How is perfume perfume made

How is the perfume made?

As a very personal thing, perfume is an important accessory in many people's lives. But not everyone is wondering how the wonderful magic potion was made. That's why we're going to shed some light on this topic for you here.

One could simply say that the perfume is a mixture of water, alcohol and various natural or synthetic essences. In reality, however, the manufacturing process is much more complicated than this sentence.

Manufacturing process

The first step in perfume making is to get the essences, namely the fragrances that will later be mixed into the perfume. These are first obtained from various raw materials (flowers, blossoms, wood, fruits, leaves and etc.). There are also fragrances, such as those of animal origin, which are now replaced by synthetic fragrances. Furthermore, the extracted essences are mixed in alcohol and distilled water. However, there are different manufacturing processes that are used depending on the substance: - Distillation The process is mostly used for sensitive plants. After the plants have been heated up with water, water vapor is generated, whereby the desired essential oils are obtained. This is the oldest technique in the history of perfume. You actually need a lot of material to get just a little bit of oil. For example, about 4 tons of rose petal leaves are needed to produce 1 kg of rose oil. - Extraction In contrast to distillation, extraction is the most widely used manufacturing process today. The volatile gases are extracted from the raw materials by means of volatile gases (mostly butane or ether). It should be noted that the process takes place at low temperatures so that the fragrance is retained. - Enfleurage It is described as one of the oldest perfume manufacturing processes. But since it takes a long time, it is hardly used today. The fat is distributed on a board and the raw material is placed on top. The role of fat in the process is to act as a scent store. After that, the fat is dissolved in ethyl alcohol. The procedure can also be done warm, whereby the fat is heated up to 70 degrees and then brought into the fabrics. - Expression Expression is mainly used as a process for the extraction of oils from fruits. Fruit pods are punched and squeezed. Then the scented oil is obtained using dampened paper. - Synthetic fragrances For the production of synthetic essences, fragrances are analyzed and then multiplied on the basis of a molecular synthesis. The process has been popular since the 19th century as the demand for natural fragrances has grown rapidly and manufacturers have needed a faster procedure for obtaining fragrances. The fragrances need to be kept longer, but the disadvantage is that they cause allergies in some people.

Another thing to note in the manufacture of perfume is the distinction between classes and layers.

Fragrance classes

There are a total of 4 fragrance classes, depending on how high the proportion of raw materials is. The highest fragrance class has a share of 15-30% of the essences. The intensity of the scent lasts up to 6 hours. Because that's the perfume. The second class of fragrances is between 8-14% of the essences and it is called eau de parfum. This is followed by the third class of fragrances, the so-called eau de toilette, which contains 6 - 9% of the essences. And the fourth class of fragrances that lasts the least is Eau de Cologne.

Scent layers

Every scent, regardless of the scent class, is composed of 3 scent layers.

Every fragrance starts with a top note. You can feel it when you open the bottle. After this has passed, the main note comes, the so-called top note, which lasts up to 2 hours after the fragrance is applied. Then the last layer of scent is perceived - the base note. It has the longest shelf life and that is why people loved it the most. The only fragrance class without a base note is actually the Eau de Cologne.

Manufacturing process of perfume is really an art. A sensitive sense of smell was required for the successful mixing of essences. Hence we can look at perfumers as artists. That is why it makes sense to mention a few names here that have created beautiful works of art in the perfume world. For example, Serge Lutens, Pierre Bourdon and Jean-Claude Ellena are some of these perfumers. Serge Lutens, a hairdresser by profession, began creating fragrances in the 90s and successfully experimented with wood notes and incense for the first time. He gave the fragrances a certain style. Pierre Bourdon, originally from the capital of perfume - Grasse, worked at Roure Betrand Dupont and later specialized in cosmetic care. Thanks to his great skills, he created the fragrances Kouros by Yves Saint Laurent, Davidoff Cool Water and Jil Sander Sun. Jean-Claude Ellena, who, according to Spiegel, creates “fragrances like a poet his poem”, was also born in Grasse. He is considered the "best nose in the world" (see: Strangely enough, he owes his success in the perfume world to his brain, because as he himself says, his nose is only a "control organ" and indeed his brain is what he really smells with. His perfumes are only born in his head.

The manufacturing process of the perfume is a whole process that requires certain skills and can therefore be seen as a kind of art. The wonderful creations of it are the various fragrances that we can enjoy in the market today. Thanks to this diversity, everyone can find and enjoy their own fragrance.