What are some examples of tuned instruments

The Alfaia is a light bass drum made of wood, which is used in Brazilian music, especially in maracatu. It comes from the bass drum of European marching music. Originally the body was made from a hollowed-out tree trunk, today layer-glued plywood is used. The Alfaia is covered with natural fur and tuned with cords. It is played in three different pitches. The mallet of the right hand is significantly thicker and heavier than that of the left.

Argentine bombo

The bombo belongs to the membranophones and is a cylindrical two-headed membranophone or large drum that is played vertically by the drummer carrying it over his shoulder in front of his body with a strap. The instrument has a flexible toggle tension and is easy to tune even in different weather conditions.
It is best known from military bands and popular festivals in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula.

Leather-covered bongos

Bongos are small drums used in pairs that are beaten with fingers or hands. You are from Cuba. The smaller drum is called “macho” (Spanish male), the larger one “hembra” (Spanish female). In Son Cubano and styles derived from it, whoever plays the bongos changes to a cowbell, in Spanish cencerro, in the part of the piece called Mambo or Montuno. The player of the instrument is called bongocero. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cajon

The cajón (ka’xɔn, Spanish drawer or (wooden) box), also called box drum in German, is a percussive musical instrument from Cuba and Peru. It has a drum-like sound and is played with the hands, occasionally with a broom, bass cajons as part of a larger drum kit, also with the pedal.

Caxixi [kaˈʃiʃi] is a rattle made of raffia and filled with pebbles or seeds. A calabash slice is incorporated into the bottom of the Caxixi. The Caxixi is moved up and down during play, so that the contents either hit the calabash or the braid and, depending on which, a high, sharp or a soft, low tone is heard.
It is traditionally used in Capoeira in Brazil along with berimbau. Today it is also used as an effect instrument in other musical styles. Two Caxixi of different sizes are also combined so that more complex rhythms are possible.


Man plays chocalho

The Chocalho is a Brazilian musical instrument that is mainly used in samba. This variant of the shaker consists of a metal frame and tin plates, which generate a bright sound through rhythmic movement and form a carpet for the bateria. It is important that the metal clamps alternately hit the front and back so that there is no rattling.
The shaking instrument Ganzá or the Xequerê can perform the same function.

Hollowed out African wooden claves

Claves, Tonewoods or bars are a pair of percussion instruments from the group of counter-strike idiophones. They have a short, dry sound with no reverberation.
The claves originally come from Africa and have gained in importance, especially in Cuba (the roots of salsa are in Cuba). In general, one always hears the claves in Cuban music, be it son, rumba, salsa or salsaton. In Colombian or Puerto Rican (etc.) salsa, the claves are almost never played and are therefore a typical feature of Cuban salsa.
These are simple sticks of 20 to 30 cm in length that, when hit against each other, produce a high-pitched sound. Hardwood as well as fiberglass-reinforced or simple plastic are used as materials.
A wooden stick lies flat in the arched hand to generate the sound, the curved fingers of which form a resonance chamber. In order for the wood to vibrate, the tonewoods must be held loosely in your hands. The other tonewood hits it horizontally from above and at an angle of approx. 60 °.
In their origins, the claves were long wooden ship nails that were used as percussion instruments. Hence the name (Spanish “clavo” = nail).
Despite their simplicity, claves are fundamental to various styles of Latin American music, especially son, salsa and bossa nova, as they form the rhythmic framework for this music (clave), which all other (percussion) instruments follow. “Claves” is often mistakenly translated as “key”, which is not true in this context. A variant from Puerto Rico is called Cuá.
The playing (the beat) of the clave is typical and there are basically seven types of rhythm that are generated with the claves. 6/8 Clave (origin), 2/3 Son Clave, 3/2 Son Clave, 2/3 Rumba Clave, 3/2 Rumba Clave, 2/3 Bossa Nova Clave, 3/2 Bossa Nova Clave. 2/3 means two strokes in the first 4/4 and three strokes in the second 4/4. The beats are played on whole and half notes, which in turn differ according to son, rumba or bossa nova (simple instrument but not easy to play). The clave has evolved and in Latin jazz the clave has now emerged in 7/4 or 10/4 time. The best known rhythm is 3/2 Son Clave because it starts on one in time. However, in salsa the 2/3 son clave can be heard mostly (starts on two). It is difficult for a layperson to tell the difference during a song, especially when the clave is not being played. The whole rhythm structure is based on the instructions of the clave. The congas, for example, are played entirely to the rhythm of the clave. A professional congalero thinks to the rhythm of the clave and plays the rhythm of the congas.
Tonewoods have a long tradition in a wide variety of cultures. The Australian Aborigines used their clapsticks made of eucalyptus wood, for example.



The cuíca is a friction drum used in Brazilian music. It usually consists of a metal cylinder with fur on one side, usually cat fur. A small bamboo stick is tied into the skin, which makes the membrane vibrate and which is located inside the body of the instrument.
The size of the instrument varies from tin cans to cleaning buckets (10–20 cm high). Particularly elaborately crafted instruments are made of brass and have several horns on the top.
Large, no longer portable instruments with a diameter of 50 cm and more are also called the lion's roar (e.g. used in the opera Drei Schwestern by Péter Eötvös).
The cuíca is worn by the player under one arm, at about chest height with the support of a shoulder strap. Rubbing the stick with a damp piece of cloth creates squeaky sounds. The musician varies the pitch by pressing the thumb of the other hand on the skin. The instrument is typically used for samba music. From simple rhythmic structures to entire melodies, the Cuíca offers a multitude of expressive possibilities.

