How does library knowledge help us?

64th IFLA General Conference
August 16 - August 21, 1998

Diagram 4: The subjects of the sixth national curriculum

Subject Compulsory subjects at national level Options at city / regional level Options at school level 1. Ethics Ethics (6) * 2. Korean Korean (10) speaking (4), reading (4), writing (6), grammar (4), literature (8) Subject selection, apart from the options 3. Chinese characters Chinese characters I (6), Chinese characters II (4) of the regional level (8) 4. Mathematics General mathematics (8) Mathematics I (10 ), Mathematics II (10), Practical Mathematics (8) 5. Social science subjects General Sociology (8), Korean History (6) Politics (4), Economics (4), Society and Culture (4), World History (6), World Geography (6) 6. Natural Sciences General Natural Sciences (8) Physics I (4), Physics II (8), Chemistry I (4), Chemistry II (8), Biology I (4), Biology II (8), Geology I (4), Geology II (8) 7. Sports Sports I (8) Sports II (6) 8. Military training Military Education (6) 9. Music Music I (4) Music II (4) 10. Art education Art education I (4) Art education II (4) 11. Practical skills, household economics Practical skills (8), household economics (8) , Agriculture (6), industry (6), trade (6), shipping industry (6), domestic economy (6), EDP (6), professional customer (6) 12. Foreign languages ​​General English (8 ) English I (8), English II (8), English Reading (6), English Conversation (6), Practical English (6), German I (6), German II (6), French I (6), Fran - French II (6), Spanish I (6), Spanish II (6), Chinese I (6), Chinese II (6), Japanese I (6), Japanese II (6), Russian I (6) , Russian II (6) 13. Spiritual and scientific elective subjects philosophy, logic, psychology, pedagogy, practical economics, religion, environmental education, information and media, other (4) hours 70 106 12 hours apart from half of the curriculum class activities, club activities (12), group activities (4th ) * The numbers in brackets represent the number of lessons. One lesson corresponds to one hour of 50 minutes per semester week (a semester has 17 weeks).

3) The process of introducing the new subject "Information and Media"

The members of the "Teaching in Library and Information Science" department at the Education Faculty of the National Kong-ju University and teacher librarians from schools have been working together on the basis of the sixth curriculum for five years. You have extensively studied library dissertations and the educational role of librarians around the world, taking into account changes in today's society, classroom theories, curriculum, library and information science, classroom technology, and the study of school library media. Finally, the scientists and the Keum-ok Girls' Public High School in Seoul applied for the introduction of the subject "information and media" and for permission to use a textbook. This application was submitted to the South Korean Ministry of Education on August 30, 1995. After careful examination, the new subject was recognized on October 25, 1995 under the supervision of the South Korean Ministry of Culture by the curriculum committee, which included university professors and teacher librarians. The new textbook was accepted on December 29, 1995 after three thorough checks. From the point of view of school teaching, not to mention the academic study of school library media, this was an event of historic significance. For the first time, such a course was recognized and offered not only in South Korea, but also worldwide.

(4) Teaching and learning practice of the new subject in schools

The subject "Information and Media" is now taught in several schools in Seoul, such as the Keum-ok, Kae-po, Konghang and Daeyoung Public High Schools. Since the new subject has only existed for three years, the offer is limited to a small selection of schools. In the near future it can be assumed that many schools across the country will introduce the subject "information and media".
Two semester hours are available for this subject in the classroom or in the library, i.e. a total of four hours per year.

(5) The students' opinion of the subject

Several opinion polls were carried out in order to gather students' opinions on this subject. The result showed that 39% of the entry-level students at Keum-ok Girls' Public High School preferred logic and 61% chose information and media. In the second grade, 22% reported logic and 78% information and media. A survey of the first two classes at Daeyoung High School found 15% for logic, 10% for education, 21% for philosophy and 54% for information and media.
These results show that students are very interested in the subject. The reasons given in the questionnaires for choosing this subject are quite different. Learning to understand the current situation. Greater practical benefit. Useful for social activities. Refreshing and interesting. Receive information as it is. Useful for real life. Diverse and interesting hours. More practical when you get a lot of information. Requirement of modern society. Information age. No economic success without information. Know how the world works. To stay updated. Practice-related. We live in the age of the information society. Stay up to date in the rapidly changing world. Interesting title. Information is important. Useful for logical writing for the university entrance test. Be well informed about current events. Helpful for getting quick and accurate information. Receive new information from a younger generation, not an older generation.

