What is considered bad manners in Israel

Remodeled properly

"Knigge spoke to his disciples
You eat chicken with your fingers. "


It cannot be repeated often enough: Adolph Freiherr Knigge never wrote a etiquette. Roasted chickens are not mentioned in his guide "About dealing with people", published in 1788. Courtesy, this important resource for a tolerable coexistence, was only one facet in the broad field of possibilities to assert oneself morally and practically in society. A society that carefully divided etiquette into classes, types and professions. The German philology professor Karl-Heinz Göttert, etiquette biographer and himself author of a "history of decency", explains the principle of the book.

"That is also detailed in chapters, so it is, for example, about dealing with distant people, with superiors or something like that. What do you do with the landlord in the interests of the landlord? You can look up how to deal with lawyers Clergy. "

As well as with courtiers, Jews, servants, women, artists, scholars. But also with children, husbands, friends, women.

"Do not pay homage to several women at the same time, in the same place, in the same way."

"If you want to make yourself popular with booksellers, especially in smaller cities, you don't lend or lend a lot of books and don't set up reading societies."

"Do not stop over anyone's shape, stature and education! It is not within anyone's power to change them."

And the author almost always takes a middle position of the right balance, between formality and naturalness, indulgence and severity, respect and self-confidence. So much common sense naturally produces many timeless sentences:

"Take an interest in others if you want others to be interested in you!"

Very reasonable. However, none of this was new to Knigge's contemporaries; on the contrary, his voluminous work was only the popularized descendant of a whole wave of early pre-psychological treatises. But perhaps Knigge wrote out of a personal motive. Karl-Heinz Göttert:

"Extreme caution. People are dangerous. You have to know them, and from this knowledge you have to deal with them by ultimately avoiding adversity. Basically, it's about these dangers in life, in which you inevitably drown if you are not etiquette or have read etiquette. "

The very young etiquette had already met a downfall, noble, but orphaned and impoverished. As a lawyer in ever new positions, like every citizen he had to take his advancement into his own hands and got to know the importance of an advantageous self-presentation.

"Without condescending to boasting and vile lies, one should not miss the opportunity to show oneself from one's advantageous sides."

He experienced the adversity of life while trying to find a permanent job at some German royal court. The chapter on dealing with the "greats of this earth" is based on my own experience.

"Don't impose yourself on the noble and rich if you don't want to be despised by them!"

The great gentlemen don't do well at Knigge, much less the dodging and arrogant courtiers - but all of this was common property in the late 18th century, shortly before the French Revolution. Knigge, a member of the Order of the Illuminati and committed to the Enlightenment, welcomed the upheaval in the neighboring country, even if his views on women or farmers betray a severely limited understanding of freedom and equality. When Knigge died in 1796, everyone was talking about him as a German Jacobin. Karl-Heinz Göttert:

"The book itself then came into the shadows because it was completely covered up by this political activity. And afterwards it was exactly the opposite, afterwards it was forgotten that Knigge was an alleged revolutionary, and then only the book was on everyone's lips . "

Knigge, the tireless writer, left behind novels, stories, essays, a huge oeuvre that was gradually forgotten in the years of the Restoration. Only "About dealing with people" remained - remodeled from carefree editors to advice on questions of so-called etiquette. Knigge had expressly never wanted to deal with.