(Redirected from Darabuka)

Turkish darbuka made of metal with plastic fur
The darbuka (Arabic دربكة, DMG darabukka, also transcribed as Derbouka or Darbouka) is a drum from the Arab world. It consists of a goblet-shaped body that is traditionally made of clay and covered with fish skin or goat skin. Modern darbukas are often made of metal, with the Turkish models made of aluminum, copper or brass sheet, and the Egyptian version being cast from aluminum. The eardrums are mostly made of plastic, but natural heads are also used in newer models to achieve a warmer, bassier tone that differs from the high-pitched sounds of plastic heads.
The two basic beats that the darbuka can produce are a bass note (dum) played with the whole hand in the middle between the edge and center, and a high note (tak) played with the fingers right on the edge. Numerous technical and tonal variants can be derived from this.

Darbuka in use
Darbukas have their origins in Middle Eastern music. They later found their way into Western culture and have since become very popular instruments in modern day music.
See also
• Tombak: goblet drum in classical Iranian music
• Zerbaghali: goblet drum in Afghan folk music

The Daf is a frame drum, which is mainly played in Persia (today's Iran and parts of Turkey, Afghanistan, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan). It is lightly built so that it can be played in the hand.
It is used in rituals by the Islamic Sufis of the Persian region and is an important ceremonial drum.
Metal rings are attached to the approximately 5 cm wide frame, which give the instrument its very own sound. The Daf is covered with goat or lambskin and usually has a diameter of approx. 50 to 60 cm. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Djembe

Djembé made of Lenké wood

The Djembé is a goblet-shaped drum from West Africa, usually covered with shorn goatskin, the body of which consists of a hollowed-out tree trunk.
A Djembé is usually around 60 cm high and its fur is around 30 cm in diameter. The Djembé is only struck with the bare hands and is characterized by an extensive range of sounds. It is used both as a solo and as an ensemble instrument. The typical line-up of an ensemble consists of one or two accompanying djembés, a solo djembé and one to three bass drums.

Other names dundun, doundoun, djun-djun
Classification Percussion instrument (membranophone)

A Dunun (also known as dundun, doundoun, or djun-djun) is the generic name for a family of West African bass drums that developed alongside the djembe in the Mande drum ensemble. It is not to be confused with the dundun, the Yoruba name of the West African talking drum. There are different sizes of dunduns, ranging from 25 to 60 cm. Basing on the size, construction technique and tuning, there are different names for each type of dundun. Some of the most often used names are konkoni, kenkeni, sangban, dununba, djeli-dun, etc.

doundounba from The Gambia

There are two primary playing styles for dununs. The traditional style has each player using a single drum resting on its side, either on the floor or on a stand, and striking the head with one mallot and a bell mounted on top with the other. A melody is created across the interplay of the three dununs. For the other style, known as ballet style as it is used in the National Ballets, one player has command of the three dununs standing on the floor, allowing a more complex arrangement for the dance.

There are wide variations on how the dunun is played throughout West Africa. In Mali they are sometimes played with just one dunun and a bell that is held in the hand.
In some regions of Guinea the dunun is played with no bells, or only two dunun are played. In some regions of Mali up to five dunduns are played at the same time. In Hamanah, (Guinea) three dununs with bells are played. This style is one of the most known in the west, due to the influence of Mamady Keïta, Famoudou Konaté, Mohamed Diaby, Bolokada Conde, and other players from Guinea. It is formed of three dununs of different sizes; the kenkeni (smallest), sangban (medium) and dununba (largest). The kenkeni has the highest pitch and usually holds the rhythm together with a simple pattern. The sangban typically has a more complex part which defines the rhythm. The dununba often serves to add depth with deep, widely spaced notes. These drums provide a rhythmic and melodic base for the djembe ensemble.
In Bamako (Mali), a style of playing with two dunduns developed. Both so called konkoni, have goat skin and are played without the bell. The konkoni with the highest pitch keeps the accompaining rhythm and the konkoni with the lowest pitch keeps the lead melody and solos.
In the Khasonke region of Mali, the biggest of the dunduns has the leading role - making solos and leading the song.

Eggshaker with a match for size comparison

An eggshaker, also known as a chicken shake, is a percussion instrument belonging to the idiophone group of instruments. It consists of a plastic egg that is about a quarter filled with rice or something similar. A variety of rhythms can be created by moving back and forth, rotating and other techniques. Eggshakers are often played in pairs.
Eggshakers are basically scaled-down maracas without a handle. The sound is fine and quiet. They are therefore suitable, for example, for ensembles in the a cappella area, but also in many other genres.

