What are the causes of cancer 3

Cancer: Causes, Symptoms & Diet

How does cancer develop?

The cause of cancer development is genetic. Irreparable damage occurs in the genome. This affects the oncogenes, the tumor suppressor genes and the repair genes. These are also found in healthy cells and are responsible for the growth and maturation of the cells.

Oncogenes promote cell growth; tumor suppressor genes suppress it. If changes (mutations) occur in the genes that are responsible for cell growth and its suppression, the body's repair system normally repairs the damage. If this cannot regulate the damage, a dangerous imbalance occurs. Cell division takes place even if the body does not need any new cells. Uncontrolled growth of cells occurs and, as a result, excess tissue is formed. This shows up as a lump (tumor). This can be benign or malignant. Tumors can develop spontaneously in the course of life, but they can also be inherited. The triggers cannot be precisely determined, but there are a number of things that can lead to mutations and thus to cancer: Smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, excessive exposure to sunlight or infections with some pathogens such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause a Cause cancer. If there is cancer, it can creep in or run quickly and aggressively. There can be years between the development of a single cancer cell and the onset of a detectable cancer disease, which makes treatment even more difficult.

 

What is the difference between benign and malignant tumors?

Whether a tumor is benign or malignant influences the entire course of the disease and the selection of a suitable therapy to combat the disease that is associated with a change in the DNA.

Malignant tumors grow beyond the organs in which they originated. They attack lymphatic or blood vessels and in this way can spread throughout the body, damaging the tissue and causing discomfort. The migrating cancer cells are metastases. The large-scale infestation can already take place if the disease has not yet been determined.

Benign tumors can become very large, but usually do not affect the surrounding tissue and therefore do not form metastases. Their growth in the affected organ can lead to the compression of the surrounding blood vessels and nerves.

Properties of benign tumors

  • slow growth
  • sharp delimitation, do not affect the adjacent tissue
  • no ingrowth in or around the blood vessels
  • no formation of daughter tumors (metastases)
  • mature cells can be seen under the microscope

Properties of malignant tumors

  • grow quickly
  • fuzzy border
  • penetrate blood vessels and spread through them
  • grow indefinitely and destroy the adjacent tissue
  • high relapse rate despite initially successful therapy
  • develop daughter tumors (lead to metastases)
  • the microscope shows that immature cells are forming

What types of cancer are there?

Most common diagnosis in womenMost common diagnosis in men
Breast cancer 30.5%Prostate cancer 23%
Colon cancer 12.3%Lung cancer 13.9%
Lung cancer 8.5%Colon cancer 13.3%
Uterine body cancer 4.7%Bladder cancer 4.7%
Skin cancer 4.5%Skin cancer 4.4%
Pancreatic cancer 3.8%Kidney cancer 3.8%
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 3.5%Gastric cancer 3.7%
Ovarian cancer 3.2%Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 3.7%
Gastric cancer 2.7%Oral and throat cancer 3.7%
Blood cancer / leukemia 2.7%Pancreatic cancer 3.4%
Kidney cancer 2.4%Leukemia 3.1%
Cervical cancer 2.0%Liver cancer 2.6%
Thyroid cancer 1.9%Spice tube cancer 2.2%
Bladder cancer 1.8%Testicular cancer 1.6%
Oral and throat cancer 1.6%Central Nervous System (CNS) cancers 1.6%
Central Nervous System (CNS) cancers 1.4%Multiple myeloma 1.4%
Vulvar cancer 1.4%Throat cancer

Source: Center for Cancer Registry Data (as of December 6, 2017)

There are also cancers that do not start from solid tumors, but rather spread throughout the body from the start. Blood cancer (leukemia) develops from blood cells and lymph gland cancer from cells of the lymphatic system. These types of cancer are also referred to as malignant systemic diseases among medical professionals.

Which symptoms have to be considered when cancer develops?

There are no generally valid initial symptoms for cancer and an associated mutation. Life-threatening cancers usually do not cause any obvious symptoms at the beginning. Noticeable signs only appear at an advanced stage and depend on which organ is affected. This can vary from case to case. Skin cancer changes the skin, including noticeable moles. People who have colon cancer notice bleeding in their stool. Symptoms such as dizziness and headaches can occur with brain tumors, while lung cancer leads to persistent coughing.

Whether these symptoms are signs of cancer, however, can never be said in advance. A number of other causes can also be considered, such as hemorrhoids causing blood in stools or a cough caused by a cold.

So it is important not to panic immediately if you notice symptoms of this kind. The cause can be harmless and treatment can be straightforward. However, it is advisable to have a doctor assess the symptoms, and especially any pain, that may occur. Prevention is extremely important for long-term health. The earlier a doctor determines your disease during an examination, the greater the chances of recovery from cancer and all other possible diseases.

Can the diet promote the development?

