What are human values

Values ​​- attitudes - images of people

Table of Contents

• What are human values?
• What are human attitudes?
• What are human images of humans?
• Summary


  • Values ​​are always learned individually through upbringing, tradition, training and the multitude of human contacts; Values ​​are not innate!
  • Values, or a value system, are a comprehensive, cross-situation concept and a "general guide" of behavior. There are few values ​​of an individual, these are also difficult to change. Therefore, a change in values ​​in the individual and in groups, in society, is only possible slowly and in the long term.
  • An individual value system shapes the perception of the environment, the alternatives and consequences for action and thus the decision-making behavior. However, values ​​are cross-situation and independent of the object.
  • Material values ​​are e.g. security (livelihood, income, threat security) or physiological needs (protection, economic growth, supply)
  • Post-material values ​​(ethical, moral, religious, philosophical) are e.g. self-realization, social and religious needs, family spirit and procreation, ecology
  • For us in Germany, economic growth is an ancient and historical sociological and cultural value. Therefore we do or we would find it difficult to distance ourselves from permanent economic growth premises.
  • attitude

  • Attitudes or attitudes are specifically directed towards certain objects, people or situations; There are many individual settings that can be changed much more easily and quickly than values ​​(e.g. through learning, gaining experience).
  • A person's attitudes, in spite of their possible differences, form a self-contained system (cluster) of thoughts, feelings and presets for action (predisposition).
  • Attitudes have the following components:
    - cognitive (thought)
    - affective (emotional)
    - Action components

    Cognitive attitudes are formed on the basis of knowledge, experience and perception of factual form and details, people and situations. Emotional attitudes are formed through love, respect, hatred, disgust, anger that the object or subject triggers in the individual. Action components are direct effects on action and behavior that are triggered when a person, an object or a situation is perceived.

  • Images of man

    An image of man is a stable, permanent, firmly shaped pattern of perception and values ​​towards people (including oneself). An image of man is shaped by values ​​towards individuals. There are different approaches to classifying human images:

  • traditional
    Man is a product of society - Man as a function in society - Man acts rationally and reasonably (homo oeconomicus)
  • modern
    Man strives for self-realization, autonomy, freedom, recognition
  • personalistic
    Humans behave differently and variably according to perceptions of the environment - humans have different needs, motives, values
  • integrating
    Humans are completely different and these approaches are integrated - the interactions of people, groups, organizations and the environment form the basis of this approach to the human image
  • In summary, the classification of different images of people can also be done as follows:

  • the "Rational economic man" sees the rational being in himself and in fellow human beings.
  • the "Social man" is the image of social cohesion, communication, interaction.
  • the "Self-actualizing man" is the self-motivating, active, autodidactic actor.
  • the "Complex man" sees the differences and variances, is adaptable, adaptable and capable of learning.
  • Summary

    Everyone has values, attitudes and an image of man, otherwise they would not be human. Values ​​depend heavily on upbringing, tradition, belief and role models. Attitudes are a matter of education and experience (but also depend on genetic potential), and you often have these in your own hands. A qualitative assessment is difficult to make, at best philosophically or theologically in good and bad. Thinking about it is interesting and (as elsewhere) absolutely helps. When you say "I think ... I think ...", then it is mostly about attitudes, when you say "I mean ...", then these are opinions, very short-term views about something that can change very quickly.

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