The frigideira (Portuguese for frying pan) is a Brazilian percussion instrument that is played in the samba.
The instrument looks like a small tin frying pan and is played with a wooden stick. Originally it was an improvised instrument from the kitchen, today frigideiras are also made as instruments in double form. The instrument is played like a tamborim, in the double version the playing technique is similar to the agogô.
see Shaker http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanjira

The Kanjira is a small frame drum from South India with a single pair of bells. It is used to accompany the classical music of South India.
The Kanjira is roughly similar to the western tambourine; In contrast to this, however, the use of the bells is less common in Kanjira. It is held in the left hand and played with the fingers and palm of the right hand. Due to the loose tension of the skin (traditionally mostly lizard skin), modulations of the pitch are possible during the game - a technique that is also used in the Bayan of the North Indian tabla.
Played with maracatu, also used in samba (and called Ganza there), the Mineiro is a Brazilian shaking instrument made of a closed metal tube filled with grains, stones or shot. (See Shaker) Shakerhttp: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mazhar

The mazhar is also (Arabic: مظهر; plural mazāhar مظاهر) is a large, heavy tambourine used in Arabic music.
The mazhar’s frame is generally made out of wood. The instrument’s brass jingles are quite large (4-5 inches / 10–13 cm in diameter). It is played with a shaking technique that gives it a raucous sound. Its single head is considerably thicker than that of the riq, its smaller cousin.

3 pandeiros: 10 inches of natural fur, 10 inches of plastic fur and 8 inches of natural fur

The pandeiro is a frame drum and has its origin in Arabia. It is similar to the tambourine, but differs from it in terms of the arrangement of the bells. While 2 bells are opposite each other in the shape of an hourglass with the tambourine, they form a shell with the pandeiro. This creates a much quieter clink, similar to the sound of a hi-hat on drums. Some instruments have another flat metal disc between the clamp pairs, the purpose of which is to dampen the sound and prevent the clamps from rattling. This enables a more differentiated way of playing the finger and hand strokes, which is not affected by the sound of the bells. Different pandeiros have been developed for different purposes. They come in sizes between 8 and 14 inches, with 10 inches being the most common. They are covered with natural or plastic skins.
The Pandeiro offers a wide variety of sound options. Above all, the lower-tuned instruments with natural skin show the entire range from the deep, full bass tone to the high, sharp slap. Virtuoso pandeiro players (for example Marcos Suzano) can use this instrument to replace a complete set of drums.


The pandeiro is traditionally used in capoeira, samba, pagoda and choro. It is played in smaller ensembles as well as in the large samba schools.

Frame drums consist of a frame that is usually only covered with a skin on one side, very rarely there are drums that are covered on both sides. The frame is usually round, but can also have other shapes (e.g. triangle or rectangle). The tone is achieved by hitting the covering with the hand (or fingers) or a mallet. Some instruments have additional bells, bells, metal rings or the like. A characteristic of all frame drums is that the frame depth is always smaller than the skin diameter. The frame drum is sometimes referred to as the oldest drum type. On the representations in Mesopotamia it can already be proven about 9000 years ago. This type of drum can be traced back to equipment related to animal skin (e.g. frame screens).
It can be found almost everywhere in the world, e.g. B.as a shaman's drum in Northern Europe, Sapmi (“Lapland”) Asia and North America or as an accompanying instrument played with the fingers in the Orient (Tar, Bendir, Riq, Daf, Duff, Daire, Mazhar, Tamburello and many others).
She played a special role in the fertility cults of the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia, which were held in honor of a mother goddess. The drums usually had a diameter of 20 cm and were possibly double-skinned and filled with seeds, as they were related to the fertility cult. This is indicated by ancient Sumerian paintings.
The frame drum is also mentioned in the Bible as töf Miriam.
Even today they play a major role in the Dhikr ceremonies of some Sufi orders.
It came to South America (Pandeiro) through the Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors.
The naming of the frame drums is quite confusing, as most of the names cannot be clearly assigned to a certain variant, but rather designate regionally different types. Bendir z. B. actually refers to a special variant from Morocco with snare strings. In France, Greece, Turkey and other countries, Bendir is the generic term for all large frame drums without bells.
In recent years the frame drum played with the fingers has grown in popularity. Through musicians such as B. Glen Velez, the playing techniques that existed in various cultures were linked with one another and the frame drum was further developed into a modern, multi-faceted instrument that can be used in many musical styles. Associated with this is the development of clamping systems. Traditionally, frame drums were usually only stretched by warming the fur over the fire. Later there were various developments with tuning screws. The most recent development is an air pressure tuning system invented by David Roman Drums.
• Tambourine (Spain)
• Pandeiro (Brazil)
• Tamborim (Brazil)
• Riq (Arabic tambourine)
• Kanjira (South Indian tambourine and smallest frame drum in the world)
• Bodhran (Ireland)
• Shaman's drum (including North America, Siberia, Sapmi (“Lapland”))
• Tar (drum), (Turkey)
• Daf (Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Middle East)
• Dayereh (Persia, Central Asia, Balkans)

Reco-reco made of metal

The (or the) Reco-reco is a rhythm instrument in Brazilian music that is related to the Güiro. It traditionally consists of a sawtooth-like notched cylindrical body made of bamboo or wood. It is played with a wooden stick. The instrument is used in various Brazilian musical styles, such as samba. It comes from the Afro-Brazilian music culture. Reco-recos have been around for some time, which consist of a metal cylinder on which several metal springs are attached alongside and which are played with a metal stick, which results in a significantly higher volume when playing. The metal springs can be dampened with the hand that is holding the instrument, resulting in different sound possibilities. In addition to the metal version, fiberglass reco-recos are now used, which are played with a plastic stick.
In Brazil, the Reco-reco is also called Catacá, Caracaxá, Querequexé, Reque-reque or z. B. in the Amazon region called Raspador.
see Chocalho http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repinique

