What are disabled people who are tired of hearing
Disabled, impaired - or person with a disability? We struggle with the right words
Traditionally and historically, there are a number of names for people with disabilities that are now "out" for good reason because they express exclusion and devaluation. But how do you say it correctly?
It was common practice to speak of the cripples, the lame, the blind, the deaf and the sick, not to mention the unflattering medical terms for people with mental, emotional and multiple disabilities. Those affected mostly lived on the fringes of society, were often kept in institutions and were objects of more or less state and private welfare. Then there is the burdened German history. As is well known, hundreds of thousands of people with disabilities were cruelly murdered as "unworthy of life" with the active cooperation of German doctors and the health bureaucracy. In a society that sees itself as democratic and grants all people basic rights, it is out of date to use traditional terms. How should you do it in the case of a handicap without stepping into faux pas? Although activists of the disability movement in the 80s spoke quite deliberately and provocatively of the "cripple movement" when it came to elementary disability rights and equality, one should stick to terms that have meanwhile become established today. While the Disabled People Act of 1986 only knew "severely disabled people" and meant that a disability was based on an "irregular physical, mental or emotional condition", the Social Code IX, which has been in force since 2001, speaks of "disabled people", as does the Disabled Equal Opportunities Act of 2002. Here, however, disability was still understood to be something that was individually atypical, deviating, i.e. not normal. Accordingly, people are disabled "if their physical function, mental ability or mental health [...] deviate from the state typical of their age." Here the legislature remained true to the bad German tradition of a deficit-oriented, damage-related concept of the disabled. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, passed in December 2006, speaks of "persons with disabilities", which in German became "people with disabilities". The disability now arises for those affected from the impairment which, in interaction with various barriers, can prevent them from fully, effectively and equally participating in life in society. This is also the case in the equality law of the state of Saxony-Anhalt of December 16, 2010.
So, like the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, we should use the term "people with disabilities", even if the language may not have been entirely successful and does not really express the connection between impairment and social barriers. The terms "disabled person" or "disabled person" are not wrong either. I myself do not see this dogmatically and speak of "people with disabilities" as well as "disabled people", "severely disabled people", "visually impaired", "hearing impaired", "mentally disabled" or generally "disabled", Depending on the context and occasion. Subtle discussions about taboo terms and politically correct terms are rather counterproductive when it comes to dismantling disadvantages and barriers and people with disabilities should participate in life as a matter of course and without stigmatizing demarcation features Designations such as "special people", people with "special abilities" or "special ones"
Glossing needs "does not change their situation and problems with barriers of all kinds. Incidentally, blind and visually impaired people in the vast majority of cases have no problem with speaking of" sight "," color "or" eyes "in their presence, either the word "hearing" should not be taboo for the hearing impaired and deaf.
For people with so-called intellectual disabilities, the term "people with learning difficulties" has been coined in recent years. That is of course also correct, even if it is difficult to differentiate here. Incidentally, nothing changes about a disability if one tries to label it with the Anglicism "handicap". There are those affected, but above all those who are not affected, who see everything very differently and fight doggedly about it. I do not think that this is helpful, and it does not improve the situation for any person with a disability.
It arises through heredity and is chromosomally conditioned, but can also be caused by damage in the womb.
It can occur in different ways. Damage caused during childbirth, illness or physical damage, such as an accident. But aging processes can also lead to acquired disabilities.
The term was common until the 20th century. Today he would be extremely offensive. Some disabled people, writes the portal Leidmedien.de, had this term positive: they call themselves "cripples". This reinterpretation is already known from other minorities, such as homosexual men. They "successfully redefined the former insult, gay‘ ", it continues on the portal. In contrast to "gay", however, "cripple" is not yet a neutral term and can only be used positively within the group of disabled people.
Is the short form of "mongoloid", an outdated term for trisomy 21. "Mongo" or "mongoloid" is a highly discriminatory term; However, it has historical reasons: The discoverer of trisomy 21, John Langdon-Down, called it "mongoloid idiocy" and thus coined the terms Mongolism and Mongoloid as a designation for its wearer due to their rounded face shape and almond-shaped eyes, which he considered typical looked for the Mongols. A central reason for the abolition of these terms was a request from Mongolia: In 1965 the state applied to the WHO to stop using the term "Mongolian Idiocy" due to the negative connotation.
The WHO unanimously accepted this proposal. (see also Down syndrome)
The English neurologist John Langdon-Down described Down's syndrome, named after him, for the first time scientifically in 1866 as an independent syndrome that can be distinguished from other diseases and disabilities.
It was not until 1959 that the French geneticist Jérôme Lejeune recognized the genetic cause of the syndrome: He discovered that every cell in the affected person has 47 instead of 46 chromosomes, so one chromosome must have tripled (trisomy) instead of doubling. It was later found to be the 21st chromosome. Hence the name "trisomy 21", which is more common today.
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