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Neurological diseases - an overview of the most important

What are the nervous diseases?

It is estimated that around 1 million patients are treated clinically by neurologists every year for a wide variety of clinical pictures. Some of the more well-known neurological diseases include:

  • Migraine: Migraines are one of the functional disorders of the brain. In the event of an acute pain attack, certain pain-regulating systems do not function properly - those affected are over-sensitive to stimuli. This form of headache is mainly characterized by the discomfort seizure-like and at different intervals (for example several times a month or just once a year2) occur. Patients describe the Pain as stabbing, pulsating, or throbbing. Migraines are one of the most common neurological diseases - around 5.7 million people are affected in Germany alone.2
  • Alzheimer: This is a subtype of dementia in which nerve cells in the brain slowly - but progressively - die off. Typical for the clinical picture are Language, orientation and memory disorders as well as associated changes in personality. Around 700,000 people in Germany have Alzheimer's disease - and the number is rising.3
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The disease, also known as fidgety philippines syndrome, describes a functional disorder of the brain - triggered by the incorrect transmission of signals and information. For example, ADHD makes itself great through impulsive behavior Restlessness as well as attention and concentration problems noticeable. Experts estimate the number of ADHD sufferers in the 6 to 18 age group alone at 500,000 (corresponds to around 5 percent of children and adolescents of this age).4
  • Epilepsy: The term encompasses several clinical pictures that are characterized by the repeated occurrence of epileptic seizures. These lead to a strong, sudden electrical discharge in the brain cells. Depending on which nerve cells are affected, epilepsy shows up in lighter or more severe seizures, changes in sensation or consciousness. 500,000 people in Germany are currently receiving medical treatment for epilepsy.5
  • Stroke: In a stroke, either a blood clot blocks an artery in the brain or there is cerebral hemorrhage (burst vessel). As a result, surrounding nerve cells are no longer supplied with sufficient oxygen and die. An acute stroke can get through Visual disturbances, speech loss, numbness and paralysis to make noticable. Every year there are around 270,000 strokes in Germany.6
  • Parkinson's: The disease mainly affects certain areas of the brain. There, special nerve cells die that are responsible for the production of the messenger substance dopamine - this leads to a dopamine deficiency. The messenger substance is involved in the control of movements in the body, among other things. Hence, are among the typical signs of Parkinson's Tremors in the arms and legs, stiff muscles, and generally limited range of motion. Parkinson's disease currently affects 250,000 to 280,000 people in Germany.7
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS): Multiple sclerosis describes a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in which autoimmune cells attack the body. The long-term consequence of this: The transmission of stimuli to the affected areas is inadequate or no longer works at all. Sensory disturbances or paralysis can result from this. There are around 120,000 people with MS in Germany.1
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): In ALS, nerve cells of the motor nervous system that are responsible for the conscious and unconscious control of muscle movements lose their function. This sometimes results involuntary muscle twitching, muscle weakness and wasting. 8,000 patients in Germany suffer from ALS.8
  • Meningitis: In this disease - as the name suggests - the meninges (meninges) that surround and protect the brain are inflamed. The reason for this is an infection with viruses or bacteria. If left untreated, the disease can cause neurological damage, such as symptoms of paralysis, or the inflammation can spread to the brain. Those affected suffer from at the beginning Neck stiffness, fever, headache and general fatigue.

Since there are a multitude of nervous diseases, the symptoms are also very different. Numbness, sensory disturbances, poor concentration and dizziness are just a few examples of neurological complaints.