What are the consequences of economic segregation?
1. Term: spatial separation of residential areas from social (sub) groups in a city or region. The degree of segregation is higher, the more the spatial distribution of the residential locations of a group deviates from the distribution of the total population. The ghetto represents the extreme form of segregation. The residential areas or population can be separated according to social status, demographic characteristics such as age or position of the household in the life cycle, according to ethnic, religious and / or linguistic and cultural criteria.
2. Causes: a) Voluntary segregation wanted by the individual is based on the preference for a similar social environment (neighborhood) and the conscious creation of a social and at the same time spatial distance to "foreign" groups.
b) Involuntary segregation results from the housing market, which creates spatially different residential areas in accordance with land prices and the ability to pay rent via the type of construction, apartment density and residential environment equipment, and from government planning interventions, which range from zoning through urban land use planning to government infrastructure location policy (infrastructure) to structural interventions in the housing market (rent freeze, housing benefit, etc.).
3. Problems: Segregation is usually associated with unequal life chances as well as spatial-temporal cycles of under- or over-utilization of social infrastructure facilities. Urban planning therefore tries to mitigate these negative effects through a targeted mix of the population. On the other hand, greater segregation can also have positive effects on maintaining group-specific identity and the ability to act.
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