The repinique (also: Repique, an older spelling is: Repenique) is a small drum from the Brazilian percussion.
In contrast to the caixa (pronounced: kaischa), the snare drum, the repinique (in Portuguese male: o repinique!) Is tuned higher and has no carpet. The repinique is 30 to 40 centimeters (12 to 16 ″) high and has a diameter between 10 ″ and 15 ″. Repiniques were initially made of wood and goat skins were stretched, then the skins were replaced by nylon ones. Today the sound body is made of metal, the heads of nylon. As a result, the tone became higher and more metallic over time.
In the samba percussion, the repinique is often used for "calls" (Portuguese: chamadas for "calls") because of its high, metallic sound. It is played either with a wooden stick and a bare hand (in Samba, but also by some Sambareggae groups such as Ilê Aiyê) or with two thin plastic or wooden whips (e.g. from Olodum). A typical toque (Portuguese for "play, rhythm pattern") of the instrument in Samba is the hit with the hand before the actual beat. In the musical structure of a samba percussion group (port .: bateria) it complements the tamborins, a small frame drum. In Sambareggae, the 3-2 clave or the “upside down” bossa nova beat of the snare drum are typical patterns of the groups that play with two sticks.
A related version of the repinique is the bacurinha. It is smaller in diameter, slightly shorter and is only played with two long, thin whips. In the Timbalada group, it replaced the previously used tamborins.
see Timba http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riq

Egyptian riq
The riq (Arabic رق, DMG riq; also riqq) is an Arabic tambourine that belongs to the group of single-headed frame drums.
The diameter of the drum is approx. 24 cm and the height approx. 6 cm. Clamps are attached to the side of the riq, e.g. B. in the arrangement 5 × 2 × 2 clamps
In the past, the riq was covered with fish skin, but nowadays goatskin is usually used for it.
The riq is used in Arabic folk music, classical Arabic music and also to accompany oriental dance.

(Redirected from Ganzá)

A shaker in the usual cylindrical shape
The term shaker is used to describe a large, inconsistent group of percussion instruments. What they have in common is the construction of a hollow body with a granular filling. This makes shakers a rattle. A variety of rhythms can be generated by moving back and forth with the hand, turning, hitting, shaking and other techniques.
The sound and volume of a shaker depend on
• size
• Body material (wood, plastic, metal, ...)
• Material of the filling (rice, plant seeds, plastic granulate, metal balls, ...)
• The delicacy of the filling
• Fill height
Shakers find z. B. in Latin American musical styles like Samba (Ganzá) use. A well-known example is the eggshaker.
See also: Chocalho, maracas.

The Shékere or Chekere is an Afro-American striking and shaking instrument, presumably of West African origin, which has spread in various countries and of which there are various variants and different names.
The body consists of a calabash, an empty, dry and hard pumpkin fruit that serves as a sound body and around which a network of seeds, pearls, cowrie shells or plastic balls is stretched. In the African version, this net is closed at the bottom, while in the Cuban version the bottom remains open to serve as a playing surface and in the Brazilian version the net is completely open. In the Shékere, the neck of the calabash has been removed, which distinguishes it from the Axatse, which is related to it, which is smaller and whose neck is not cut off. Instead of the bottle gourd, pieces made industrially from fiberglass are also offered.
There are the following variants:
• Shékere (Cuban music)
• Xequerê (Brazilian music)
• Xequebúm (Brazilian music, large variant)
• Agbe (Nigeria)
The snare drum, stirrer drum, marching drum, snare drum, or snare drum is a drum covered on both sides with skin with snare strings on the resonance head.

14 ″ snare with wood boiler


Materials and dimensions

The body of the snare drum is made of metal (mostly steel or brass) or cross-glued, often with reinforcing rings, rarely also solid wood, also made of acrylic. The diameter mostly varies from 10 to 15 inches; the classic standard snare drum is 14 inches in diameter, and measures 5.5 or 6.5 inches in depth. If the drum becomes flatter or has a smaller diameter, it tends to produce a sharper and shorter sound. These are mostly called piccolo snares. The skins are stretched tightly by means of mostly drawn, in the case of more expensive models also cast metal or rarely wooden hoops and 8 to 12 tuning screws, in the case of very old models with straps.
More unusual dimensions are also more common, e.g. B. 13 by 7 inches or 15 by 4 inches. Large stirring drums, as they are occasionally used in orchestras, even reach dimensions of 16 by 16 inches.


There are different systems in which the snare carpet is clamped. The conventional attachment takes place on one of the sides of the boiler, with a rocker arm attached to one of the sides. With this you can either switch the carpet onto the resonance head or away from it. This eliminates the buzzing sound.
Fine adjustments are usually made using a small wheel, which can be used to set how close and how firmly the carpet should rest on the fur.
In order to refine the sound possibilities, there are so-called parallel take-offs, which are usually applied to higher quality instruments. With this system, a frame is built into the boiler, with which the precise placement of the carpet on the resonance head is better guaranteed. The carpet is mounted on this frame from the outside.

The snare carpet

The snarling effect typical of this drum is provided by a carpet of 8 to 30 metal spirals lying next to one another, also known as tremors; earlier this was made from gut strings (the snares). The carpet rests in the snare bed - a few millimeters deep and several centimeters wide, diametrically opposite depression in the boiler ridge - and is stimulated to vibrate and rustle along when it is hit by the usually very thin and therefore very sensitive resonance head transmits the vibrations of the batter head. A lifting mechanism can be used to completely detach the carpet from the resonance head or to adjust the contact pressure. Tight tensioning reduces the sustain and leads to a sharp, dry to "dead" sound, which is particularly suitable for music styles in which the snare drum should stand out from the overall sound, such as B. marching music or samba. With pop music, a weaker setting is the rule. The snare carpet must not bend, otherwise the result will be a rusty sounding aftertaste.


