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1 annual report 2010

2 2 Cantonal Laboratory Zurich, Annual Report 2010

3 Table of contents Migration of mineral oil from cardboard boxes 36 Editorial 7 Prehistory 36 1 Tasks 9 Regulation over Germany?

4 4 6.6 Coordination / Expert activity fruit and vegetables (goods class 18) 80 Implementation coordination in the canton of Zurich (ChemNet.ZH) 61 Microbiological quality of vegetables in oil. Comments on changes to regulations 61 from open sales 80 expert and project groups 62 Mycotoxins, salmonella and allergenic components in peanut butter and peanut sauces 80 7 Analysis by product class 63 Aflatoxins in nut flours and milk (product class 01) 63 GMOs in soy products 81 Content analyzes and microbiology of milk 63 Cadmium in horseradish and wasabi products 81 Residues of antibiotics and aflatoxin M1 in raw vegetable milk 63 Iodine and heavy milk 82 Lead, cadmium and tin in canned fruit, dairy products (product class 02) 64 Checking the microbiological quality and 7.12 edible mushrooms (product class 19) 82 Fat content in yoghurt 64 Quality, nicotine, heavy metals and radioactivity in dried edible mushrooms, cheese and cheese products (product class 03) 64 Composition and microbiological quality of 7.13 honey (product class 20) 84 Soft cheese 64 Veterinary medicinal products in imported honey 84 Composition and additives of processed cheese 65 Honey quality according to national quality and composition of cheese in brine, foreign matter analysis program (NFUP) 84 Mozzarella etc. Confectionery and confectionery (goods class 22) Edible fats and oils (product class 05) 65 Artificial colors in sugar products 84 Polar proportions in deep-frying oils Ice cream (product class 23) 85 Quality of open edible oils from restaurants 66 Microbiological quality of softice and ice cream Meat and meat products (product class 08) 66 Pre-packaged water ice creams and sorbets: Allergen declaration , Microbiology of sushi and sashimi 66 Determination of content and colorings 85 Hygienic properties of cold-smoked salmon 66 Composition of chocolate and stracciatella ice cream 85 Microbiology and species determination of fish fillet made from 7.16 fruit juice and fruit nectar (Class 24) 86 Open sale 67 Composition and additives of exotic microbiology and Q2 value of prepackaged ham 67 Fruit juices 86 Microbiology and animal species determination of raw ochratoxin A, HMF and sulfites in fruit juices 87 Minced meat fruit syrup, table drinks and lemonades Microbiology, animal species and allergens in cooked sausages and (Class 25) 87 Cold cuts 68 Juice content of beverages with lemon juice 87 Animal species and allergens in raw sausages 68 Animal species, allergens and preservatives in 7.18 Vegetable juices (Class 26) 88 Poultry liver products 69 Ochratoxin A and HMF in tomato juices 88 Biogenic amines, heavy metals and species determination in 7.19 Drinking water, ice, mineral water (product class 28) 89 Canned fish 69 Drinking water quality 89 Veterinary drug residues in poultry and rabbit tea (product class 31) 89 Animal identification and heavy metals in game and tea 89 Wild poultry 69 Veterinary drug residues in farmed fish and crustaceans I Instant and ready-to-drink drinks (product class 33) 89 Hygienic properties of vending machine beverages Seasonings, bouillon, soups, sauces (product class 10) 70 Follow-up inspection of soy sauces for composition and 7.22 cocoa, chocolate (product class 34) 90 Preservatives 70 Allergenic contamination of black chocolate with milk grain and milling products (goods class 11) 71 Nutritional value, GMOs and allergens in muesli and other 7.23 spices (goods class 35) 91 foods with a high dietary fiber content 71 mycotoxins, Sudan dyes and radiation detection in heavy metals, mycotoxins and GMOs in rice and paprika and spice preparations containing paprika 71 mycotoxins 91 rice products and radiation detection in pepper, turmeric mycotoxins in rice flour and gluten-free baking mixes 72 and garlic powder 92 mycotoxins in milling products 72 prohibited dyes in spices 92 T-2 and HT-2 toxin in oat products 72 lead, cadmium, mercury in spices and spice mixtures 93 mycotox ine and GMOs in maize and maize products 73 Coumarin in cinnamon Bread, baked goods and long-life baked goods (product class 12) 74 Nutritional value, meat content, allergens and identification of animal species 7.24 Food, prefabricated (product class 51) 93 in baked goods with meat 74 Nutritional value of microwave dishes 93 Trans fatty acids in deep-fried Carnival pastries 74 Composition, additives, allergens and mycotoxin content of ready-to-use sauces 94 Allergens in bread and rolls 75 Aluminum in pretzels 75 Additives, irradiation and nutritional values ​​of Asian coumarin content in cinnamon-containing baked goods 75 Instant noodle soups 94 Lead, cadmium, GMOs and allergens in foods 7.9 Eggs and egg products ( Goods class 16) 76 from China 95 Microbiology of hard-boiled eggs 76 Contamination of egg products with bacteria, consumer goods (goods class 56) 96 Antibiotic residues in imported eggs 77 Metal migration from cooking utensils, cutlery and bowls made of metal Special foods (goods class 17) 78 Mineral oil migration and paint The correctness of printed nutritional value and labeling of infant formula 78 Paper napkins and cardboard plates 96 Nutritional value and labeling of food for consumer goods made of plastic and silicone 97 Weight-controlling nutrition 78 Heavy metal migration from ceramic dishes 98 Composition of energy drinks and energy shots 79 Minerals and macronutrients in sports nutrition 79 Cantonal Laboratory Zurich , 2010 annual report

5 7.26 Cosmetics (goods class 57) 99 Preservatives in creams, lotions etc. for skin care 99 Caffeine in cosmetics Objects with mucous membrane, skin or hair contact and textiles (goods class 58) 100 Prohibited azo dyes in textiles 100 Nickel-free metallic objects for direct skin contact 100 Cords and drawstrings on children's clothes according to EN Articles of everyday use for children, paints (goods class 59) 101 Toys and objects of daily use for toddlers 101 Toys from inspections Labeling (goods class 69) 102 Declaration of sausage casings Animal excretions (goods class 86) 102 Slaughterhouse controls 102 Appendix 104 Samples after Commodity code 104 Publications 112 Terms and abbreviations 113 Limit values ​​113 Tolerance values ​​113 General abbreviations Annual report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

