the totality of his actions make a life plan visible to him? Are we helping him discover and develop it?

I would guess that is the goal of every teacher *, but some teachers say that is not their job. It would be personal

Acting area of ​​the student. Is that reluctance or cowardice? I agree with Aebli and am therefore also of the opinion that schools should not be disoriented and busy, but that they have to put the totality of the knowledge imparted into order. School should try at least to some extent to turn world knowledge into a world view. We teachers should help him to create a life plan, a perspective for the future from the options for action that the student gets to know. The student should gradually get to know his place in the world and try to use this experience to pursue his path in life or a career.

* I have left the collective term “the teacher” and “the pupil” in the opinion that it is understood to be gender-neutral.

I believe that if this life plan were a primary goal of school, there would certainly not be so many disoriented school leavers who have no idea what they want to do with their lives. For this reason, of course, the students are also unsettled and this leads to ever longer study times. They too lack the goal, the life plan, they feel lost.

It becomes clear that it is not enough to provide the students with non-binding representations of factual and historical social reality so that they get a real idea of ​​the world. I think it is imperative to give the student the opportunity to do practical and cooperative work. He can not only get to know the world of things and fellow human beings in a lively and active way, but above all himself, his possibilities and his limits. Although doing is primarily still focused on learning for the time being, he can already begin to relate to his position here and thus begin to take a path in his life that fits into a life plan.

3.1.5. The didactic short circuit

The following is about the subject matter related to fabric printing. The subject matter is a description of the knowledge, i.e. the results of the activities that are to be carried out in the classroom. The knowledge itself is stored in the student, but teachers need curricula that list the knowledge that students should have acquired by the end of the lesson. Know how to build a house; the concept of the quadratic equation; and also actions such as B. write a letter of complaint.

So it is necessary to paraphrase the knowledge that is gained through activities. You have to have teaching goals, otherwise the lesson would be like a drive and then it could happen that you go around in circles and make no progress at all.

Why fabric printing? There are several reasons for this. On the one hand, it is due to the nature of the material collections in the curriculum and, on the other hand, partly to the appropriation of the material.

The great danger lies in conveying the knowledge material independently of the teaching activities, i.e., as I have already referred to, wanting to convey the material purely “net”. As a result, some students simply memorize the subject matter, or rather the pure results without understanding the derivation, and then repeat them in class.

We therefore recognize that subject matter is dangerous if it is not converted back into activities in the classroom that start from living problems and require the student to act, observe and reflect on their own.

The results of the activities bring insight, problem solving or the concept. Some teachers think it is too cumbersome or too time-consuming to set these activities in motion, but this creates the didactic short-circuit and this creates material pressure. So it is mostly the teacher 's "fault" who does not bother to discover the activity behind the knowledge. Except in the rare cases where the curricula are so strict or exams are so broad and the teacher has no choice but to teach the material purely net. There are some conditions that must be observed in order to prevent this didactic short circuit. This is where the "twelve basic forms" come into play. I will list some didactic problems from the "twelve basic forms" that will make the situation even more understandable for us.

According to Aebli, activities must be initiated on the basis of a lively problem that the student understands. They should not only serve the observation and interpretation of reality, but also include producing actions. Actions, operations and concepts have to be worked through, i.e. subjected to various transformations and illuminated from different perspectives so that they can be moved. After they have been consolidated in practice, actions, operations and concepts must be tried out and applied in new situations and on new objects and appearances. Symbolic representations must be associated with real actions and observations on the matter itself. Real communication and cooperation situations have to be established.

This brings the material to life in the student's mind. He is attractive because the job in which he was won are attractive. By searching for knowledge and building it up through research, i.e. discovering, and doing so consistently, we can at least largely avoid the dangers.

In a separate section, Aebli points out the risk of using the material as a means of discipline and pressure. That is probably the culmination of a fateful didactic short circuit. The teacher has the impression that the students are not interested in his lessons. Attention and involvement begin to suffer, and discipline problems arise. The teacher is insecure and feels threatened. In this situation, in my opinion, he would have to think about what he did wrong, why the students are not interested, but not as Aebli describes, clinging to the material as it is in curricula and textbooks. By fulfilling the curriculum, however, he is at least on the safe side with regard to the authorities. The textbook seems to have structure and order, so the teacher trusts it. Material collections can be implemented in tests. Some ambitious and good students somehow appropriate these, so the teacher feels validated in what he is doing. However, he cannot be happy in this situation, he, like his students, has become a victim of the self-generated material pressure through short-circuiting material transfer.

3.1.6. Scientific or practical

What activities should the school do? Our school's traditional option is clear. They are based on science. There are historical and systematic reasons for this. The historical ones are based on the fact that almost all higher schools were schools for scholars and prepare for university studies and the primary level was based on the higher schools. The division of subjects was and is practically the same. For example, until a few years ago, applications in mathematics lessons still led a shadowy existence in primary school and also at universities and high schools. Technology, terms of law or economics, including sciences, were largely missing until recently, although they have a high level of everyday life.

The division and content of the subject matter largely correspond to a humanistic scholar's ideal, which is why the performing activities are also in the foreground. Only in primary school is this view partially softened by the idea that teaching is appropriate for children.

Aebli, and so do I, think that school should focus more on preparing for life. It should be based not only on the scientific disciplines, but also on the areas of activities in extracurricular life, on the life circles of the family, the profession and the state. Activities and the results to be obtained must be derived from these areas. The school subjects should not be abolished, but it is necessary to add activities and perspectives to systematic teaching that differ from conventional sciences and whose focus is practical action.

Identifying eligibility is easy. Just think of the family problems. There are problems of an economic, technological, legal, psychological and social nature. A few examples: An apartment has to be rented - the question arises whether its price is commensurate with the income; buying household appliances and vehicles poses economic, technological and legal problems; In the context of the development and training of children, psychological and pedagogical questions arise. It is amazing and sad to see how little is said about these things in our schools. The way our schools are designed today, they do little to prepare young people to solve the problems that arise in the context of the family.