4. International issues

(1) Area and content of media literacy of librarians in an information society

How are the area and content of media literacy of school librarians to be assessed? What about the area and content of media literacy of librarians in public libraries? How are the area and content of media literacy of university librarians to be assessed? What is the area and content of media literacy in children's librarians? What about the area and content of media literacy among librarians at special libraries? And what are the differences in terms of area and content of media literacy between the groups mentioned? The point is that we, all librarians in the world, should do research together.

(2) What are the implications for other librarians from the teaching that school librarians give in the subject "Information and Media" as an active information service in order to develop media literacy in schoolchildren?

Shouldn't librarians at public libraries, university librarians, children's librarians and librarians at special libraries offer their users information and media training in the same way as school librarians in the sense of an active information service? How are the area and content of the conveyance of information and media for the training of media and information literacy among users by librarians at public libraries to be assessed? How is it the other way around with university librarians, children's librarians or librarians at special libraries? And where are the differences in the area and content of imparting information skills or in the training methods and strategies between the groups mentioned? It would be important that all librarians in the world research and define these together.

(3) How can school librarians introduce the new subject in each country?

1) Types of curriculum introduction: compulsory or elective

Each country has its own fixed curriculum. Each curriculum is specifically based on the needs and framework conditions of the respective country. When comparing curricula in many countries, there are many subjects in common, such as languages, arts subjects, math, social science subjects, and geography, but there are also many differences that reflect the educational objectives of each country. Even if it is the same subject, there is still a difference whether it is offered as an elective or a compulsory subject. The available lessons can also vary widely. Depending on the level of economic development, the curriculum can be adapted to the respective requirements of industrialized and developing countries. The curriculum mirrors the times. Every country in the world has curricula that, among other factors, prove appropriate in trying to cope with current technological developments. Given the current situation, we librarians should consider whether the subject "information and media" taught by teachers' libraries should be an elective or compulsory subject, and which of the two types seems more appropriate.
Finally, we should consider what number of hours is appropriate. All librarians in the world should seek consensus on these and other issues.

2) Content of the subject "Information and Media"

The subject "Information and Media" consists of content elements from library and information science, teaching technology and media studies.
Content-related elements of the new subject must flow into information literacy theory and teaching theories. We have already examined specific curriculum content; for this reason we want to examine the content elements of each lesson. In the future, content for the development of problem-solving skills, i.e. elements of learning organization theory, futurological methods, etc. should be included in the subject. We, as the world's librarians, should develop an interest in researching these elements of content.

3) The level of the role of the subject teacher for "information and media"

The teacher librarian and the media specialist should become subject teachers for the subject "information and media".
First, we librarians need to turn the school library or media center into a classroom information center. We, the librarians of the world, should examine carefully how we can concretise the role of the "information and media" teacher and in which direction his role should develop. Since the subject "Information and Media" contains academic elements from library / information science and teaching technology, the teacher of "Information and Media" must have completed the basic courses in both fields of study. This means that we teachers of the subject "information and media" ensure that both disciplines are represented together. A typical example is the certificate for media specialists, which is awarded within the framework of the American teacher training system. The training of all school librarians in these two subjects is of worldwide interest, because the teacher of the subject "Information and Media" needs both in his new role if he is to fill them appropriately.

(4) What teaching methods should librarians use?

As already mentioned, the subject "Information and Media" aims to develop information competence, which should enable you to acquire new information on the basis of your own existing knowledge, to solve all information tasks and to create new information.
How can all librarians in the world apply teaching methods to develop information literacy among students / users that are based on the type of library, the content to be conveyed, the administrative organization or the background of the students or users?
An example of such a teaching model, called the "Top Four" approach, is used by teacher-librarians in South Korea as described below.