The top head, i.e. the batter head, is identical to the ones used on the other drums. Because of the carpet, the selection is more important than with other drums. If you want a sound that is as precise as possible, which transmits all vibrations, you have to use a single-layer head, which is particularly indicated when playing the snare with a jazz broom. If you use double-ply heads, this reduces the precision.
The lower skin is called the resonance skin. Unlike the other drums, the snare is extremely thin, mostly transparent, because of the carpet and the transmission.


American snare drum, around 1780
The snare drum originally comes from military music and can be traced back to the medieval tambour, which was usually played with a flute. Around the middle of the 19th century, however, the snare drum was also increasingly used in orchestral music. The snare drum was integrated into the first combined drums through the marching bands, which also came from military music and from which the first jazz bands emerged.
Today the snare drum is also used as a solo instrument. Well-known composers include Siegfried Fink and Charles Wilcoxon.
See also: knee skin


In the contemporary drum set, the snare is the centerpiece and is played while sitting in a central position between the knees. In military music as well as in marching bands or drum corps, however, the snare drum is held with the help of a bracket on the left in front of the hip and played while standing or marching.

Playing technique

Simple rhythms are just as easy to learn on the small drum as they are on Orff instruments, which is why the instrument is in principle also suitable for smaller children. Due to the high volume, however, it is advisable to use hearing protection.
Even older children, adolescents and adults can - provided they have a reasonably good sense of rhythm - quickly achieve success on the small drum and accompany pieces of music without lengthy lessons with a little practice. For (semi-) professional playing in groups or orchestras, like any other instrument, appropriate training is of course required.
Different attack techniques enable special effects. If the skin is struck with the tip of the stick and the tension ring is struck with the stick shaft, this is called a rim shot, it is mostly loud and cracking and mostly sounds metallic. Hitting the hoop with the stick on the skin is called side stick or rim click, sometimes also cross stick.

Snare played with a broom

The choice of drum sticks, especially their head shape, also influences the sound. In general, the smaller the head, the sharper and shorter the sound. Drumsticks with very small heads are particularly used in orchestral music. The use of brooms (brushes) in jazz allows a softer, no less expressive game, whereby the brooms are rubbed in circles or lines over the skin or played like drum sticks. For this purpose, a roughly coated batter head made of plastic or a natural skin made of animal skin is used, which reacts very sensitively to fluctuations in humidity.


The Brazilian surdo is a cylindrical drum and is one of the largest and most important instruments of the Bateria de Samba. It provides the rhythmic basis of the piece and is therefore largely responsible for controlling the speed of the game.


The surdo commonly used in Rio de Janeiro is about 60 cm high and has a diameter between 16 ″ and 24 ″, occasionally even larger versions with diameters up to 29 ″ are used. The original sound body is made of wood, alternatively galvanized steel or - not least because of the lower weight - aluminum are used. High-quality aluminum surdos consist of a seamlessly drawn cup, which is more resistant and often (but not necessarily) offers better sound properties than a cup with a seam. Batter and resonance heads are usually attached to the shell with a ring each and tensioned with 8 to 12 tension rods. Goat and plastic skins are common.
Variants include the surdos used in Salvador de Bahia. They are usually less high (40 to 50 cm), therefore lighter, and have a shorter reverberation.
As a variant of the normal batter head, the double-layer corino heads are used. The batter head is covered with another layer, which leads to a fuller, deeper sound.
The repinique, another important instrument of the bateria, is sometimes referred to as a very high surdo due to its similar shape and style of play, but it has a different role within the bateria and is therefore mostly viewed as a separate instrument. It is beyond the scope of this article.

In the Bateria de Samba, surdos are played in either two or three tones.

Three pitches
Surdos are mainly used in three tones. A distinction is made between Primeiro, Segundo - which form a functional unit - and Terceiro.

Primeiro (Marcação): The Primeiro is the lowest tuned instrument in the Bateria and is mainly used to play the pulse (beat) together with the Segundo, often playing on the even beats. Mainly instruments with a circumference of 24 ″ and larger are used.
Segundo (Resposta, Respondor): The higher-pitched Segundo corresponds to the Primeiro when playing the pulse and often plays the odd beats in Samba de Enredo and other styles. Instruments with a circumference of 20 ″ and 22 ″ are common.

Terceiro (Cortador): The smallest surdo, the Terceiro, has the highest relative skin tension of the surdos. The relatively low reverberation of the instrument and the increased rebound caused by the skin tension make it possible to play faster, more complex sequences of strokes. While Primeiro and Segundo are responsible for the pulse, the Terceiro plays the actual surdo pattern on this basis, which complements the pulse as the basic rhythmic structure of the samba and mostly determines the character of the piece.
Often surdos with a diameter between 16 ″ and 18 ″ are used as terceiro.

Two pitches

Since both Primeiro and Segundo make it difficult to play complex rhythms due to reverberation and relatively low skin tension, the use of only two surdo voices is seldom and mainly found in amateur groups outside of Brazil. Here, the pattern is either played correspondingly in both vocal ranges or in one vocal range, while the other does justice to its actual role as a pulse generator.

