Sunnah prayer is optional

Abdest (Arabic: wudu ’; Persian ābdast, from = "Water", least = "Hand", Turkish: dist) is the small ritual washing in Islam that is used to achieve ritual purity (tahāra) is a duty before performing prayer and before touching the Koran.

Finally, the "Kelime-i Sehadet" (Eschhadu an la ilaha illa llah ve Eschhadu anna Muhammadan rasulu allah) is standing and in the direction of Mecca (German: I testify that there is no deity except God and I testify that Mohammed is God's messenger!) spoken.


SurnametimeSunnah part before FarzFarzteilSunnah part after Farz


Salatu l-fajr, "Morning prayer"

Dawn until just before sunrise2 Raka'ah2 Raka'ah-


Salatu z-Dhuhr, "Midday Prayer"

Zenith of the sun up Asr4 Raka'ah4 Raka'ah2 Raka'ah


Salatu l-Asr, "Afternoon prayer"

See below 14 Raka'ah4 Raka'ah-


Salatu l-Maghrib, "Evening prayer"

Dusk until Isha'a-3 Raka'ah2 Raka'ah


Salatu l-Ischa'a, "Night prayer"

shortly after sunset up Fajr4 Raka'ah4 Raka'ah2 Raka'ah, 3 Witr


If the prayer is traveling, the prayer can be shortened (some raka'ah can be omitted).

1 After Imam Abu Hanifa begins Asrwhen the shadow of an object is twice as long as the body itself. After the other imams begins Asrwhen the shadow is as long as the body itself.

The closing prayer one day should be the so-called Witr-Be a prayer which consists of one, three, five, seven, nine or eleven rak'a consists; it is not considered a religious duty (fard), but for the Hanafis it is considered a wajib (compulsory). In the other schools of law it is considered a Sunna. It is usually done before sleep, but some Muslims do it just before the time for this is up Isha '-Prayer.

The various prayers follow the same sequence of postures and invocations (including the recitation of the first surah of the Koran Al-Fatiha), but these are repeated differently depending on the time of day. A process is called rak'a as a rule, a prayer consists of several such processes.


The times of prayer are as follows:

  1. Fajr: Between dawn and sunrise
  2. Dhuhr: After the sun has passed its zenith, until the shadow of a person has reached the length of his body size (in Arab latitudes; not applicable in this country)
  3. 'Asr: As soon as the shadow of an object is twice as long as the object itself, up to 40 minutes before sunset
  4. Maghrib: From sunset to about an hour and 20 minutes afterwards
  5. Isha ': From the end of the evening prayer until shortly before dawn (before Fajr)


But today there are also Adhan clocks and prayer calendars in which the prayer times are precisely recorded.

Prayer times for Germany can be found here:


Precisely at sunrise, zenith and sunset, prayers are not allowed. The reason for this is to distinguish Islamic prayer from pagan sun worship.

A condition of being able to perform the prayer correctly is the state of "ritual purity" (Arabic: Tahara). For this one performs a ritual washing, the so-called Wudoo ' or Abdest. In addition, you should be in a clean place where the prayer rug is used, which is otherwise not used for anything else. If you don't have a prayer rug on hand, you can use a clean item of clothing (e.g. jacket) or newspaper as a replacement. Another important requirement for prayer is the Arabic: niya,Turkish: niyet ("Intention"), which one must formulate at the beginning of the prayer. Without it, prayer is worthless and little more than physical exercise and not spiritual prayer.

Islamic prayer cannot simply be compared to Christian prayer. Due to its ritual character, it is more of a worship service, and Islam also has a personal form of prayer (Arabic Duā), which, like the Christian one, is a supplication or thanksgiving prayer and is spoken in a free form. This You'a can be said at the end of a ritual prayer and at any time of the day or night.

In Islam it is said that the archangel Gabriel showed the prophet Mohammed the form of prayer, as it has always been practiced by the believers in the world.

From the external point of view, the individual movements in prayer resemble the Arabic letters alif ("Standing") [ا], dal ("Bow") [د] and min the ("Prostration") [م]. Lined up one after the other, these result in the Arabic name of the first Islamic prophet Adam.

Friday prayer has a special role.


The Friday prayer:

The Friday prayer (Arabic: salad al-jumu'a, Turkish: cuma namazi) is an Islamic tradition that is mandatory for Muslim men and boys from puberty and optional for Muslim women.

The prayer that takes place every Friday is the most important of the week and is performed collectively in the mosque. It replaces the midday prayer (dhuhr), differs from this in that it consists of two instead of four ruk'at exists, so it is somewhat shorter and the verses of the Koran are recited aloud by the imam (prayer leader).

The primary peculiarity of the Friday prayer, however, is that a sermon (Arabic: Khutba, Turkish: Hutbe) by the Imam from the pulpit (Arabic: Minbar, Turkish Mimber) is held. Therefore, as Friday mosque (dschami) only designates those mosques which have a pulpit for the Friday sermon and which is of the size required for the number of believers.

The Khutba has the value of half a Friday prayer and is therefore also an obligation for Muslims. The social meaning is similar to going to church on Sundays. The Friday prayer gets its meditative character through its firmly prescribed rules and movements and the recitation of the Koran by the Imam.