6 6 Cantonal Laboratory Zurich, Annual Report 2010

7 7 Editorial Dear Reader "You can still govern with bad laws and good civil servants. The best laws are of no use with bad civil servants!" Otto von Bismarck is quoted as saying. The food control in the canton of Zurich works. This is by no means due to the good laws. On the contrary: Anyone who has to find their way around food law needs perseverance or simply very long experience. The 1992 Food Act, which came into force in 1995, provided a meaningful structure. With the adaptation to EU law, this whole order was turned upside down. However, the system of commodity codes has not been adapted. This assigns each food to a category that should actually comply with the legal requirements. The adjustments have been overdue for years, there is constant discussion, and there are no improvements. The Additives Ordinance is structured differently again and the Foreign and Ingredients Ordinance lives in a further classification system. The general directives have been added. According to the law on technical barriers to trade (THG), incorrectly referred to as the Cassis-de-Dijon principle, goods that comply with the technical regulations of EU and EEA countries may be sold unchanged in Switzerland. This should benefit Swiss consumers from price reductions in the billions. For food, a permit from the BAG is required, which is issued in the form of a general decree. This should make it easier to import food into Switzerland that is lawfully marketed in other countries, in particular the EU. The first general decrees cast doubt on the usefulness of this adaptation. Because national discrimination is to be avoided, these products may also be manufactured and marketed in Switzerland according to foreign legislation. A special note that these Swiss products were not produced under Swiss law is not necessary! Consumers are left behind, because the deviations often cannot be identified. Which consumer can tell that one ham contains more water because it was produced in Switzerland under Austrian law? Which consumer notices that cider is actually an alcopop if it was produced in Switzerland (undeclared) according to Danish law? This makes one thing obvious: With the so-called "Cassis-de-Dijon principle", it is not goods but legal provisions that are imported. These changes are beyond democratic control. The permits from the Federal Office of Public Health also lack transparency. The approved deviations do not appear from the published general rulings. In a list on the Internet, the deviations are listed in key words. However, these are not sufficient for an assessment. This means that neither consumers nor any affected organizations or even competitors can adapt to the new situation or contest the decision at the Federal Administrative Court with factual arguments. However, cooperation with foreign authorities is essential for food safety in Switzerland. The share of imported food is around 40% of total consumption. The federal government would have to carry out the food control in connection with imports. However, he does this job completely inadequately. While regular controls are carried out on the import of animal foods, only isolated inspection campaigns are commissioned for the other foods. That is why the control of imported food is almost exclusively the responsibility of the cantons. Uncovering deficiencies in Switzerland and only wanting to correct them here does not lead to the goal. For years, the problems of packaging materials have run like a red thread through the history of the Zurich Cantonal Laboratory. In the 70s to 80s of the last century, the tin cans were in our focus. The lead seams of the soldered cans led to a high lead release to the preserved fruits and vegetables. With great efforts, also on an international level, the lead was displaced by welded seams. The problem of tin contamination from the tin coatings remained. Paintwork seemed to solve the problem. However, the self-checks by the industry were inadequate: In 1996 our institute measured massive amounts of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), which was classified as carcinogenic. Subsequent toxicological studies confirmed the carcinogenic effects fortunately. Annual report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

8 8 nt. However, such clarifications should have been carried out before such paints were used widely. In addition to BADGE, there are many other substances that migrate from paints into food. They are neither identified nor toxicologically secured. Jute and sisal bags serve as packaging material for hazelnuts, rice, cocoa and coffee. These were made with the addition of brown mineral oils, which led to massive contamination of the food. This was revealed in our institution in 1989. It was not until 10 years later that jute production was improved after repeated attempts for the European market. At that time we had hardly sought support from other European authorities. The massive contamination of food with plasticizers from PVC films and lid seals on jars were only corrected after our interventions, although the manufacturers had known about the problem for decades. In this case, it was possible to bring about a pan-European solution by involving other European authorities. Now we are dealing again with the mineral oils in food. They come from inks containing mineral oil for printing on cardboard boxes, but also from the recycling of waste paper, especially from newspaper printing. The volatile mineral oil components can migrate into the food from the material used directly as food packaging or as outer box (corrugated cardboard). Even when cooking rice or pasta, they are no longer removed. The toxicology of these mineral oils has been known for over 20 years. Together with the St. Gallen Cantonal Laboratory, we first drew attention to this problem in 1996. The improvement of printing inks is long overdue, but recycled cardboard poses more complex problems: the demand is far too high to be able to replace it with virgin fiber cardboard. Technical solutions and also the legal procedure must be developed on a European basis. That is why we are dependent on European cooperation. The intensive cooperation with German authorities since 2009 is beginning to have an effect. As an institute, the Zurich Cantonal Laboratory also experienced a particular challenge in the year under review. Due to my leukemia, I was not available for four months. My employees also mastered these additional requirements excellently with additional services. I would like to thank you all for this great achievement as well as the great personal support you have given me. Dr. Rolf Etter, Cantonal Chemist, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich, Annual Report 2010

9 9 1 Duties of consumer protection The cantonal laboratory is responsible for enforcing the legislation on food and everyday objects. Around 11,000 food companies are under the control. The cantonal food inspectorate controls the food companies, industrial companies, export companies for which export certificates have to be issued, as well as pharmacies and drugstores, which require a license. There are also companies that manufacture, import or sell consumer goods such as cosmetics, packaging material for food, dishes or children's toys. In addition, the cantonal laboratory is responsible for monitoring the controls of the municipalities commissioned by the cities of Zurich and Winterthur. The cantonal laboratory is then responsible for the chemical, microbiological, physical and sensory analyzes of the samples. We also control 120 covered pools, which are usually checked at least three times a year. The 73 summer swimming pools are checked at least once a year. The municipal office for the environment and health is responsible for monitoring the baths in the city of Zurich. Enforcement of food legislation on behalf of the municipalities In the year under review, the basic controls were carried out on behalf of 39 municipalities. These risk-based controls could be carried out without restrictions. The control effort was covered by the lump sums of the municipalities, the control costs and the costs for the follow-up controls. Enforcement of chemicals legislation The cantonal laboratory checks the provisions on packaging, labeling and safety data sheets for substances, preparations, biocidal products, pesticides and fertilizers. There are around 1,300 manufacturers and importers of such chemicals based in the canton of Zurich. The scope of the Chemical Risk Reduction Ordinance includes not only chemicals, but also a wide variety of objects. In the context of market surveillance, such objects are checked for compliance with substance-specific restrictions or bans. Compliance with handling and delivery regulations must be checked on site by means of inspection activities. Around 1,500 wholesalers and retailers are registered as suppliers of chemicals. In industries that use chemicals, provisions on the duty of care and training requirements (specialist licenses) for the storage and handling of disinfectants, wood preservatives, pesticides and pesticides must be monitored. As the cantonal specialist office for chemicals, the cantonal laboratory is responsible for coordinating the implementation of chemicals law with the associated legislation, in particular environmental, water and employee protection. Control of the self-cellarers During the book and cellar control of self-cellaring winegrowers, the conformity of the cellar accounting with the legal regulations is checked. The 61 affected companies are checked at intervals of two to five years, depending on their production volume. Annual report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