Style of play

Primeiro and Segundo are usually played as pulse generators with a mallet and the hand. The hand is mainly used in these pitches to dampen the skin during the hit of the corresponding surdo. The Terceiro is also often played with mallet and hand, whether and when it is damped basically depends on the respective pattern. With smaller instruments, the hand is also used for the actual game in addition to the mallet, which can be used for complex, syncopated rhythms. The possibility of changing the pitch can also be used, so the sound of the surdo increases if the batter head is pressed in sufficiently with the free hand.
In different styles, especially with Samba Reggae and the mixed form Samba Duro, the Terceiro can also be played with two mallets at the same time. Damping after the hit is carried out - if necessary - by placing a mallet vertically on the batter head.
Another variant of the game, which is also used at Surdos, is the rimclick, a blow on the ring that attaches the batter head.
The surdo is usually carried with shoulder or hip straps, often with open hooks, into which the instruments only have to be hung. The use of stands is rare and usually only matters when several surdos are being played by a single percussionist at the same time.
see Timba Taiko from: Taiko - Wikipedia

The taiko or Daiko (Japanese: 太 鼓, English: thick drum) is a traditional Japanese percussion instrument.

The oldest drums in the Taiko design come from China or Korea. In the Kofun period (300 BC to 300 AD), the Japanese and Koreans were not yet separated from one another in today's national borders and in the course of the extensive cultural exchange at that time, the taiko also came to the Japanese archipelago. They were probably first used in the rituals of the shamanic Shinto religion to conjure up various gods, especially the storm god Susanoo, who also ruled the weather.
Even in China, drums were used in temples instead of bells or gongs, and with the import of Buddhism (in the 4th to 6th centuries), its instruments followed to Japan. Here they found their way into the use of simple farmers and fishermen, who used them as an accompaniment for heavy field work, as a signal on the beach or as an alarm signal in the event of raids. Here, too, a colorful use for all kinds of festivities has been handed down to some extent to this day.
The samurai recognized the effectiveness of the taiko and had the drums beat before the attack: this was intended to wear down the opponent mentally on the one hand, and to put one's own fighters in a blood frenzy on the other, which, shamanically speaking, corresponds to an ecstatic obsession, i.e. the god on one's own side of the battlefield made appear. Shimedaiko have been used in the Noh theater since the 14th century; from there it was taken over into the other forms of theater.
Nowadays, in addition to religious use, there are also forms of taiko drumming that have been further developed for the stage as art, which are enjoying increasing popularity, especially outside of Japan, and have led to numerous imitators there. The best-known taiko groups include Ondekoza, Gocoo, Tao, Yamato and Kodo.
Shape and construction

All drums are called Taiko in Japan, but in particular one means the barrel-shaped Miyadaiko made from a tree trunk (barrel drum: nagado, deep kettle). Depending on the size and shape, Taiko is further differentiated and among others as Sumodaiko (approx. 25 cm diameter), Shimedaiko (small high drums tensioned with ropes or screws (bolt)), Okedo (portable drums tensioned with rope; often for field work used; diameter 25 - 60 cm), Miyadaiko or Ōdaiko (from 91 cm). The body of a traditionally made taiko is carved out of one piece (i.e. a single tree trunk section). In addition, there are also composite versions, the corpora of which are glued together from several segments of different origins. Then the drum blanks are turned on the outside using a lathe to achieve the round shape of the body. Originally only the wood of the kejaki tree (zelkove) was used to build the drums, but today some wood from other elm plants is also used. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timba_(Instrument)

This article covers the Brazilian drum. For the Cuban instrument see timbales

The timba (more rarely also: timbal or timbau) is a hand drum used in Brazilian music.
The conical body of the Timba is made of lacquered pressed wood and is approx. 70 to 90 cm high. The plastic batter head is 12 to 14 inches in diameter. The drum is usually carried with a shoulder strap and played hanging in front of the stomach, more rarely it is in a stand.
The usual hits are the open tone and the high and particularly loud slap. The bass in the middle of the head plays less of a role than with comparable hand drums such as the Djembé or the Conga.

Until the late 1980s, the timba was mainly found in the Samba pagoda. In this form of music, it is played as a surdo de mão ("handsurdo") lying on the knees with one hand. Other handicrafts are Rebolo, Repique de mão and Tantan. Carlinhos Brown was the first to use the timba as a hand drum in his group Timbalada in the 1980s, triggering a musical revolution in Salvador da Bahia. The timba became a defining instrument of samba reggae and blocos afros. Until then, the atabaque was the dominant Brazilian hand drum, but it is too heavy to carry and was therefore not played in the carnival groups. To date, the timba has not found its way into the samba enredo of the great samba schools in Rio de Janeiro, but it plays an important role in groups that combine traditional with modern music.

The tombak (also Tonbak, Dombak, Donbak or Zarb, Persian تنبک / تمبک [1] [Note 1]) is a Persian chalice-shaped hand drum, which is the most important percussion instrument of Persian folk music as well as classical Persian music.

In the past, the body of the tombak was mostly carved from solid mulberry wood, but today it is turned almost exclusively from other hardwoods (mainly walnut and ash). The shape of the body is similar to a red wine glass (but with a hole through the foot) and is traditionally made from one piece. However, some instrument makers also use blanks assembled from many pieces to create decorative wood patterns. The upper wide opening is covered with animal skin, usually from a camel, goat or calf, by soaking the depilated skin in water and then stretching it over the opening and gluing it to the outer edge. As the skin dries, it contracts and maintains its tension. The mood depends on the humidity and can therefore only be influenced by moistening or heating (drying out) the fur. There are, however, some tunable types of tombac; one was developed by Iranian ney player Hossein Omoumi. [2] There are countless manufacturers, mostly small companies, but outside of Iran, instruments from the major manufacturer Helmi (حلمی) are mainly available.