The professional activities are at least addressed in school, but in school the representational view prevails over the producing act in professional life. In life there are technological, i.e. practical problems, in school their theory is taught in a descriptive way.

Another example are the essays that are written in schools that have nothing to do with the texts that are needed in life, such as letters, minutes or applications.

These texts are written on the grounds that you don't know what kind of jobs the students will take up later. Is that a reason? I think no, because after all, you don't know whether the students will later need the theoretical instruction on the inclined plane or the supplement in the Wes case.

There are also legal and economic problems in professional life, it cannot be that schools cannot afford to say anything about them. Apparently these problems have to be resolved in the self-study of every person. The same applies to the state and society. Sure, there are history lessons that have the same roots, but the lessons seem to be without any reference to the present and the problems to be solved in it and that is not enough if we want to help the students to understand and cope with the complex problems of the present .

It is similar with cultural life. Aebli speaks here not only of higher culture such as classical literature, but of everyday culture such as living, clothing, but also the design of important experiences such as birthdays, weddings or days of mourning. School behaves as if modern man only reads books, visits museums or theaters in his spare time. I am of the opinion that it looks as if the progression of the leisure activities for those responsible, the school has passed. Nowadays culture also consists of an active part, so the school would have to prepare a lot more for an active cultural life: not only botany, but also horticulture, not only geography, but travel, not only zoology, but also animal husbandry and not only music theory and history, but also its exercise.

A high school graduate may want to participate privately in scientific life in addition to cultural life. Here, too, the question is whether the school is properly and at all prepared for this. Here, for example, the school should point out the relevant magazines.

Aebli is not concerned here with abolishing the classic school subjects, there are also good reasons for teaching in the future to be science-oriented, systematic and theoretical, but only to a certain extent. Because the generality and transferability of the pure scientific terms is greater than that of their applications. Good textbooks will be theoretically oriented for years to come and there are many good authors interested in theory and good students who are often interested in theory. We can only hope that there will soon be good practice and application-oriented learning offers geared towards everyday life in the training and book market.

So what can I do as a teacher in the meantime? You have to think about the later way of life of the students, imagine what will become of them and what they will do and from this knowledge develop your own applications of the theoretical subject matter, which are modeled on later life activities and prepare for them in a simplified form.

It is very good to find the subject matter according to our eight-part cube in

To convert activity, but the teaching activities must not only be scientific, but must also be thought out and worked out in the way they are in the areas of life mentioned. This is the only way that material remains attractive and is fruitful for later life.

3.2. Three qualities of doing

The previous description of the teaching activities is not entirely complete. The traits mentioned so far, such as alternating tension and solution, movement and rest, risk and security, were rather superficial. Their didactic qualities, the development of results from an understandable problem, the flexibility of actions, operations and concepts, their consolidation in practice and their effectiveness in application, ultimately remain sterile if they do not have three qualities of doing: Truth, Beauty and goodness. These are old philosophical terms, but Aebli gives them a modern meaning.

3.2.1. truth

According to Aebli, two definitions of truth have developed over the years: truth as the correspondence of our thinking with reality and truth as the lack of contradictions or the consistency of our thinking and knowledge. Both are obvious.

An example: The student who would claim that all swans are white is not speaking the truth, because there are also black swans in Australia. The lack of contradictions is also a characteristic of true statements: the student who would be shown a black swan would have to admit that he was looking at a black swan. This would contradict his claim that all swans know his own.

The definition of truth as inconsistency has the advantage that it can also be used in areas of knowledge that are not obtained on the basis of observation.

For example, if mathematical theorems are Consistent, whoever claimed that 7 + 5 = 13, or that a quadratic equation only has a single solution, would soon get tangled up in contradictions. Even a poetic work can be contradictory, but here one speaks more of gaps in his thought processes or in his line of thought.

Aebli’s definition of truth also plays a major role for the teachers. It should be important to them that they set sharp lines between truth and error. The aim should be to make the student feel that the representations and arguments are appropriate. He should also be in the

School can learn to distinguish a clear from an opaque train of thought and to be able to carry it out yourself.

Clear and consistent teaching is attractive. Activities in which there is clarity and order are enjoyable. The world needs light and truth so that the beautiful and the good can flourish in it.

3.2.2. beauty

To live up to the claim of truth and rationality requires effort over and over again. The weaker ego perceives this as a burden, so the longing for a quality of action and life arises that is more natural than truth and rationality: the longing for beauty.

There is a sublime beautiful and an unpleasant everyday life in which the pursuit of profit and pressure to perform prevail, so people need more freedom and freedom to find a more beautiful life, e.g. through a trip or a visit to an important art collection. It is of course a good thing that the eyes and ears of these beautiful things are opened to the pupils in the school subjects, but it cannot be that the rest of their life consists of cold arithmetic, senseless knowledge and pressure to perform. If that is the case, in Aebli’s opinion we have probably regressed behind the Middle Ages. Hence an idea of ​​school life, in which it is more human, in which activities take place and products are created that please because they have an inner balance, appear positive to the viewer, have a shape and show a rhythm that corresponds to the pulse of life .

Even in modern aesthetics there are difficulties; the world is tired of higher art. She simply switches to low art, e.g. the housewife who creates her garden and decorates the window with flowers, the secretary who writes her letter, the graphic design of which one likes to look at or the designer of a device that not only works, but also lies nicely in the hand. All of these are activities and their productions that are aesthetically designed, in which that quality of beauty is realized that we would like to see also come into play in school lessons and its activities.

Aebli is of the opinion that the line of sight and the attention of the worker must change, we must turn to the senses of the person, to his perception.

This perception works according to certain laws, the ideal of beauty has undergone certain modifications in all cultures and stylistic epochs, but today's man is accessible to the aesthetic creations of other epochs and cultures. So there is a common core of aesthetic activity. From this it follows that the teaching activities should have an aesthetic quality and not only in art, but also in every subject. In German lessons, for example, one could pay attention to the type of writing (phonetic, graphic and content).