In addition to a number of other factors, one cause of cancer can be found in toxins found in food as well as prepared products. Healthy eating is also very important in cancer prevention. Pollutants such as sprays and fertilizers initially create a toxic environment in the intestine. In addition to pathogenic bacteria, fungi and other parasites, cancer cells can also spread in this area and lead to mutations. The pollutants promote dangerous free radicals that can cause massive cell damage. In the worst case, human DNA is damaged, uncontrolled cell division, painful symptoms and thus cancer development. Many people are unaware of what the wrong diet can do to their bodies. It can promote cancer development.

Affected patients must try to restore a healthy intestinal environment. This is part of a comprehensive treatment and requires a consistent change in eating habits. Those affected should refrain from ready meals, fast food, microwave food, animal foods, sugar and white flour products, because a change in the environment is almost impossible through consumption of these foods.

Furthermore, in addition to changing their diet, patients should have their colon cleansed. In an intestine freed from toxins, the number of free radicals is automatically reduced. The cells are protected and the immune system is noticeably relieved.

Which diet can have a positive effect?

The topic of nutrition is very important for cancer patients. The body of affected patients should above all be supplied with foods rich in vital substances. Those affected are advised to plan their diet fresh every day using organic foods. Strong acid-forming foods such as coffee, black tea and alcohol should be removed from the menu. These prevent a positive change in the intestinal environment. Consumption of anti-carcinogenic foods will inhibit the spread of cancer cells. If you have any questions about the special diet for cancer, your doctor can give you more information and advise you in your individual case.

Which diet supports the treatment of cancer and is suitable to prevent cancer from developing?

Cabbage, broccoli and other vegetables from the cruciferous family: You should eat these plants because they are rich in valuable anti-carcinogenic mustard oils.

Green leafy vegetables:The bitter substances and chlorophyll it contains are antioxidant and detoxify the body.

Berry: The high proportion of protective, phytochemicals is very beneficial to the human body in various ways and can be absorbed through berries in everyday food.

Fresh garlic: Garlic contains a substance called allicin. It has antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antifungal effects. It is versatile and can be easily integrated into everyday nutrition.

Turmeric: The active ingredient curcumin is present in the spice. This inhibits the multiplication of cancer cells and can even kill existing cells.

Tomatoes: The contained lycopene has inhibiting properties and can reduce the risk of cancer development.

Green tea: The contained epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has anti-inflammatory, immune-boosting and anti-carcinogenic effects. Not only food, but also the consumption of beverages should be taken into account in a health-conscious diet and the treatment of cancer diseases.

What therapy and treatment is there for cancer?

Cancer therapies are determined individually for affected patients, depending on the form of the disease. These depend, for example, on the type of cancer, the respective symptoms and the severity, location and stage or age of the patient. Furthermore, several coordinated therapies can be used.

Possible treatments when diagnosed with cancer:

Surgery: The tumor and parts of the tissue are removed. In the early stages of cancer, the therapy can be completed with an operation.

Chemotherapy: This form of therapy intervenes in the metabolism of cells and thus prevents cell division and the further growth of the tumor. However, there are a number of side effects, as the drugs used for this purpose cannot differentiate between tumor tissue and healthy cells. However, the normal tissue regenerates again.

Radiotherapy: This measure reduces and slows down the growth of tumor tissue by destroying tumor cells. It is mainly used for breast cancer, one of the most common cancers in women.

Molecular Biological Therapy: This quite new therapeutic approach is also called "targeted therapy". Specific active ingredients can attack the cancer cells.

(Anti) hormone therapy: This form of therapy uses the hormone dependency of affected cells in cancer. It switches off the body's own hormones and thus inhibits the spread of the tumor.

Hyperthermia: The term describes the overheating of the body or individual body parts and is used in addition. It can support the effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

How can I minimize the risk of cancer?

Avoid known risk factors and promote your general health wellbeing. Please note the following:

  • Do not smoke!
  • Keep your normal weight!
  • Exercise daily and stay in shape! Physical activity is the basis of long-lasting health!
  • Eat enough fresh fruit and vegetables!
  • Pay attention to a moderate consumption of alcohol, drink only small amounts on certain occasions!
  • Protect your children and yourself from strong sunlight!
  • Protect yourself from carcinogenic substances!
  • Get vaccinated against hepatitis B!
  • Go to the doctor's regular examinations for the early detection of cancer! Do not ignore possible symptoms!

Further information can be obtained from the German Cancer Research Center.

How can I best make provisions?

Comprehensive cancer screening should be important to every health-conscious person. DFV-AmbulantSchutz pays 100% of your expenses for outpatient check-ups, vaccinations and statutory co-payments. This means that you can have all of the examinations for the early detection of genetic changes carried out by the doctor, even if these are not included in the benefits of your statutory health insurance. Protect yourself against a malignant disease in good time, use medical measures to detect it in good time! If a negative diagnosis is made during the preventive examination, DFV-AmbuantSchutz is at your side with financial support in the product variants Comfort, Premium and Exclusive.