10 10 2 Funds and services 2.1 Funds for the annual accounts The 2010 accounts are more favorable than budgeted. This is mainly due to the underutilization of the establishment plan and unpaid leave. The income was slightly below the budget. The controls for the municipalities are financially neutral because the expenditure was just covered by the income from the contributions of the municipalities and the controls of the municipalities. The table summarizes the 2010 annual accounts. Budget 2010 Invoice 2010 Income CHF 3,526,900 CHF 3,481,865 Expenditure CHF -13,181,646 CHF -12,868,828 Balance CHF -9,654,746 CHF

11 11 Inspections Corcoy Ramon Food Inspector Eckert Patrik Food Inspectorate Goudsmit Doris Food Inspectorate Graf Katharina Secretariat Heid Daniel Chemicals Kuhn Lukas Food Inspectorate Näf Urs Department Head Oriet Patrick Food Inspectorate Saurenmann Daniel Department Head Schildknecht Hans Food Inspector Mustard Ursula Department Head Food Inspector Stahlur, Worapf, Food Control Gabsparius Weber Secretariat Food Analysis, Housekeeping Binder Paul Caretaker Brunner Martin Deputy Cantonal chemist Brunner Roger Labor Bürchler Beatrice Labor Gerber Nadine Head of Department Gmünder Timothy Labor Gonçalves Idalina Cleaning Hotnjani Saime Cleaning Hotz Katharina Labor Kandler Helmut Head of Department Leimbacher Esther Labor Lendi Elvira Cleaning Neto Ema Cleaning Redaelli Andrea Laboratory Rocha-Da Maria Cleaning Tschumper Gertruds Laboratory Cleaning Widgets De Carli Dima Felderer Hinder Ingenhoff Lorenzini Nemecek Michael Olena Giovanna Nora Franziska Ian-Erik Rita David Tab: People employed at the Cantonal Laboratory in 2010 Training At the end of July, two apprentices successfully completed their apprenticeship and in August two apprentices started their laboratory technician training EFZ specializing in chemistry. We are now also offering a trainee the opportunity to study biology. The cantonal laboratory is currently training seven apprentices, six in chemistry and one in biology. The most important training figures summarized: Training of seven apprentices Two information afternoons with a total of seven interested parties 24 trial apprenticeships for career information purposes 80 applications for the two apprenticeships in chemistry 15 trial apprenticeships for evaluation laboratory assistant EFZ specializing in chemistry An information event for an upper-level class of the LernCenter apprentice Alessandri Marc Gast Conti Laura Eicher Count Angela Stefan Gubser Géraldine Kraut Tatjana Guest Landis Matthias Mikos Alexander Popoviç Radoje Regenscheit Andreas Reutimann Andrea Fig: Celebration of the successful completion of the two chemistry apprentices Annual report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

12) Consumer protection inspections The municipalities in the canton of Zurich are responsible for basic inspections. 39 municipalities commissioned the cantonal laboratory, 132 municipalities commissioned the UGZ or UGS (Environment and Health Protection of the City of Zurich and the City of Winterthur). A hazard assessment was carried out for a total of 11,181 (previous year 11,775) food establishments subject to registration. A total of 10,679 controls were carried out in the establishments. In addition, 928 follow-up checks had to be ordered. In over half of all establishments (56.6%, previous year 53.2%) no complaints had to be made. These companies fully meet the requirements of food law. It is gratifying that the proportion of these companies has increased further. This is also due to the intransigence of on-site food control. In the event of major defects, follow-up checks are carried out until the hygiene standard is restored. In 48 (previous year 42) establishments, however, food safety was not guaranteed. The few black sheep can still be found in the categories of bakeries, retailers and some catering establishments that lack a basic understanding of hygiene. The details of the hazard and risk assessment of the food companies in the Canton of Zurich can be found in the table. Analyzes Analyzes of food and everyday objects require the most human and financial resources. In the year under review, 13,561 officially collected food samples were examined using chemical, microbiological, physical or sensory methods or their labeling was checked. Included in this number are the 6,585 drinking water samples. A total of 1,665 samples met the legal cantonal laboratory in Zurich, annual report 2010

13 13 Company categories Number of which in danger level of which in risk level Companies none small considerable large low medium high A Industrial companies A.1. Industrial processing of raw materials of animal origin into intermediate and end products A.2. Industrial processing of raw materials of vegetable origin into intermediate and end products A.3. Beverage industry A.4. Production of everyday objects A.5. Various industrial companies B Commercial companies 1 'B.1. Butcher, fish market B.2. Dairy, cheese dairy B.3. Bakery, pastry shop B.4. Beverage manufacturer B.5. Production and sale on farms B.6. Various commercial establishments C Commercial establishments 2,545 1 '' 058 1 'C.1. Wholesale (import, export, storage, transport, distribution to retail trade) C.2. Consumer and supermarkets C.3. Retail and retail trade, drugstores 1,757 1 'C.4. Mail order business C.5. Trade in commodities C.6. Various commercial establishments D Catering establishments 7,407 3,822 2 '' D.1. Group catering 4,542 2,212 1 '' D.2. Catering companies, party services 1 'D.3. Hospital and home operations 1 '' 265 7 D.4. Army catering facilities D.5. Various catering establishments Total 11,181 6,330 4 '' 333 8 'Tab: Overview of the overall risk of the food establishments in the Canton of Zurich Specifications not and were objected to. The corrective measures ordered were based on the type of deviation. Many cases could be closed without a formal order because those responsible immediately rectified the defects or decided not to continue selling the products complained of. The proportion of samples complained about and the breakdown of the reasons for complaints shown in the figure do not allow any conclusions to be drawn about the average quality of the food on offer. Sampling for both chemical and microbiological analyzes is risk-based. The survey focused on foods and everyday objects that were classified as problematic based on past experience or on the basis of new information or findings. Defects can thus be detected with great efficiency and their rectification initiated. The investigation statistics therefore look far less favorable than the foods on the market. In addition, the samples complained about are mostly parts of small batches of goods. Defects in foods that are consumed in large quantities are very rare. The high rate of complaints from microbiological tests is a special case. These mainly concern pre-cooked meals from catering establishments. This is not about assessing the individual foods that have been eaten or disposed of after three days at the end of the examinations, but about assessing the hygiene in the kitchen. The drinking water samples represent a significant part of the investigations shown. These are collected on a systematic basis. The complaint rate for this food category is below average. Annual report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