Again, it is not a question of monetizing the idea of ​​the aesthetic design of teaching activities in detail, rather the difficult of the three qualities of teaching activities, their quality, should now be considered.

3.2.3. quality

This is not just a moral question, but behind it lies the problem of motivation to learn, but first of all it is also a moral quality. It comes into play where people deal with one another. By showing the other person that you mean “well” with them, they can hardly help but be a little happier themselves and give back some of their benevolence. With “mean well”, Aebli means what is good for him. In our case, we would say that good is that which gives him a life plan to accomplish his destiny.

Again and again he will be missing something on the way there, something material or something immaterial, if we give it to him, we will help him find his way.

At school this could be things like borrowing an item, a

Give information, don't laugh at him, act. Above all, openness and honesty are part of it, because falsehood contradicts respect for people.

I hope it has become clear that the moral quality of "goodness" is important in school and that the concept of the teaching activities is correct, because with the purely "net" teaching you can hardly recognize "goodness".

There is another conception of kindness that is not based on the idea of ​​benevolence. Some philosophers have partly relocated the good as an idea to a heaven of ideas or have seen it realized in God. The goods that are found are then a reappearance of the absolute good. It follows for us, in relation to our activities, that people try to get closer to the idea of ​​the good in their actions, to let their own actions become its mirror. There are other high philosophical terms, but isn't it possible in school life to try to bring some of the qualities to life in the activities of a class?

The clearer it is to the teacher that what he is doing contains something good, the more the students notice it and order, align, and make sense of what he is doing. The willingness of young people to be enthusiastic about something, to love it is palpable and if you use this in connection with the other qualities for yourself as a teacher, you have a great deal of help with the question of motivation.

3.2.4. motivation

Motivation of students and teachers, they should be motivated to do something. Many psychologists have made motivation dependent on elementary physical needs such as hunger and thirst. That didn't do the teachers much good. What about the, Aebli calls them here sources of power for the good, the beauty and the truth?

We should draw our strength from these sources, above all let ourselves be moved by them and then we will recognize that if we find something beautiful, true or good in the thing we want to teach, it will steal through to the students and them will easily get enthusiastic about our cause.

We find concrete activities for this in the real and symbolic area in life circles of society, as already mentioned in family, work, state and everyday culture. So that these activities, which already cover a larger personal field of interest, do not perish in superficial activity and remain attractive in a deep sense, we should give them a good order of appropriateness, i.e. truth, the good shape of beauty and the spirit of goodness.

3.3. From activity to learning and teaching

The conventional school wanted to come straight to learning, that is to say to convey the material purely “net”, the result was miserable forms of activities: a predominance of symbolic and relevant and performing activities. But since no one thought about the nature of the activities, the imbalance remained in the dark.

The reform pedagogues, on the other hand, wanted to leave the learning school and suffered from the opposite evil. Teachers and students were enthusiastic about their activities, such as visiting a farm to develop remedial suggestions on how to get rid of typhoid fever, but they were unable to clearly train other learning processes besides problem-solving. They just did not know exactly which diverse learning their activities and projects triggered.

Precisely these two dangers, the sterile “net”, without sufficient context for action and mere action, without sufficient awareness of the learning processes to be triggered.

And we need to develop an idea of ​​learning that fits the eight forms of activity on our cube: factual and social, real and symbolic, manufacturing and performing.

In order to answer the question of what the learning processes look like, which form the three qualities of truth, beauty and goodness within the eight forms of activity, we must first establish a fundamental distinction: structural and reinforcing learning.

3.3.1. Structural learning

Structural learning is about links; one tries to discover a structure in the links.

Here are some examples of shortcuts:

- In a Romanesque church I discover a raised choir. I

discover a “crypt” underneath. These two observations make one

Context. Linking observations.

- You can see that a liquid begins to boil. You throttle the heat.

A link between perception and action, or “stimulus and

Reaction".

- A group follows a stream to the point where they open it

can exceed. Linking partial actions. The first "follow the stream" enables the second "cross the stream"

In reality there are, of course, a few more partial actions, but they are all examples of interrelated and building on perceptions, actions and operations. The structure becomes visible when we become aware of how the observations and partial actions are related to one another. Structural learning here means building up a structure or copying it to the process or object to be represented. Both are constructive processes.

The achievement of a successful learner therefore consists in continuously establishing the right connections and thus building up the new activity step by step. If the student does it on his own, we call it "problem solving". When the teacher thinks ahead, we call it "explaining."

Here it becomes clear that teaching means guiding the student who is unable to progress on their own to observe and do the right thing.

3.3.2. Reinforcement learning

Reinforcement learning is about consolidation. Relationships that have already been established between observations or actions are strengthened so that they are stronger, safer and more harmonious. These learning processes are not constructive, they just consolidate what is already linked. Consolidation occurs through appropriate practice and appropriate repetitions, and above all through the fact that the learner perceives the effect of his or her actions. Therefore Aebli calls these effects "reinforcements".

When linking observations, we keep imagining the individual images so that over time we can call them up to the inner eye more easily. We consolidate the sequence of perceptions and actions, of “stimuli and reactions”, in that the stimulus elicits the reaction vigorously, promptly and safely. This is called “conditioning” a reaction. The perception becomes a condition (condition) for the triggering of the action. The positive consequence reinforces, the negative weakens the tendency to act.

It is similar with the connection of partial actions. Your connection must be consolidated for the process to be automated. Generally speaking, one can say that the consolidation of courses of action and sequences of thoughts occurs through practice and repetition.

Structural and reinforcement learning often takes place when the learner observes and mimics a behavioral model. Therefore it is also called observation and imitation learning. This form of learning is not an alternative to structural and reinforcement learning, but rather describes the occasion.