Tombak is played while sitting, usually cross-legged on the floor, but often on a chair. With right-handers, the drum lies on the left thigh, which results in a different playing position for the two hands. Despite some similarities with other cup drums (such as the darabuka or the related Afghan zerbaghali), the playing technique of the tombak differs significantly from that of most of its relatives. In modern playing styles, all fingers are used in a very differentiated way (even individually). The probably eponymous syllables Tom and bak correspond to two (main) sounds: the low (tom) is produced by a blow near the middle of the skin with the fingertips and the base of the palm of the arched hand and the high (bak) by a blow with the tip one or two fingers on the edge of the fur. The full roll (riz-e por) is a typical element of playing tombak and is often used by many percussionists on other drums as well. For right-handers, it is generated with all five fingers of the right and the four free fingers (i.e. without the thumb) of the left hand by alternating strokes of the whole hand. The fingers of each hand are guided in such a way that they do not all touch the skin at the same time, but one after the other, which creates a rapid sequence of strokes.

Nowadays the tombak is not only responsible for the meter of a piece of music, but its melodic sound is usually part of the music like that of any other instrument. Until the middle of the 20th century, the tombak was not considered a solo instrument. This only changed through the achievements of the great master Hossein Tehrani. The Tehrani school was spread in Europe mainly through his pupil Djamchid Chemirani, who has lived and worked in France since the late 1960s. After Tehrani, Bahman Rajabi, Nasser Farhangfar and others further developed the playing techniques in a wide variety of ways. Today's drummers continue to develop their playing technique. They include, for example, Madjid Khaladj, Navid Afghah, Pejman Hadadi, Mohammad Reza Mortazavi and Pedram Khavar Zamini (also written as Khavarzamini).

The triangle (Latin triangulum "triangle", for grammatical gender see below) is a percussion instrument, consisting of a round steel rod that is bent in the shape of an equilateral triangle open at one corner.
As the high treble of the percussion instruments, the triangle has the task of adding the highest highlights to the orchestral sound. Although complex rhythmic figures can be played on it, it is mostly used sparsely for accentuation because of its penetrating sound.

Layout and function

The triangle is a high percussion instrument from the group of idiophones. As a directly struck steel rod, it is one of the service idiophones. It consists of a round steel rod that is bent into an equilateral triangle open at one corner. The three sides created in this way are called the legs of the triangle. A distinction is made between the lower (horizontal) leg and the right or left side leg. The corners in the upper angle and open angle are also designated in more detail.
The instrument is hung in the upper corner with a thin loop. The player either holds this freely in his hand (play by hand, with a mallet) or he hangs it on a triangle stand (game on the stand, with two mallets).
The triangle is struck with a triangle mallet (steel rod), whereby the point of attachment is of great importance for the sound quality. Forte strikes are performed on the lower, horizontal leg, while piano strikes are performed on the right leg in the upper third. Vertebrae are performed in the inner, upper angle by alternately striking the two side legs.

The modern triangle has the shape of an equilateral triangle. Other triangular shapes, such as isosceles, are no longer built these days. The triangle is available in different sizes, usually between 5 and 20 cm side length. Its size depends on the different areas of application. Large models are preferably used in symphony orchestras, smaller ones in early education, in play groups or in the Orff school work. The professional concert or orchestra triangles have a leg length of 14 to 30 cm, the smaller ones around 10 to 24 cm. The diameter of the steel rods is between 7 and 16 mm, depending on the size. The design of the rod ends in an open angle is done in two ways today, either they are obtuse or they taper to a point. With older models or custom-made products, the tapered ends are slightly bent outwards. The diameter of the 15 to 25 cm long triangle mallets varies from about 2 to 9 mm.