14 14 Fig: Proportion of the various reasons for complaint (1,665 deficiencies in 13,561 officially collected food samples (including drinking water samples)). Drinking water and bathing water Type of analysis Drinking water Drinking water from lake waterworks Bathing water from indoor and outdoor pools Bathing water from lakes, ponds and rivers Bacteriological 2 'Bacteriological and chemical 4' Chemical total samples 6 '' Tab: Drinking and bathing water analyzes 2010 Type of analysis Number of samples Number Complaints bacteriological% chemical *% Total bacteriological 2 'Bacteriological and chemical 4' Chemical total 6 'Tab: Drinking water complaints 2010 without samples from the lake water works (* reasons for complaint: 14 samples with too high a nitrate content, 12 samples with too high a pesticide content, 4 samples with too high chlorate content) Update of the business register During the year 2,828 entries in the business register were updated at least once. Information was processed by the companies themselves, which complied with their reporting obligation by submitting a reporting form. In addition, there were findings on the occasion of inspections or sampling in the companies concerned and reports by the municipal authorities (mostly reports about the closure of a company). With a total of 15,902 active entries in the business register, around 18% were revised. Entries from reportable companies show an even higher mutation rate of 20.1% (2,329 mutations in 11,181 active entries). In addition to the reports about the opening or closing of a business, adjustments are also made to the information about the person responsible for food safety in the business, the main activities (type of operation, importance, industry, offer (in particular alcohol and tobacco sales), certification Cantonal Laboratory Zurich, Annual Report 2010

15 gen) and changes to the business, correspondence and billing address. Since the introduction of mandatory reporting for food companies, the reporting discipline of those responsible for operations has steadily improved. This development can be attributed in particular to the fact that the obligation to report each time food control comes into contact with the companies is an issue, thus increasing awareness of this task among those responsible. In addition, the topicality of the entries is periodically checked by the municipal authorities and through mailings together with other offices. Inspections on behalf of the municipalities 1,221 inspections were carried out for the 39 municipalities commissioned by the Zurich Cantonal Laboratory to carry out food controls. 84 follow-up checks were also necessary. The comprehensive service for the municipalities (including archiving, checking the business register, evaluations and reimbursement of the samples) could be guaranteed in all cases to the full satisfaction of the client. Enforcement of chemicals law The chemicals department carried out 155 inspections in companies last year. About half of the visits were made to manufacturers and importers. In the other cases, the majority were retail businesses and, less often, those that use chemicals. 2.3 Quality management The focus of market control was carried out in the context of campaigns on the topics of pepper sprays, brake pads, disinfectants and pesticides as well as chemicals, which had to be reclassified and labeled because of the reclassification of their ingredients. As part of these campaigns, around 115 products were collected, analyzed and comprehensively assessed, and over 300 products were checked by correspondence. Around 90 individual samples were also collected for an in-depth review of the requirements of the chemicals legislation. The survey was carried out on the basis of information or spot checks as part of on-site inspections. The companies were informed and advised in particular by developing and submitting appropriate information sheets as part of the control campaigns. The concerns and requirements of chemicals law were conveyed to individual industries or professional groups in presentations. Control of the self-cellarers In the year under review, 26 controls were carried out, which confirmed the compliance of the cellar accounting with the legal requirements. In addition, 39 risk-based food controls and a follow-up check were carried out on the self-cellarers. The meeting of the Eastern Swiss control bodies for self-press took place in the Office for Consumer Protection in Aarau. The exchange of experience served to standardize the implementation. 15 Statements on quality The cantonal laboratory has been ISO accredited and accredited as a test center since 1997. A surveillance audit was carried out by the Swiss Accreditation Service (SAS) in the reporting year. The lead assessor and the two technical experts certified that the cantonal laboratory had a high level of technical competence. In the course of the assessment, five scheduled conditions were issued. These concerned document control, organization and management as well as ensuring the quality of test results. Corresponding corrective measures have taken these requirements into account. In addition to external monitoring, regular internal monitoring and maintenance of the QM system also guarantees the laboratory's expertise. In this context, fourteen internal audits were carried out in the year under review. Most of the deficiencies identified by these audits have already been remedied. In addition, suggestions for improvement and error messages from attentive employees serve to ensure continuous improvement. The year under review was also marked by a change in the QM team. Andreas Peter took over QM management from Alda Breitenmoser, who has been in office since 2004. Alda Breitenmoser deserves a big "Merci" for her constant commitment and excellent quality awareness. Your successor can tackle his new role with a well-coordinated QM team and an established quality management system. Annual report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