3.3.3. From learning to teaching

According to Aebli, teaching means the initiation and control of learning processes by a competent person. How a person can trigger learning processes in another is described in the "Twelve Basic Forms". Students learn from interesting stories, reports or by reading texts. Demonstrations of actions and processes can also trigger learning. The more interesting the offers, the greater the learning effect and interesting is what moves the learner, a problem what drives him. This also applies to explanations and actions and observations developed by the student himself. The closer you get to the solution to the problem, the more excited you get. But there are also explanations or narratives and problem solutions that leave students indifferent. So what qualities do the offers have to have in order to reach the students?

A Russian psychologist (Vygotsky 1934/69) assumes that the offer is attractive for the student with which he can reach the next development step. Now one would say that it would be different for every student, but it is conceivable that a certain offer, which in turn contains many different elements in terms of content and emotions, could lead to a new experience, a new experience and a new experience for different children in different places triggers a new insight. The offer should, so to speak, be polyvalent and meet the students at different levels, i.e. have a broad spectrum effect. The teacher needs sensitivity to recognize which offer is currently reaching the student at the right level of development. Teaching means setting the student in motion, controlling the learning process in a suitable way. The

Learning functions Building up, working through, practicing and applying, which are described in the "Twelve Basic Forms", must be used so that clear terms, flexible operations and transferable actions arise. The student cannot do this alone and so students have always sought help, e.g. Picasso from Toulouse-Lautrec. This shows that even the “big ones” do not trust themselves to optimally control their learning processes. So it should actually be clear that teaching does not mean imparting scientific material, but rather being an expert in learning processes and being able to think from the perspective of the student's learning process. Didactics is applied learning psychology in Aebli’s sense.

As already said, you have to make the activities attractive, that is, they have to arouse the feeling in the student that they advance him in life. For this, the activities must fulfill the three qualities of doing. They must be true, beautiful, and good. But are these qualities teachable?

3.3.4. Appropriateness

So what can “real” lessons look like? The student must learn to act accordingly.

Kirschensteiner (1928 a, b) has a couple of examples:

With a wooden construction you can act appropriately, that is, in contrast to a cardboard and paste construction, you can adhere to the exact dimensions.

You can also act appropriately when translating. The translated text must be adequate to the original text, i.e. it must have the same meaning and not just the correctly translated words. Kirschensteiner is also of the opinion that these activities can be taught. The basis is that appropriate action proves its worth and improper action ends in failure. If the boards don't fit, the construction won't work. This is another advantage in practical action, success or failure is clearly visible. In the case of a performing, symbolic work, on the other hand, basically only the teacher is able to assess the appropriateness of the work, so practical work is well suited for learning and teaching appropriate actions.

In theoretical lessons (the translation example), Aebli wanted to show the consistency of his considerations. The criteria are softer, here you have to sensitize the student to factually crooked and inconsistent features of his work. On the one hand, the teacher plays a major role as role model in speaking and acting. On the other hand, careful and critical consideration is necessary as a review of one's own work in order to raise awareness. Here, too, the teacher should act as a role model and also view his product critically.

In any case, it is possible to sensitize students to these qualities of learning, provided that the teacher himself is aware of these aspects of the activities and can implement them in his lessons. If the pupil learns again and again what a proper job is, he will develop the corresponding guiding principle to follow it, because nobody likes to contradict himself and everyone is happy when his product proves itself.

3.3.5. aesthetics

Here it is similar to acting appropriately, he is concerned with conveying the corresponding guiding principle to the student and bringing his actions into a good form.

Aesthetic design is a matter of course nowadays in business and in the private sector, even exaggerated, think of the packaging, the design of cars or the graphic design of business letters. In school, on the other hand, one often sees the opposite tendency towards formlessness: decay of the fonts, messy clothes and messy, awkward classrooms.

Whereby it is also clear that later in professional and personal circles there is a will for aesthetically pleasing design. Apparently not in school, even some students say that they deliberately write illegible, as they then appear more intelligent!

Anyone who is of the opinion that the school should reflect life outside of school in a perceptible way and that the ideals of an appealing design should also apply in the school must consider the aesthetic design of activities as an important learning goal. Every reader enjoys a good shape of a book, and so much time is spent in a classroom that it should be in good shape too. The form should also not be unimportant in interpersonal exchanges. After all, it's always nice to meet someone who exudes grace.

The teacher should first check his own appearance and then, after checking factual and logical aspects of the work, he should address its aesthetic design with the question of whether it would appeal to a viewer from the outside of the school world.

In order to increase the motivation for aesthetic learning, one could do small experiments by showing the work to different people in and outside of the school for assessment. If the motivation is gained, it should be easier to impart the necessary skills.

3.3.6. Good deal

Here one encounters the practical problem of ethics. In the beginning there is the reality of doing. No concept of the good arises unless one does it.

Students and teachers should feel connected and show goodwill towards one another. In the best moments it becomes clear to them that behind the superficial goals of the activities there is a fundamental good that one tries to get closer to. This good provides motivation, more than an unsolved problem or an open question.

As a prerequisite, it is important that the students in the family have already got to know these values ​​through their mother or father. Then they will treat their classmates or the teacher in the same way. However, the teacher must first show himself benevolently so that something comes back from the student and that is often not easy, especially with a new class the teacher has to be strong. A relationship must be established in which consistency and relentlessness in enforcing the right order, but also benevolence and kindness, become visible. If it succeeds, a real community is created and each other is respected and helped.

In Aebli's opinion, such a spirit does not arise from the good nature of people alone; the teacher must see a meaning in what he wants to convey to the students, something fundamentally good and transfer it to his students, and then a community of benevolence will develop that goes beyond finding teaching units interesting.

Once the practical experience of commonality is available, one can also express what has been experienced, for which the subject of community studies, such as morality or everyday ethics, would be suitable. This task is no more difficult than teaching the true and the beautiful. Due to the good experiences and experiences that have already been made, the ethical terms come across heads in which there is something that gives the term substance and strength. A concept that is understood is more effective than something that is merely experienced, so the reflection of the moral quality of what we do together will reflect back on the experience and strengthen it.

3.4. Summary

Aebli created an idea of ​​a school in which there is room for learning processes that school laws and curricula require of students and teachers. The specifications are formulated in terms of the subject matter. That is necessary and correct, but it is dangerous to briefly convey material. You have to transform them into real life activities.

