What race were Adam and Eve?

Where do the different races come from when all are descended from Adam and Eve?

Since we are all descended from the prophets Adam and Eve, how can it be that people with different skin colors were created differently? Why, for example, black people have seven ribs and we only have six?

As a rule, everyone has twelve pairs of ribs, for a total of twenty-four ribs. But in some people the twelfth pair of ribs is not fully developed. So on one side they would only have eleven pairs and a total of twenty-two. Simply put, this is called an anomaly. A so-called anomaly has nothing to do with a person's race.

For example, it can also happen that in some people the heart is further to the right instead of to the left. Some have two hearts or two bladders. We can also observe something similar in the vertebral bodies. Typically there are four vertebral bodies, but some people can have five vertebral bodies.

This is not about race. The number of ribs in blacks does not make any significant difference in this sense. This is a common condition that can be seen in some people. With this the Almighty shows that He can create everyone as He wants. Normally we shouldn't be surprised by this anomaly, but by the fact that all of our organs function in a very specific order and regularity.

With this anomaly, the Almighty shows us the mystery of the verse
“And He knows about every creation” (Sura al-Yasin 79) that He can create anything as He wants.

O people, We created you from a male and a female being, and We made you peoples and tribes so that you could get to know one another. Certainly the most honored of you with Allah is the most God-fearing of you. Certainly, Allah is All-Knowing and All-Knowing. (Sura al-Ḥuǧurāt 13)

One can answer this question with a counter-question; What is the obstacle to the emergence of the different colors and races from a single ancestor? One can come from an ancestor or be of different colors and races. In fact, these types of questions have less to do with biology. Because a biologist knows that every mother, father, grandmother or grandfather passes on certain characteristic traits to their offspring. These are also known under the name "Mendelian rules". Through these rules that the Almighty has set, a person will, for example, resemble either the father or the mother in terms of size. The probability is fifty-fifty. This or a similar percentage distribution can be seen in almost all characteristics of the individual.

There are some characteristics that their effect on an individual only becomes apparent depending on certain conditions. For example, it is also necessary that night falls in order to be able to see the stars, as the sun would prevent this. Some recessive characteristics are influenced by dominant characteristics. The recessive characteristics will only be able to show their effect when they are no longer under the influence of the dominant characteristics. This may only be possible generations later.

All races today assume a common ancestor. There is no such thing as a pure race. For example, it is possible for an individual with white skin to inherit a trait in their offspring, which then results in dark skin. Or to make it clearer: A child can be born through a Chinese person who has the same light skin color as a person from the Caucasus.

Some even claim that the black race only emerged after adapting to the intense UV rays in the tropics. However, this claim does not explain why fair-skinned people in North and South America who are exposed to the same UV radiation do not adapt in the same way. Recent studies have shown that the gene that determines skin color is inherited.

So you saw in the emergence of the black race that they settled in the areas where the UV radiation would not harm them. On the other hand, the light and blue-eyed Scandinavian breed migrated north to escape the intense UV rays at the equator.

Imagine a closed trunk, i.e. a group that has no contact with the surrounding trunks. Here the genetic characteristics of the tribal members are equal to the sum of the hereditary characteristics. Within certain limits, we can also refer to this region as a “gene pool”. These recessive characteristics that are in this “gene pool” will mix with others after a certain time of hybridization and thus create completely new characteristics.

The emergence of a breed should be viewed from this perspective. It is very likely that the first human Adam also had many characteristics of different colors and races (according to our description today) in his genes. Just like in a gene pool, it had various characteristics. A "sudden" emergence of so many different characters was of course not possible. However, some effects have become apparent over time or with genetic unfolding. The result is today's different individuals.

The verse indicates that God shapes man according to his will and brings him out in various forms.

O man, what has deceived you about your noble Lord, Who created you and made you right and well educated. And put you together in what shape He wanted? (Sura al-Infiṭār 6-8)

In this verse the outward diversity of people is underlined:

And his signs include the creation of the heavens and the earth and (also) the diversity of your languages ​​and colors. Verily in that are signs for those who know. (Sura ar-Rum 22)

According to the testimony of the scholar Abū Mūsā al-Ašʿarī, the Prophet (saas) said the following:

God created (the first man) Adam from a handful of earth He took from all over the world. Therefore Adam's children / people vary just like these soil types. Some are white, others auburn blonde, others black, and still others are a color between these hues. (İbn Kesir, Commentary on the verse Sura ar-Rūm 22)

Selam & Dua
Questionsandislam team