16 16 Round-robin tests To ensure the quality of the test results developed in our laboratory, a total of 109 round-robin tests were taken. A broad spectrum of more than twenty providers was taken into account, among others, interlaboratory tests were carried out in the following areas: bacteriological analyzes of indicator and pathogenic germs in food and drinking water mold toxins (mycotoxins) in various foods nutrient content (protein, fat, etc.) of various foods veterinary drug residues in animal foods GMO contamination and species differentiation of the ingredients in various foods heavy metals in various foods and commodities pesticides in various foods softeners and migration of packaging materials ingredients (e.g. vitamins, minerals, etc.) and additives (e.g. dyes, preservatives, etc.) in various foods and utensils radioactivity measurements inorganic parameters in drinking water allergens and other foreign substances (e.g. histamine) in various foods by the end of the year en 65 round robin tests are completed. Of these, 51 were rated good to very good and eight were rated as sufficient. Six round robin tests had to be assessed as unsatisfactory. For the latter in particular, the necessary adjustments were made to the method regulations and the responsible employees were trained accordingly where there were errors in the transmission of results. 44 round robin tests were still pending at the end of the year. This was because, on the one hand, further clarifications were necessary to assess the results or, on the other hand, the samples did not arrive until shortly before the end of the year. Objections and appeals 24 objections were filed against the decisions of the cantonal laboratory. In fourteen cases the assessment of the labeling was questioned, in a further nine cases the assessment of the analysis results was questioned, in no case were the measurement results as such called into doubt. An objection is directed against the inspection result. Eight objections were approved, six objections were dismissed, eight were settled by withdrawing, and two objections were still open at the end of the year. In two cases, the negative decision was taken to the health department through an appeal. These two cases are still pending. 2.4 Perspectives for consumer protection inspections The inspection system is becoming more and more demanding. With the emphasis on self-regulation in the new Food Act, which has been in force since 1995, the requirements have become more open, and the federal government often does without detailed regulations. In order to guarantee food safety, companies must draw up their own rules based on hazard analyzes. The inspectors must assess these company-specific requirements and, in the event of deficiencies, order improvements. This not only requires experience from the industry, but also a great deal of in-depth knowledge of the processes and products. An intensive exchange of knowledge with the laboratory is often necessary. Since the year under review, industry-specific problems have therefore been discussed in various specialist groups in the cantonal laboratory, in which both scientists from the laboratory and the inspectorate are represented. This means that we are even better equipped for the technical challenges involved in inspections in industrial companies, in import companies, in companies that require a license and also in companies that manufacture, import and sell consumer goods. For businesses that are mostly monitored by food inspectors from Zurich or Winterthur, food law provides that they can work according to industry guidelines instead of their own, company-specific HACCP concept. The guidelines must be approved by the FOPH. The requirements of the Bran Cantonal Laboratory Zurich, Annual Report 2010 are in effect

17 replaces the previous state norms. However, this simplification for commercial enterprises does not yet work properly, as only a few guidelines have been drawn up. Where these guidelines would be most useful, they are still missing: in gastronomy. Analytics The trend towards more powerful, but also more expensive and technically sophisticated analytical devices continues unabated. In this way, increasingly reliable and meaningful analyzes are possible. At the same time, however, the new devices can also be used to collect ever wider pallets of residues. Analyzes of individual active ingredients or small groups of substances, be it pesticides or veterinary drug residues, have largely become obsolete. With today's devices, dozens, sometimes over hundreds, of analytes can be recorded at the same time. However, as the possibilities increase, so do the demands on the methodology and thus on the personnel.The development of new analysis methods must take into account many different parameters at the same time. The validation (checking) of new analytical methods is becoming more and more complex. The validation of a test method for residues of around 100 different veterinary drugs in different foods required a full annual working time. Such investments are only worthwhile if such a method is actually used frequently. The analytical focus of the Zurich Cantonal Laboratory is to be maintained and expanded in the future. They are: Residue analysis, veterinary drugs, residue analysis, pesticide analysis, consumer goods, genetic analysis, and it is not only high analytical performance that characterizes everyday work in the Zurich Cantonal Laboratory. Many examination methods have proven themselves over many years and provide important meaningful information without great instrumental effort. These can be used to identify errors and initiate improvements. Microbiological examinations of fresh and perishable foods or chemical and microbiological analyzes of drinking water will continue to represent an essential part of the work of a cantonal laboratory in the future. Controls on behalf of the municipalities In addition to the cantonal laboratory, food controls are also carried out in the canton of Zurich by two other accredited bodies (UGS Winterthur and UGZ Zurich). This makes a harmonized, uniform enforcement more difficult. The distances to be walked when there is an urgent need for action (e.g. rapid alert messages from the EU) are long and the reactions in the canton of Zurich are delayed as a result. Only in municipalities that have commissioned the cantonal laboratory to carry out food control can this be carried out directly, without the detours via Zurich or Winterthur. Municipalities that want to enjoy analysis and control from a single source, as well as the excellent service of the cantonal laboratory, can get to know the services by means of a non-binding offer. Enforcement of chemicals law The entry into force of the revised law on technical barriers to trade (GHG), which includes the application of the Cassis-de-Dijon principle, has so far had little impact on enforcement. Because the Swiss chemicals legislation in the enforcement area of ​​the cantonal laboratory is almost completely harmonized with the EU, hardly any massive changes are expected. However, when assessing imported products, the practice and legal interpretations of the enforcement authorities in the country of origin must also be taken into account. For the time being, the entry into force of the Product Safety Act (PrSG) had no effect on the implementation of the chemicals law. Its applicability to certain regulatory contents or products in the field of chemicals law, however, has to be clarified in more detail. The chemicals legislation will also be in a constant transition phase over the coming years. The change from the old poison legislation is now complete. On the other hand, the delayed follow-up and the automatic adoption (THG, Cassis-de-Dijon principle) of international and European law (GHS, REACH) with their transition periods lead to a situation that is difficult to understand. This results in an increased need for information on the part of the companies concerned, which must also be covered at least in part by the enforcement authorities. Enforcement tasks are constantly being expanded from the inclusion of new substance-specific bans in the 17th Annual Report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

18 18 the Chemical Risk Reduction Ordinance, which requires the development of appropriate control strategies and, if necessary, suitable analytics. Today, the necessity of joining the European system of authorization and registration obligations for chemicals (REACH) and corresponding cooperation with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) no longer seems materially controversial. Due to the unclear development of the bilateral relationship with the EU, the exact content and the time of an agreement and thus also the cantonal enforcement tasks to be expected from it remain open. Although intercantonal cooperation on an informal basis is well established, there is potential for the joint performance of certain enforcement tasks in an institutionalized form. Given the different needs and prerequisites of the individual cantons, this has not yet been specified. From the large number of relevant companies and the products on the market, it is clear that the enforcement tasks in the area of ​​chemicals law can only be performed with a low level of control or frequency with the existing capacities. A large part of the resources is used for controls within the framework of coordinated focus campaigns and absorbed by reactive measures, so that comprehensive or regular basic controls have to be dispensed with. Public warnings (cf. 6.5) after erroneous deliveries or defective products should nevertheless be viewed as exceptional cases and cannot replace the missing preventive controls. Control of the self-cellarers The legal requirements for wine production have been implemented well. Some inadequate declarations have been found for by-products such as spirits or grape juice. Due to the adaptation of the AOC legislation at cantonal level, there is an increased need for information for wine producers. These new regulations came into force with the 2010 vintage and will have an impact on bottling and labeling in the following years. Cantonal Laboratory Zurich, Annual Report 2010