The activities were arranged in three dimensions:

- objective and social activities
- real and symbolic activities
- manufacturing (practical) and performing activities

The conventional school suffers from a preponderance of objective, symbolic and performing activities. This is due to the fact that the subject matter can easily be expressed in terms of language and symbols. Interpersonal relationships are often forgotten just thinking about the duty of teaching students mathematical proofs or cold ocean currents.

Aebli hopes that his taxonomy of school activities with characteristics on family, work, state and cultural life will lead to conclusions for the design of the curriculum, since these activities contain the three qualities of doing, namely truth, beauty and the good.

According to Aebli, the eight forms of activity and the three qualities form the context for structural and reinforcing learning, namely the construction and restructuring of structures for acting and thinking and consolidating them. Teaching means nothing else than triggering such learning processes.

The “Twelve Basic Forms” describes how this should look, but here the learning processes were related to the true, beautiful and good activities.

4. Presentation of the school project

In the following I will report on an excerpt from my internship. I have already changed some points for this work; the incomplete original of the lesson preparation is attached to the work as an appendix.

In the first place is the determination of the conditions:

What conditions do you have to deal with at the school?

What is the composition of the class in which I have taught? What requirements do the children have for learning?

Then I present the teaching units and describe what I planned to do with the children.

Then I will document one of the hours I have held.

4.1. Condition determination

4.1.1. School factor:

On the Kreideberg, the primary school, orientation level and secondary school can be found in one building. This year the 30th anniversary is celebrated. There are three schoolyards and a large shared break hall. The caretaker has a central office there. During the breaks he sells rolls and juice. He also manages the key to the tap in the yard. Unfortunately, the same courtyard is not so well suited for actions because many classes have their window fronts on this side and could therefore be disturbed.

There is a work room and a stage that can be converted into a gym (because the gym is being renovated) or into a video demonstration room. 2 slide projectors are available in the teaching material room.

4.1.2. The class:

Class 3a consists of 22 lively children, including 8 girls and 13 boys. They are 9 and 10 years old. Foreign children do not attend this class.

The class is characterized by the fact that children repeatedly disappeared from the class. B. by moving.

There is a girl who was demoted and recently a new classmate, Philipp.

There are 11 single parents among the parents. The class teacher waits in vain for the parents' support. The parents show no interest in the school.

A group of 8 children in this class visits the after-school care center. This is a group that creates a great atmosphere.

Overall, this is a completely normal school class that can be considered typical of our time. The classroom is large and bright, there is a washbasin and the option to darken it.

4.1.3 Learning requirements:

The class is used to an energetic style of teaching, with mainly frontal teaching. There is a trainee teacher who tries to find open forms of teaching. The social behavior of the students shows deficits. The children often work against each other rather than with each other. Gives a student a wrong one

Answer, the whole class laughs with glee. Conflicts occur frequently and often need to be resolved by the teacher.

The work behavior can be described as positive. The children can be motivated, are communicative and eager at work. In art class, the children have already gained experience with other interns.

In everyday school life, they usually paint very beautiful colorful pictures with the ink box, which are hung up in the classroom. Usually there is a topic that is being worked on.

We couldn't sit in on the art class itself because it was canceled.

It became clear that in such cases the children were allowed to color in something as an additional task in German or mathematics lessons.

I noticed that some children have completely broken paintbrushes that can actually no longer be painted. Others have several, which they only give at the insistence of the teacher.

Notable students are Anjulie, Kim-Julia, Kevin C. and Daniel A. Although they are highly motivated when they receive a work assignment, they find it difficult to follow rules. They often interrupt the class with heckling and have to be admonished. But these children also often have good ideas.

Daniel is very good in all subjects, but he has problems in art because he cannot get involved in one thing in peace.

The underperforming students include Christina, Sebastian, Philipp and Steve. Sebastian is very slow because he has a hard time concentrating. He distracts himself and others. The tasks must be explained to him several times.

Christina, Philipp and Steve are very calm. They rarely bother you. They often find it difficult to understand what it is about. That is why they like to orientate themselves a little with the neighbor.

Philipp is new to the class. He has not yet found a connection and is very unsure.

Particularly high-performing students are Daniel K., Tim, Anjulie and Janine. They move the class forward. They absorb content quickly and work thoroughly. Daniel is very quick. He likes to help his classmates.

In our first lesson we noticed how different these children work. Individuals are very careful and endeavor; others only have enough concentration and stamina for limited tasks.

The range of possibilities for children is very broad and inconsistent.

4.2. Presentation of the teaching units

4.2.1 Preliminary considerations

The subject of my internship was "Water". The reason for this choice of topic is the assumption that experience with the element water is common to all

Children, can be assumed, and that there is a wide range of aesthetic work to be done on this topic.

In the following I would like to briefly describe what kind of teaching project I have come up with.

This is a collection of ideas:

1. Collage of advertising images of water and things related to water
2. Experimental methods Water paints: ice cubes, tissue paper, water film and action painting
3. Picture story about everyday objects on the subject of water
4. Colors in and around the water
5. Game and practice: water bottles
6. Underwater animals made of paper mache
7. Water fairy tales as a role play
8. Photo project documentation
a) from gullies in Lüneburg or
b) Collect traces of water
9. Build a water filter.
10. Excursion to Lüne Monastery with a tour of the water cycle from the source to consumption.

4.2.2. Lesson unit “Experiments” on the subject of water

After a period of observation, in which I got an idea of ​​the class, I thought about which of the lesson plans that had been devised during the preparation could be considered for this class.

From the results of the art class, which were hanging on the walls, we could conclude that each child painted a picture on a fixed topic (work assignment: Everyone paints a snake today!). I made up my mind to give the children some relief by letting them experiment.

In this lesson, which lasted six hours, the students had a number of new experiences.

