What should you never ask a firefighter?
Every 2 to 3 minutes there is a fire in an apartment in Germany. When they see a fire in their own home, many panic. Considered action in the event of a fire is the be-all and end-all. In this way, you bring people out of danger. The most important information at a glance:
- Never extinguish fat fires or burning electrical appliances with water.
- Do not flee through smoky rooms and corridors. Fire smoke is more dangerous than fire.
- There are 4 ways to extinguish burning people: with water, a fire extinguisher, thick fabric (jackets and blankets) or by rolling on the floor.
Fire in the apartment: you have to do this
A fire broke out in the apartment. The top priority is now: Keep calm. Prudent behavior and considered action can save your life in the event of a fire.
Put out small fires quickly
Appreciate that Extent and type of fire from. Small fires extinguish with the fire extinguisher or with water.
Danger: You must never extinguish fat fires with water. If you fail to smother the flames, get to safety immediately. Only try to put out a fire yourself if you are not endangering yourself.
Also keep windows and doors to the fire room closed. This will prevent the fire from spreading further.
Bring others to safety
You should also ask your roommates to leave the apartment quickly. As a rule, you only have 2 to 4 minutes until poisonous smoke develops from a smoldering fire. Also, inform your neighbors about the fire. Help children, the elderly and the physically challenged.
Do not flee through smoky rooms and corridors. Fire smoke is much more dangerous than fire because it contains toxic substances. 2 to 3 breaths are enough to lose consciousness. Also, don't take the elevator: if there is a power outage, you risk getting stuck in it.
If the escape route is blocked, stay in the room and close the windows and doors. Try to seal door gaps and ventilation openings with wet cloths. And make yourself noticeable at the window.
Notify the fire brigade
If you are safe, call the immediately Fire department at 112 at. Provide the following information in this order:
- who calls? Include your name and exact location.
- Wheredid it happen? Include the street and house number as well as important details (floor, room number).
- Whathas happened? Describe the situation.
- Are people in danger?How many People are injured or missing?
Don't hang up immediately afterwards. Maybe the fire department still has questions. Once the firefighters arrive, instruct them to:
- What is burning (kitchen, tumble dryer)?
- Where exactly is it burning (basement, attic)?
- How many people and animals are still in the apartment?
- What are the entrances to the apartment?
Remain on site during the fire service.
How to properly extinguish a house fire
Solids such as wood, paper, plastic or textiles often catch fire in an apartment. These materials are part of the Fire class A: They form embers. That's why you need an extinguishing agent that not only contains the flames, but also extinguishes the embers.
Water is suitable for extinguishing. On the one hand, it cools and thus removes the heat from the fire. On the other hand, it reduces the oxygen supply: the water heats up to form steam, which shields the source of the fire from the surrounding air.
Fire extinguishers filled with foam are also suitable. This creates a separation layer between fire and oxygen. This will suffocate the flames. Powder extinguisher contain so-called ABC powder and are usually cheaper than foam extinguishers. They are also useful for deleting
- Liquid substances, e.g. B. Alcohol (fire class B)
- Gases (fire class C)
The disadvantage: powder has a corrosive effect in connection with the humidity and spreads throughout the apartment. This causes great damage to facilities and electronic equipment. Water and foam extinguishers are gentler for fighting fires in the home. They leave less residue. Powder extinguishers, on the other hand, are well suited for fires in the basement.
As an alternative to the fire extinguisher, there are also special extinguishing spray cans. These are unsuitable for deletion because they
- contain less extinguishing agent.
- have a short range.
- need to be replaced every 3 years.
Fire extinguishers for the household are available from hardware stores. The following applies: One fire extinguisher with at least 6 kg of extinguishing agent is sufficient per floor.
Common fire scenarios in the home
The most common causes of home fires include grease and electrical appliances. There are a few things to consider when deleting:
How to put out a grease fire
Fat burns from 280 degrees. Never extinguish a grease fire with waterbecause you risk dangerous fat explosions. The extinguishing water evaporates on contact with hot fat. The result: the water molecules in the steam pull the fat particles upwards. These burn immediately. Because of the extractor hood, the flames cannot find a way up and instead spread to the side. If you stand by, you are exposed to the flames and risk life-threatening burns. How to put out a grease fire:
- First turn off the stove.
- Take the pan or saucepan off the hot stove.
- Quickly cover the fire with a metal lid. This is how you deprive him of oxygen.
Important: Be careful not to catch your clothes on fire.
Powder fire extinguishers and CO2 fire extinguishers are unsuitable for extinguishing fat fires. Due to the strong pressure, they whirl up the fat and create a jet of flame.
Do not use fire blankets either, as the fire will ignite and reinforce it. Use one instead Grease fire extinguishers of fire class F. Its extinguishing agent forms a layer over the area of the fire, which prevents the access of oxygen. In addition, the extinguishing agent cools the fat so that it can no longer ignite by itself.
Delete electrical devices correctly
Electrical devices can overheat and catch fire if improperly used. Therefore, they are among the most common causes of fire. How to proceed when deleting:
- Disconnect the device from the mains. To do this, it is best to tilt the main fuse or pull the plug.
- Use a fire extinguisher to contain the fire. Never extinguish burning electrical devices with water. Otherwise you risk an electric shock.
- If the power supply is interrupted, you can use a fire extinguisher of fire class A (water or foam extinguisher). If the power cannot be switched off, you need a class C powder extinguisher.
How to put out a burning Christmas tree
You can extinguish small fires on the tree with water. There should always be a bucket of water next to the tree. But if the whole tree is on fire, do little to align with water. In the worst case, the tree tips over and sets the surroundings and bystanders on fire.
One burning Christmas tree best to delete with one Fire extinguisher. E.g. with a powder or foam fire extinguisher. With fire blankets, on the other hand, you do little: the air cushions between the branches and needles of the tree remain, which is why the fire does not suffocate.
When clothes catch fire
If a person catches fire, quick action is required. But always pay attention to your own safety. And expect people on fire to act irrationally. So prevent them from escaping. The best way to extinguish a person fire is as follows:
- With water: water has the advantage that it cools. It also relieves pain from burn injuries. In the case of extensive injuries, however, there is a risk of hypothermia.
- With blankets or jackets: These are only suitable for small fires on the arms or legs. Wrap the person around to remove the oxygen from the fire. Caution: Smother the flames by brushing, not knocking.
- With the fire extinguisher: ask the person to close their eyes and mouth. Because extinguishing powder can cause lung damage. Then carry out short extinguishing strokes from the head downwards - but only as long as necessary.
- By rolling on the floor: If you have no other choice, you will bring the person down. Because fire is more dangerous than possible fall injuries.
Once you have put out the fire, do it immediatelyFirst aid and call theAmbulance.
Correct behavior in the event of fire means first of all: keep calm. Quickly assess whether you can put out a fire yourself without putting yourself in danger.
Fire extinguishers of fire class A are suitable for most causes of fire in the apartment. With ABC fire extinguishers, you are protected against all fire hazards. Also, install smoke detectors in all rooms where people sleep.
Informed and secure in every situation
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