19 19 3 Selected topics 3.1 Microbiological examinations / hygiene monitoring concept For almost five years now, there has been an examination concept for hygiene monitoring in restaurants. Based on a uniform assessment scheme, this allows companies with unsatisfactory test results to be re-sampled in a targeted manner. If the microbiological test results do not improve significantly in the food samples taken during the follow-up inspection, further steps are initiated. These targeted and systematic follow-up checks brought about considerable progress in the hygienic situation in companies. A year ago, an impact indicator was introduced to check the target in hygiene monitoring. This shows the proportion of bad companies that were able to improve significantly within 8 months and do not require any further follow-up checks. The target is 75%. The 76% achieved this year is a clear increase of 14% compared to the previous year. This significant increase can mainly be attributed to directly implemented measures, such as stricter monitoring when carrying out outstanding follow-up inspections and a shorter follow-up inspection period (previously after 60 days since the last inspection, today after 40 days). This deadline should allow a company enough time to significantly improve the inadequate hygiene. Hygiene monitoring good at 1st check good at 1st follow-up check good at 2nd check-up bad establishments open 1st or 2nd follow-up inspection% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% controlled establishments Fig: Comparison of the hygienic quality in catering establishments In addition, the establishments are prescribed stricter measures during inspections and a clear deadline is set for when these orders are to be implemented. In 2010, an initial inspection was carried out at a total of 451 companies. 348 of them showed an impeccable hygienic quality; A follow-up check was necessary at the remaining 103 catering establishments (23%) (Fig). In companies with intensive advice, i.e. those that show deficiencies in their hygiene concept even after the second follow-up inspection, neither repeated notification nor further measures such as restricting the existing food offer show the desired effect. Nevertheless, compared to last year, the proportion of these companies has decreased again, a pleasing result. Annual report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

20 National campaign "Milk and dairy products ex production" As part of the nationwide test program for dairy products, which in the reporting year focused on the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and coagulase-positive staphylococci, a total of 33 samples (two hard and three semi-hard cheeses made from raw milk, nine semi-hard and four soft cheeses made from thermised milk, three semi-hard, one soft and eleven cream cheeses from pasteurized milk) from thirteen different producers. The producers were one industrial company and twelve small-scale businesses. The samples collected were examined for the above-mentioned microbiological parameters. All samples from thermised milk or raw milk were also checked for the occurrence of salmonella. In addition, the values ​​of E. coli germs were determined for cheese made from thermized or pasteurized milk and the values ​​of Enterobacteriaceae for cream cheese made from pasteurized milk. Two samples were objectionable: a soft cheese made from thermised milk with over 15,000 CFU / g E. coli germs and a pasteurized cream cheese with 3,400 CFU / g E. coli germs. Both products were assessed in accordance with product category 4 of Appendix 3 of the Hygiene Ordinance. The manufacturers were asked to carefully check the individual process steps for manufacturing the rejected products by means of step controls. In one case, the value of E. coli in the end product was still 600 CFU / g after various corrective measures had been initiated. This value is below the tolerance value of 1,000 CFU / g, which is used in random sample tests. Since the detection of E. coli indicates deficiencies in manufacturing hygiene and in the selection of raw materials, a further step control is essential to find the cause of the E. coli contamination. We will review their implementation and the initiation of further measures during the next inspection. In the other case, the cause of the contamination could be found and remedied. The typical cheese content parameters (fat content and firmness level) were examined in 22 samples. The measured values ​​corresponded to the declared contents. Five samples had to be objected to due to inadequate declarations. In two of these samples, deviations were found between the measured salt content and the declared values. The manufacturer promised to change the production processes and to intensify the end product control so that a composition corresponding to the declaration could be guaranteed. Adjustments were made to three of the faulty packaging so that the products met the statutory labeling requirements. 3.3 Investigations on behalf of the Federal Veterinary Office National Foreign Substance Investigation Program (NFUP) Switzerland has concluded a free trade agreement with the EU that guarantees equivalence in the trade in food of animal origin (meat, milk, eggs and honey). In this agreement, Switzerland has undertaken to carry out a national foreign matter investigation program (NFUP) in accordance with the requirements of the EU. As part of this study program, animals for slaughter, milk, eggs and honey from domestic production are examined for residues of selected veterinary drugs and environmental contaminants. The examination program is coordinated by the Federal Veterinary Office. The samples are collected by the veterinary offices and the food control centers in the cantons and the majority of the analyzes are carried out in cantonal laboratories. Of the 5'466 samples planned for the national residue control program in 2010, 1'394 (25.5%) were analyzed in the Zurich Cantonal Laboratory. The focus was on the investigations for residues of veterinary drugs. An overview of the investigations carried out is shown in the table. Residues were detectable in 63 of the 1,394 samples examined (Tab). This corresponds to 4.5% of the samples examined. The residue values ​​were above the limit value in only three pig liver samples (0.2% of the samples examined). These contained 265, 300, respectively. 850 µg / kg sulfadimidine. The limit value for sulfonamides is 100 µg / kg. Cantonal Laboratory Zurich, Annual Report 2010