I carried out experiments with the children, whereby it was important to us that the creative process was important and that the pupils learn to make free decisions. Learning to be independent in the choice of their subject, their colors or shapes seemed to us to be worthwhile for the children, since otherwise it was mostly suppressed.

A primary goal of our lessons was also to promote the social behavior of the students, since something like partner work or group work was rather rare.

I wanted to address the students' sensory perception skills. The pleasure aspect should not be forgotten. It was all about lustful expansion of perception.

4.2.3. Factual analysis: what is an experiment?

An experiment is an attempt. It is the search for something that is not always clear what it is. This openness enables boundaries to be crossed and new experiences to be made possible. In this sense, an experiment is a daring undertaking. (Textor, 1996, p.92)

For art lessons, experimenting means that the children themselves active and try something new. In our case, when it came to the subject of water, it also meant that the children had the opportunity to perceive the element of water in a new way or in contrast to their everyday habits.

For me, this internship was an experiment insofar as I had not yet given an “art class” and was therefore on the one hand impartial and on the other hand little routine.

In terms of art history, the experiment can be seen as a process that has contributed to the development of new perspectives and ways of expression. I am thinking of Cezanne, Picasso, Pollock, Duchamp, Ernst.

The experimental attitude is also about fading out the eternal search for meaning (Lyotard, 1986, p.54) and opening up to something new. The experiment has always had a liberating effect in art history.

For the pupils of the 3rd grade, the experiment in class also means a release.

Why should the children experiment?

It suits the child's curiosity to playfully deal with materials and to try them out. In doing so, we comply with the requirement for action orientation in the classroom.

"Water" pushes for the possibilities of just because of its state of aggregation

Experimentation. That is why I tried out a number of random techniques with the children experimentally in my internship.

- sandwich slides
- Painting with ice cubes
- tissue paper and water

The children were mostly fascinated by the effects they achieved. Therefore, random techniques have proven to be good starting points and the children had fun at work.

For me, the fact that everyone had the same chances of achieving a good result also played a role, since they did not need any theoretical or practical prior knowledge or skills. The impatient and nervous children in particular were busy with these tasks and eager to do it.

4.3. Preparation of lessons for "painting with ice cubes"

4.3.1. requirements

These are ice cubes that I made with emulsion paints and that I want to experiment with. Each student has to choose a color combination, either yellow and red or yellow and blue.

4.3.2. Started

You start with a question: What could you paint with yellow and red? What could you paint with yellow and blue? The collage, for example, depicts fire and sun or water and landscape, which I point out in case the students do not have their own ideas, serves as a visual aid.

4.3.3. Work phase

The children are given a sheet of paper and a sponge in the classroom. They assemble in groups of three and have to decide whether to work with either yellow and red or yellow and blue. We go out, and there the individual groups are given the colored ice cubes, with the task of creating a picture with them. You should hold the ice cubes with the sponges in order to be able to draw in a similar way to drawing with pens, but you are also asked to try something new, i.e. to experiment.

4.3.4. graduation

Put them together in a sitting circle to look at the resulting pictures and to discuss what they found good or bad about their work. I also want to go into the different shades of color mixing.

4.3.5. aims

One can also call this color mixing exercise lesson. The children should experience which colors are created by mixing.

The children should also experience that not only have they designed something themselves, but that water paints. They should get to know water as a tool.

4.3.6. reflection

Negative:

I should have distributed the ice cubes outside in the sitting circle and should have explained to the whole group what to do with them, as they were very unfocused in the individual groups when they first had the ice cubes. I could also have made a bigger spectacle around the ice cubes. The children weren't asked enough to experiment because I couldn't get hold of them. So I had to change my lesson plan a bit and then when they were already painting and experimenting I tried to reach their hearing.

- Avoid using expensive paper when experimenting.
- You should think through your lesson preparation more and then stick to it if necessary.

Positive:

Nevertheless, the children started to experiment enthusiastically with the ice cubes. B. melt the ice cubes in your hand and then the paint drip onto the paper, others let the ice cubes slide back and forth on the paper. I was excited about the ideas the students had. Many successful pictures emerged from these attempts. Coincidentally, we had the opportunity to spontaneously design a very large picture in which we then mixed all the colors, which was later hung in the hallway.

5. Processing of the school project according to Hans Aebli

5.1. Choosing the school project

I was supposed to consider a practical example, so I decided to use my own example first, because I found that I would get more benefit from doing this than if I were to refer to someone else's example.When I decided on the lesson, I didn't know that much about Aebli's eight activities, I actually only knew that he was for activities in school and since I did a lot of practical work in my specialist internship, I thought the lesson with the ice cubes could go quite well. As I understood more and more Aebli’s chapter about activities in school, it became clear to me that I could actually work on every lesson according to his principle of "converting teaching material into activities". Of course, this lesson has the advantage that it already converts material into activity, which I was at least not aware of at the time, since I didn't know anything about Aebli. I think the lesson provides a good basis to work on according to Aebli, it has some similar features that I only saw after I had worked through Aebli’s first chapter in detail. So it was also a little bit of intuition that I chose this lesson.

5.2. Application of Aebli’s theory to the school project

When I read through the school project again, I noticed more and more passages that I can relate to Aebli’s ideas. That's why I'll go through the project little by little, point by point, and compare it with Aebli’s views.

5.2.1. Matches and comparisons

In point 4.2.2. I wrote that one of the goals of the lesson was to promote social behavior through partner work or group work, because this form of teaching has been neglected in the class up to now. Aebli would certainly agree with this goal, because, in his opinion, social activities are neglected in traditional schools and must be strengthened in order to create a balance between activities, because that is what makes teaching attractive.

Next, I will briefly go over the sensory perception that will be expanded in the lesson. I didn't work out the aspect in the work. I think I can compare this aspect with the point “beauty” in Aebli’s work. These are not things like decorating the window with flowers, but the stages of color mixing form the basis for these activities, as they are important for the basic understanding of colors and therefore also for how they are used. Without this understanding of colors, you would not even know which colors you should perhaps use to decorate the window. So I have also fulfilled the aspect of practical teaching materials. The student learns for life and not for school and that is attractive. So it is an aesthetic design and these address the human senses, i.e. their perception. And something beautiful delights and thus the activity is attractive and the goal of expanding perception can be achieved.