Angelika Kauffmann: L’Allegra, 1779

History and use in music

The triangle has been known in Europe since the high Middle Ages. In contrast to today's orchestral instruments, the triangular, trapezoidal or stirrup-shaped triangle was closed and often had three or more ringing rings on the lower leg. Little is known about its origins and early history. Only towards the end of the 14th century can music iconographic sources be proven. The first documents come from Italy. He was often depicted as an instrument of angels making music and other biblical figures:
• Music angel with triangle, altar ceiling of the Church of St. Maria zur Wiese, Wiesenkirche (Soest), around 1390. Closed, trapezoidal instrument with three jingling rings and mallets.
• Music angel with triangle, ceiling painting of the St. Marien church in Herzberg / Elster, around 1430. Closed, triangular shape with three jingling rings and mallets.
• Music angel with triangle, "Maria im Kranze music-making angels", Cologne masters around 1440, Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Closed, triangular shape with three jingling rings and mallets.
• Death with a triangle, “Heidelberger Totentanz”, sheet 7, “Der doit / Der Cappelan”, around 1485. Closed, triangular shape with three jingling rings, pointed, without mallets and holders.
Michael Praetorius depicts a triangle in his Syntagma Musicum II, Organographia from 1619, which is provided with rings on the lower leg and which must have had a tinkling sound. He presents two triangle models: he calls the first type with the triangle shape crepitaculum, a triangle. and initially assigns it (first part) in its classification to the instruments which are called percussa, knocking instruments…. A little further (Ander Theil), of course, he puts the triangle outside of its system and places it in the list of the village instruments adopted by Sebastian Virdung. In the Theatrum Instrumentum 1620 on panel XXII, no. 5, the equilateral, open triangle is shown with a mallet. The tapering rod ends are bent outwards in the shape of a hook and can thus prevent the five ring rings from falling out. These are lined up on the lower leg. A sixth ring in the upper corner acts as an eyelet to hold the leather loop, which is used to hold the triangle in place. He calls the second type of triangle, with the stirrup shape, Crotalum, vulgò a triangle. This appears with other instruments on the last panel, XLI, No. 15. Here, too, the triangle is shown with a mallet. This is thick and has a spherical knob at the end of the handle. The sound device has the shape of a stirrup: two corners at the bottom and a round arch at the top. It is unusually heavily equipped with 18 distortion rings.
Marin Mersenne brought out his Harmonie universelle in 1636, 17 years after the publication of Syntagma musicum II by Michael Praetorius. In the “Traité des instrumens”, 7th book - From the percussion instruments - he describes the triangle (les cymbales) in detail and also depicts it; it provides information about the material, the form, the sound and the use of the instrument. In his classification of musical instruments, he assigns the triangle to the 3rd gender (le troisieme genre), that is, the percussion instruments (la percussion ou la batterment). The triangle shown here is equilateral and closed and equipped with five ring rings. Its corners are not rounded, as one might expect, but rather pointed. The instrument can be made of silver, brass or other metals, but it is usually made of steel, as is the mallet. To hang up the triangle, two intertwined rings are used in the upper corner, one of which is attached to the triangle. You hold it in your left hand on the upper ring, it can move freely and sound better. In the right one you hold the corresponding triangle mallet, which has an eyelet for grasping and tapers a little towards the end. Four rings are lined up on the lower leg and one on the right leg. The sound is shrill, happy and radiant, Mersenne compares it to the sound of bells and bells. He calls the triangle cymbale, and also notes that it is used by beggars to accompany the hurdy-gurdy. In addition, the rings are sometimes struck alone.
The triangle found its way into art music through the genre of Turkish opera.Here he was used for the first time in the opera orchestra in Christoph Willibald Gluck's Iphigénie en Tauride in 1779 and in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Abduction from the Seraglio in 1782 in order to create an exotic coloring. In the Viennese Classic, the triangle, together with the bass drum and the cymbals, found its way into the symphony orchestra with Joseph Haydn's Symphony No. 100 in G major (military symphony) (1784) and Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 in D minor, op. 125, (1824).
With the inclusion of Janissary music in European military music from 1720 onwards, the triangle also became part of the rhythmic instruments of Turkish music, alongside the bass drum (Davul), cymbals (Zil) and Schellenbaum (Cagana). It was assigned to Janissary music, although the instrument does not appear in Turkish military music.
A famous solo part can be found in Franz Liszt's Piano Concerto No. 1 in E flat major.
In the Coptic liturgy the triangle is used together with hand basins to accompany certain hymns. It is also one of the dominant instruments in the Brazilian forró.
The triangle is also one of the Orff instruments. In addition to hanging cymbals, cymbals, finger cymbals, crotales, etc., it is part of the basic equipment of the Orff-Schulwerk. Different triangle sizes are represented here for a variety of music-educational ideas. In accordance with their tasks, they are somewhat smaller than the more difficult concert triangles. In the range of instrument makers you can also find triangles with leg lengths between 10 and 25 cm. The material thickness varies between 7 and 12 mm. They are made from silver steel. The steel rods are blunt at their ends, which means that the otherwise pointed rod ends are straight in school triangles (see illustration). A useful relief for handling is the firm connection of the loop through a small hole of about 3 mm in the upper angle of the triangle. Triangle mallets with rubber handles are common slings.

To the grammatical gender

The noun triangle in the meaning of "musical instrument" is today combined with all three genera. It is one of the few nouns in the German language that can have all three genders with them in high-level language, similar to “jungle” or “ward”. Most often one finds the male sex, then the neuter and less often the female.
The masculine has retained triangle from the older, now extinct meaning "triangle". It is still used today, especially in dictionaries, foreign dictionaries and lexicons; Karger, for example, argues: “Since Italian is the international musical language in which almost all musical terms are made generally understandable, I suggest using the masculine form in German as well, analogous to the form used in Italian: il triangolo. "Also in French it is called" le triangle ". [1]
The feminine is the case of the oral language. It is especially common in the professional jargon of the drummer. Its use is probably analogous to musical instrument names with the same suffix -el, such as: the cymbal, the drum, the bell, the rattle, the straw fiddle.
The Grimm dictionary notes: “Recently the word tends towards the feminine and often verbally in its meaning as a musical instrument.” In its editions from 1915 to 1925, the Duden also cited the masculine as well as the feminine with the indication “popular”.
In recent times, the use of the feminine can be found increasingly in literature. [2]

The block of wood is a percussion instrument that is used in Asian, Latin American and some new music compositions. A hollow, cuboid block of hardwood is beaten with a wooden stick. The sound has a high proportion of noise.
Plastic versions of wooden blocks are called jamblocks, they are often used in Guggenmusiken, usually in five differently tuned versions.