21 21 Type Total CAP NF NI HST TC CHI SUL TIM STR TR nseh CAR CKW PCB OP Calf (15) (3) Beef (1) 89 89 (1) Cow (2) 96 96 (1) Pig (2) 327 ( 3) 327 (27) 327 (1) Sheep (1) 30 29 (1) Poultry (3) Milk Eggs Honey (1) (1) Total (1) 648 (21) 730 (6) 738 (34) 738 ( 1) Tab: Overview of the examinations for the federal government's national foreign substance examination program (examined samples per active substance group). The number of samples with residues is given in brackets (no brackets = no sample with residues). Abbreviations: CAP = chloramphenicol, NF = nitrofurans, NI = nitroimidazoles, HST = inhibitor test, TC = tetracyclines, CHI = quinolones, SUL = sulfonamides, TIM = trimethoprim, STR = streptomycin, TR = tranquilizer (sedative), nseh = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, CAR = carbamates, CKW = chlorinated hydrocarbons, PCB = polychlorinated biphenyls, OP = organophosphates Sample type Number CTC OTC TC SDM SDO SAM STH TIM ENF Calf (40-210) 1 (14) 3 (10-43) Cow 3 2 (60-120 ) 1 (10) Cattle 3 1 (34) 1 (22) 1 (53) Pig 32 2 (20-32) 29 (10-850) 1 (63) 3 (24-70) Sheep 3 1 (34) 1 (10) 1 (10) Poultry 3 3 (5-16) Honey 1 1 (13) Total tab: Number of samples per sample type in which residues were found. The lowest and highest values ​​found in µg / kg are given in brackets. Abbreviations: CTC = chlortetracycline, OTC = oxytetracycline, TC = tetracycline, SDM = sulfadimidine, SDO = sulfadoxine, SAM = sulfanilamide, STH = sulfathiazole, TIM = trimethoprim, ENF = enrofloxacin border veterinary control program between the BIP laboratories since the conclusion of the bilateral agriculture In Switzerland and the EU, Geneva and Zurich airports are the only border points where food of animal origin from non-EU countries is imported into Switzerland. These two airports are known as BIP (Border Inspection Post). If consignments of food of animal origin are found in the EU or Switzerland that are assessed as hazardous to health or not safe, ten subsequent consignments from this delivery company must be checked negatively without exception. For this purpose, the consignment of goods is blocked at the border and an express examination is commissioned to the so-called BIP laboratory. Only after the shipment meets the requirements is it released for import. After the tenth negative check, which did not result in a complaint, the company is removed from the so-called stop & test list. In 2010, the FVO again entrusted the task of operating the BIP laboratory to the Zurich Cantonal Laboratory. In the year under review, 30 express samples were examined. The type of samples, analyzes and their results are summarized in the table. The Institute for Parasitology at the University of Zurich, which we commissioned to investigate for parasites, found sarcosporidia in two Brazilian beef samples using PCR and subsequent sequencing. One of the two samples also contained the anthelmintic ivermectin. However, the content was below the applicable limit of 20 µg / kg. One fish sample was labeled sole tropical. The check by means of PCR and subsequent sequencing showed, however, that it is not a Sole-langue sénégalaise (Cynoglossus senegalensis) as stated. Annual report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

22 22 Sample type Origin Total SKS ANI Hg BA SP CHI SUL TC NF CAP MAL KV IV Beef Argentina 3 3 (2) 1 (0) Predatory fish Sri Lanka Fish Senegal 10 10 (1) Shark Vietnam 1 1 Shrimp Bangladesh Petersfisch New Zealand 3 3 Total Tab: Suspicious samples of food of animal origin that were blocked at the border until an express inspection showed that the goods are in order. The number of samples with residues above the limit is given in brackets. Abbreviations: SKS = sarcosporidia, ANI = anisacids, Hg = mercury, BA = biogenic amines, SP = species determination, CHI = quinolones, SUL = sulfonamides, TC = tetracyclines, NF = nitrofurans, CAP = chloramphenicol, MAL = malachite green, KV = crystal violet , IV = FVO ivermectin monitoring program In the reporting year, the FVO commissioned the Zurich Cantonal Laboratory to examine 249 samples from the risk-based monitoring program for imports of food of animal origin from non-EU countries. A summary of the sample types and the parameters tested is shown in the table. Parameter Beef Meat Meat Fish Products Sheep, Horse, Sea, Freshwater, Fishery, Caviar, Crab, Mollusc, Total animals TC CHI 17 25 (1) SUL TIM MAL PEN NF NI MA nseh IV 1 1 Hg Pb Cd SO BA B 1 1 VIB 11 (5 ) 11 PAR SP 8 (1) 1 9 Total Tab: Overview of the investigations as part of the FVO monitoring program. The number of samples showing residues is given in brackets. Abbreviations: TC = tetracyclines, CHI = quinolones, SUL = sulfonamides, TIM = trimethoprim, MAL = malachite green, PEN = penicillins and cephalosporins, NF = nitrofurans, NI = nitroimidazoles, MA = macrolides, nseh = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, IV = ivermectin = Mercury, Pb = lead, Cd = cadmium, SO2 = sulfur dioxide, BA = biogenic amines, B = boron, VIB = Vibrio spp., PAR = parasites, SP = determination of the species. sole tropical "was marked. The PCR test showed that it was Cynoglossus spp. is, but not, as stated, Cynoglossus senegalenis. Eleven fish samples were examined for Vibrio spp.forwarded to the Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene at the University of Zurich. Vibrio bacteria could be detected in five of these samples. However, all of the findings were non-human-pathogenic strains. Cantonal Laboratory Zurich, Annual Report 2010