I also believe that in my class I managed to make the students see things through different eyes. Overall, the teaching unit had an aesthetic and practical quality and that is ultimately one of Aebli’s concerns.

I now come to the point experiment or attempt, which I discussed in 4.2.3. describe. Suddenly it fell from my eyes what my report has in common with Aebli’s activities. Clearly, an experiment is the search for something that at least the student is not yet aware of. When I read through that, I immediately thought of Aebli’s description of activities and actions. Activities differ in that, in contrast to an action, one does not know the goal.

It is similar with my experiment. I knew what the experiment was supposed to be for, but the students didn't. So it was an activity the students did. You may have carried out small partial actions in the meantime, for example if you took the ice cube, you knew that you were going to paint with it and that a picture will probably emerge, why you should do that was not clear to you at this point, so you knew the overall goal they don't. I acted similarly here, although unconsciously, after Aebli’s activities.

At the same time, the lesson promoted structural learning, which I am only now aware of. Perhaps not to the extent that Aebli imagines, but this project was also about the links between observations and partial actions.

The students took the ice cubes and put something on the paper with them, then they watched what happened and decided on their own initiative what to do next. At this point I have neglected my role as a teacher, because I have now learned that teaching means building up the structure of the connections and guiding and controlling the learning processes.

In the lesson, a lot went haywire, the results were great, but I should have given the students more instructions for the next step in between, without, however, revealing the overall goal. I thought I would just let the students work experimentally completely freely and without compulsion, but I didn't really think that they could already learn something the moment they experiment with the colors. There was a bit of freedom, or not too much freedom, too little guidance on my part to not only have a structure by itself, but also to recognize it. In this case, they had to think they can just do “what they want” and therefore couldn't build on the individual steps as well. It is actually a coincidence that such great results were achieved. Not me, but the students themselves worked structurally.

If I had guided the students more in their work, perhaps by drawing attention to current mixing states, the results might have been a little different and they would have been more clear afterwards that they had practiced color mixing.

To round off the lesson, you might have had to add another to discuss with the students what benefits the new knowledge of color gradations and mixing ratios could have for them in life. Thus the learning would have strengthened even more.

5.2.2. Practical knowledge

Every activity carried out leaves a trace. This means that knowledge “sticks”. This knowledge is called action knowledge. So in my case it means that the students learned to mix colors through an activity. The students will remember this event for a long time in the form of images in front of their inner eye and thus contribute to the students' worldview. So, activities of the producing or performing kind are reflected in knowledge, and vice versa it is similar. Without knowledge, no activity, i.e. without the students remembering, for example, which things are blue, yellow or red, they could not paint them, so it requires world knowledge. Knowledge is the basis for their behavior, the basis of behavior.

5.2.3. On the taxonomy of activities

They would then have become active themselves in order to see the topic of water in relation to color mixtures from a different perspective, unlike in their previous everyday experiences.

In my opinion, the lesson is a combination of Aebli’s activities that consist of two components of the teaching objectives:

1. 1. Create a picture to practice color mixing

The first bullet point actually says it all itself, at first glance it is a manufacturing activity. It is not a model, but it is ultimately made to later act as an object to show the color mixing and gradation, and so I believe that this is a performing activity. On top of that, it really happens, so it's real. Since it is not about people but about paint, paper and ice cubes, it is a factual activity. So it is a real, factual activity of the performing kind. It is to be classified in the front pane of the cube and thus stands for the knowledge and skills acquired in direct contact with reality.

2. The promotion of social behavior

The second bullet point relates to group work in the lesson. When working groups are formed, real collaboration is created between the students. You establish that relationship. In this case, it is a real, social activity of the manufacturing kind. It can be classified in the lower pane of the cube and stands for social, interpersonal and societal knowledge and ability.

I believe that I have covered some of Aebli’s points with the lesson that speak for an attractive lesson. I have covered exactly the activities that Aebli sees neglected at school.

6. Parallels of an art teacher

In order to put Aebli in relation to other didactics and to establish a further connection between the subject of art and general psychological didactics, I did some research and found an article by Gunter Otto, an art didactic, who in his description and assessment of school many Has parallels. I want to get a better understanding of the importance of Aebli's theory.

He perceives the school reality as frozen and turns out to be a market-logic savings model in which the aesthetic of life only plays a subordinate role. In this context, Gunter Otto wrote an article entitled “Art Education in the School of the Future”. He begins with a vote on how the current school is assessed:

It starts with the classrooms, which could be described as sober to ugly. These are functional purpose-built spaces that are only geared towards performance.

In terms of performance, I see a connection with Aebli’s view of the didactic short-circuit. Otto calls it “just being about performance” or the “direct conveyance of material”, Aebli calls it conveying the material purely “net”, which is followed by the didactic short-circuit. Where is the culture, where is what is superordinate to the school, which what has been learned is later to serve? Similar to Aebli, he misses things like culture and aesthetics in the conventional school, as they appear in the three qualities of doing, among other things.

Otto is also of the opinion that the teachers give the students the feeling that what counts is only performance. He fears that it is not even intended, because, according to one question, the actual educational goal is to train the student to be a critical, reflective person who has judgment and can look at things from different perspectives (Otto 1999). With these points he shares two Aebli’s opinions. On the one hand, that the teachers do not even notice the imbalance in school activities, and on the other hand, that schools should not only focus on scientific activities, but on preparing the student for life.

Otto is also looking for an educational theory that is suitable for everyday use and that should be designed in such a way that it can repeatedly establish direct connections to one's own teaching practice; according to Aebli in short: practical.

There is an overlap between the two didacticians with regard to the subjects. Both consider the division of subjects to be too scientific and unrealistic. Otto advocates the abolition of subjects because, on the other hand, he believes schools that the addition of knowledge from the individual subjects does not result in education.

Like Aebli, he finds the division of subjects outdated, although Aebli is not concerned with abolishing it, but with adapting it to practical life.

Otto doubts whether the current learning practice makes sense. He is referring to a text by Tillmann, who in turn refers to Rudolf Messner, who, like Aebli, is of the opinion that the scientific side of teaching is indispensable and indispensable, especially in grammar school, but that scientific learning is transformed into a comprehensive practice of forms of experience , Action and life references must remain embedded. (Messner 1998)

He also refers to Bernhardt, who agrees with Aebli in a few other aspects, namely that the current organization of schools leads to “stable reluctance to learn and even neurosis” in a third of all pupils. To counteract this, the spectrum of conventional learning content and forms of learning must be expanded to include social, practical and aesthetic forms of action (Bernhardt 1993). On this point, see Aebli’s description of the imbalance of school activities, which is followed by the non-attractiveness of the school. (3.1.2.)

Otto also sees the problem of disorientation at the universities, which he mainly attributes to the neglect of training for independent considerations, the recognition of problems and contexts, the initiative in finding ways to solve problems, to which Aebli in the "twelve basic forms" comes in. Alternatively, Otto also suggests that teaching should no longer ignore the needs of the vast majority of high school students who later turn to completely different areas. He, too, sees the inexpediency of the subjects as a result of pressure to perform and boredom.

The concept of education should not be understood as encyclopedic knowledge, because specialist knowledge does not enable orientation in the world. And at the same time the accumulations of knowledge and one-sided learning processes (Aebli material purely “net” mediation / short circuit) push back occasions and opportunities for personal action and judgment and even exclude the development and expression of feelings. Thinking, acting and feeling should rather be related to one another through aesthetic education, for example. (GEW 1989)

As an art teacher, Otto sees the school problem from a special point of view. It has been officially declared by a minister of education that the elimination of the 13th

School year at the expense of aesthetic subjects. He naturally wonders how his subject art and other aesthetic subjects will develop in the future under these conditions, which Aebli finds very unfavorable even as a non-art didactic.

Unfortunately I can't say anything about the future, but the fact is that during my training at the university I got to know aspects of various didactics and psychologists that I want to implement later at school in order to ultimately make the school useful and attractive.

7. Closing words

I am happy about the topic of my thesis. It has brought me a lot for my later career as a teacher. Aebli’s theory provides many basics and aspects that allow me to see many things more clearly. All of the lessons that I have held or discussed so far are given a completely new meaning and in some cases only now a real meaning. Also, I can now better define the goals of the lesson.

In terms of my subjects, I'm even happier now. They give me a tremendous advantage, because an art curriculum certainly doesn't create as much material pressure as chemistry might. In my subjects of art and now also mathematics, practical work and applications fortunately come first without my intervention. I'm very practical, amazing, now it becomes even clearer to me why I chose mathematics! I think I will use the principle of converting the material into activities a lot in my later career.

Unfortunately, the course does not strive for a balance of activities, it is very scientific, practice-oriented books and theories and, in my opinion, the internships themselves are far too short. Hence the disorientation arose in my internship. It was really just based on ideas. At the time, I couldn't even say exactly what the students should learn in each lesson. I somehow knew that what I was doing wasn't wrong, which was probably due to my intuition, but I didn't know why.

I couldn't make a connection to the learning process. I would have been much happier with my internship if I had been better prepared, e.g. with a practical theory like this one by Aebli had "let loose" on the students.

Although this is theory, I feel it will help me a lot in practice. I will try to make school useful and aesthetic and to keep the activities in balance so that the students remain motivated and that learning and school are attractive.

I hereby declare that I wrote this thesis on my own and that I have not used any aids other than those indicated.

I agree that my written term paper may be inspected.

bibliography

- Aebli, Hans: "Fundamentals of Teaching: General Didactics on a Psychological Basis". Klett-Cotta, fourth edition, 1997
- Aebli, Hans: "Twelve Basic Forms of Teaching: General Didactics on a Psychological Basis". Klett-Cotta, Eighth Edition, 1994
- Bernhardt, Margerete: "Basic model secondary level 1". Frankfurt 1993. In: BDK-Mitteilungen 4/99
- GEW: "Realize education". Frankfurt 1989. In: BDK-Mitteilungen 4/99
- Kerschensteiner, G .: (1928a). “Concept of the work school”, Munich: Oldenburg (1953).
- Kerschensteiner, G .: (1928b). "The nature and value of science teaching", Munich: Oldenburg (1952)
- Lyotard, J. F. "Philosophy and Painting in the Age of Experimentation", Berlin, 1986
- Messner, Rudolf: "Gymnasiale Bildung und Wissenschaft", 1998. In: BDK-Mitteilungen, 4/99
- Messner, Rudolf: "The future of the upper secondary school". Weinheim, 1998.

In: BDK-Mitteilungen 4/99

- Otto, Gunter: "Art Education in the School of the Future". BDK-Mitteilungen, 4/99
- Textor, A. M. In German Das Fremdwortlexikon, Hamburg, 1996
- Tillmann, Klaus-Jürgen: "Is school forever?" In: Pedagogy, 49th year (1997).

In: BDK-Mitteilungen 4/99

- Vygotsky, L.S. (1934/1969). “Think and speak”. Frankfurt a.M .: S.

Fisherman

attachment

Prepare lessons for painting with ice cubes

requirements

These are ice cubes colored with emulsion paints that are to be experimented with.

Started

What could you paint with yellow and red? What could you paint with yellow and blue? The collage, on which, for example, fire and sun or water and landscape is depicted, serves as an aid.

Work phase

The children are given a sheet of paper and a sponge in the classroom. They assemble in groups of three and have to decide whether to work with either yellow and red or yellow and blue. We go out, and there the individual groups are given the colored ice cubes, with the task of creating a picture with them. You should hold the ice cubes with the sponges in order to be able to draw in a similar way to drawing with pens, but you are also asked to try something new, i.e. to experiment.

Graduation

Reflection of the pictures in the seat circle