23 A fish sample (Pangasius from Vietnam) contained a small amount (10 µg / kg) of the active ingredient enrofloxacin, which belongs to the quinolone group. The found 3.4 drinking water quality Inspections of drinking water systems In the past year, inspections (condition of the systems, checking of the self-monitoring) were carried out at thirteen water supplies. This also includes inventory of smaller (mostly private) water supplies before merging with a larger supply. Some of the systems inspected no longer corresponded to the state of the art. Even with perfect water quality, medium-term remedial measures are inevitable in such cases. There are still water supplies that do not have a quality concept or that only partially meet the relevant requirements. In view of the increasing demands on the water supply, the inspection activities of the cantonal laboratory in the area of ​​water will be given greater weight in the future. In addition to the on-site inspection activities, several assessments of quality manuals and plan assessments were carried out again in this reporting year. Routine examinations For a tabular overview of the drinking water analyzes carried out in the past year, please refer to Chapter 2.2. Both the official controls and, to a large extent, samples commissioned by the water supply companies (self-monitoring) contribute to the almost 6,600 water samples that were analyzed in 2010. At just under 2%, the complaint rate was in the same range as in previous years. The total of 111 complaints were raised primarily because of the exceedance of tolerance values ​​for microbiological quality requirements (aerobic, mesophilic bacterial count or faecal germs) and an increased nitrate or pesticide content. Special investigations for chlorate in groundwater A groundwater pumping station near a swimming pool has been showing elevated chlorate levels (above the tolerance value of 0.2 mg / l) for a long time. However, the investigation carried out in the reporting year with samples from residues was well below the applicable limit value of 100 µg / kg. The same groundwater flow above and below the pool allows the conclusion that the groundwater is likely to be influenced by the nearby pool. In addition to the chlorate content, the chloride and sulphate content, which is significantly higher than that of the other measuring points, indicate bath water chemicals (Javelle or sulfuric acid). The cause is probably a leaky swimming pool, several thousand liters of which seep into the groundwater every day. The renovation is to begin in 2011. Heavy metals The annual groundwater monitoring, which is carried out at 90 selected pumping stations together with the AWEL's water protection laboratory, also included element screening (metal analysis using ICP-MS) in the reporting year. These tests are carried out by the cantonal laboratory approximately every five years and prove to be very useful for public and specialist inquiries (e.g. about the uranium content in the water). In 2010, isolated traces of heavy metals were found in the groundwater, but the water quality was everywhere within the legal framework. PAH In a joint focus campaign with other cantonal laboratories in Eastern Switzerland, water samples were tested for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) last autumn. The analyzes were carried out by the Food Control Office in Schaffhausen. The Zurich Cantonal Laboratory took part in this measurement campaign with several samples from groundwater pumping stations near potentially polluted locations. PAHs are very persistent in the environment; However, due to their high affinity for organic material in the soil (poor water solubility), this class of substances is primarily important as a soil pollutant and less in relation to groundwater hazard. It is therefore hardly surprising that the analyzed analytes in all samples were below the respective detection limit. 23 Annual report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

24 24 Special events Last September, drinking water pollution in a small water supply caused a lot of media coverage. As part of a routine check, the cantonal laboratory encountered massive faecal contamination in the spring water, which affected almost the entire distribution network with around 1,000 connected residents. The measured values ​​for E. coli and enterococci were in places above 100 CFU / 100 ml. After the first laboratory results were available (one day after the sampling), the community was informed immediately and asked to take the following steps: Discard the affected spring water group (from Disconnect the network) Inform the population (boiling regulation) Flush the pipe network with water from the (unpolluted) groundwater pumping station. In the following days, the cantonal laboratory carried out several follow-up checks and was able to gradually approve the distribution network and the spring taps. In the subsequent investigations by the canton police it turned out that a farmer had disregarded the existing protection zones (fertilizer discharge and grazing, see illustration). In combination with the intense rainfall at this time of year, this misconduct led to drinking water pollution. Special tests were carried out on 26 samples. Raw and pure water from two plants were examined for pesticides. The samples were tested for 42 different pesticides and their metabolites. A total of six different active substances could be identified in the raw water. The active ingredient diuron was found in the range of 20 ng / l. The mecoprop content was around 10 ng / l. The remaining four active ingredients were all below 10 ng / l. No active substances could be detected in the treated pure water. Raw and pure water from two other plants were tested for 18 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). All PAHs were below the detection limit of µg / l. The values ​​are therefore at least a factor of 100 below the tolerance value of 0.2 µg / l specified in the Foreign and Ingredients Ordinance. PAHs are only slightly soluble in water and adsorb well on particles. In seawater treatment, flocculation and subsequent sand filtration are therefore already an effective barrier. The raw and pure water of all seven plants was also subjected to element screening. Particular attention is paid to the occurrence of toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and the repeatedly discussed uranium. All test results were inconspicuous. Number of samples Type of examination Complaints Bacteriological 12 0 Bacteriological and chemical chemical total samples thereof special examinations 26 Tab: Overview of the examined water samples in the lake water works Fig: Pasture area in the middle of the protection zone Sea water works The cantonal laboratory looks after seven sea water works on Lake Zurich. A total of 744 samples were collected and examined for quality control (Tab). All samples were bacteriologically as well as chemically flawless. New construction of a lake water works in Horgen After various objections had been dealt with, some of which were judged by a court, the groundbreaking ceremony for the new plant was finally held on April 9, 2010. Soon the construction machinery started up and the first small breakdown promptly occurred. An eager excavator operator had overlooked a slide shaft and tore off the pipe section with a shovel. The 10 bar water pressure was immediately noticeable (Fig). Cantonal Laboratory Zurich, Annual Report 2010

25 25 Fig: Corrosion on ozone distribution pipes Fig: Jet d'eau in Horgen Ozone plant Mühlehölzli sea water plant The ozone plant was put into operation in April 1999. In the following years of operation, problems with corrosion damage to the ozone distribution system made of chrome steel increased. In December 2003, after a bit more than 4 years of operation, the piping system on the water side was replaced by a higher alloyed material, these pipes also showed massive damage (Fig). Certain sections of the pipe were almost completely eaten away. In the Mühlehölzli lake waterworks, ozone is produced from dried air. It is known that when using air (80% N2 / 20% O2) to produce ozone, certain proportions of nitrogen oxides can arise. Nitric acid can form from these. How large these proportions are depends on the residual moisture in the air and thus on the functionality of the upstream air dryer. In studies by the cantonal laboratory, the formation of nitric acid in high concentrations could be demonstrated. In addition, chromium, nickel and molybdenum could be detected in a residual liquid obtained from the chromium steel pipes, which is a clear indication of the corrosion of the chromium steel. Due to the renewed damage, the use of other materials was considered for the renewal of the pipeline system. The choice fell on a piping system made of glass. The new system went into operation in August 2010. 3.5 Pesticide residues in plant-based foods A multi-faceted year has passed in pesticide residue analysis. Risk-based sampling and a customs campaign again uncovered serious deficiencies in vegetables from Asia, particularly Thailand. Another customs campaign regarding origin in Turkey resulted in many complaints about hot peppers; but the situation was less serious than with Asian vegetables. The investigation of Swiss fruits and vegetables showed a significantly better situation with regard to exceeding maximum values: not a single one of the 187 samples had to be objected to. In eighteen cases, however, the use of pesticides that are not permitted on the respective crop gave rise to complaints. These are mostly small concentrations. Samples from Europe were, as usual, at a low level of complaints of a few percent. Fig: Unwanted "ingredient" in the broccoli annual report 2010, Cantonal Laboratory Zurich

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