What can parents learn from teachers

Prof. Dr. Kurt Singer - guiding principles

1. Expectations from parents and teachers influence children's learning

Parents and educators have conscious and unconscious expectations of children. you promote thus learning or to disturb it. Learning difficulties and school hardships are often related to overwhelming expectations. Schoolchildren come under emotional pressure when they cannot meet the demands of parents and teachers. However, expectations also have a positive effect on learning: the children are challenged to set themselves goals that can be achieved.

2. Positive expectations strengthen self-esteem and performance

It inspires learning when parents give their children something confidence. Students feel they are being taken seriously and in theirs Hope for success encouraged. The incentive only works if the expectations are appropriate to the child's abilities. Parents and teachers should consider: Children can only work well in a hopeful mood. To do this, they need individually achievable learning goals. Confidence also has a healthy effect on body and soul.

3. The “good word” creates a climate of encouraging expectation and encourages children to learn

The appreciative remark makes students aware that they have achieved something and are accepted. That strengthens one's belief in oneself. Parents and teachers shouldn't just have children praisebut look closely and recognizewhat they did. The uplifting word inspires and makes you feel confident. The hopeful expectation arouses learning energy. Students who are recognized for their performance improve their performance. On the other hand, if the criticism continues, the performance drops. The ability to perform is particularly low when children and young people are "overlooked", ie not taken into account.

4. Children are perceived to be supportive with learning reports - digit censoring is a disruptive factor

Word judgment addresses the child attentively as whole Person. It tells him exactly his personal learning progress, shows him where his strengths lie, which weaknesses he has to work on, how teachers can help him to correct deficiencies in learning. The learning-disruptive fear of grades is eliminated. PISA shows that pupils in countries in which there are no grades up to 8th or 10th grade but learning reports achieve better results than those in Germany.

5. Discourage excessive expectations - "He could do more if he wanted"?

When children are pressured by expectations that are too high, there is fear of failure and failure. The children get depressed because they like to do more want, but not can. The tense overburdening blocks learning, because in a fearful mood children often only achieve half as much as in an encouraging learning environment. The sentence “You could if you wanted” has already made some students desperate.

6. Expectation pressure can make you mentally and psychosomatically sick

The pressure of expectations can cause mental and psychosomatic disorders in children and adolescents: anxiety and insomnia, stomach ache, headache, poor concentration and refusal to learn, teeth grinding, nail biting, wetting, high blood pressure and muscle tension. These symptoms express the constant tension that is no longer mentally manageable. The mental Tension turns into physical Pain.

7. Conscious and unconscious expectation fantasies of the parents can be helpful or a hindrance

Parents sometimes assign roles to children without realizing it; they want to use it to realize their own unfulfilled wishes. The child should become a parental image: “It has to be like me”, fulfill parental ideals: “It should achieve what I have not managed”, correct the parental life story: “She should have it better one day.” - If parents do Consciously perceiving expectant fantasies, they do not unconsciously distort the relationship with the children. Remembering your own childhood helps you to empathize with yourself and with children.

8. The role assigned to the child can be a burden and disrupt his or her personal development

Parental expectations are normal; they promote development when they correspond to the child's reality. However, if they bring the child to the Fulfillers of parental ideals do, or if the child is to raise the self-esteem of the parents through success, that means a heavy burden for children. Expectations occasionally arise from an unsatisfactory life situation of the parents. This is why it is important as a mother and father to ask yourself: Am I satisfied with my life? - If the adults realize their own wishes in life, this relieves the relationship with the children.

9. "You shouldn't make a picture" - perceive young people in their uniqueness

Parents and teachers should not have negative prejudices; because these limit the children's development. It applies that personal possibilities the child to find out to follow his spontaneous learning development. Instead of “educating”, they create one "Helping relationship". This does not prescribe, but discovers and supports the child's abilities.

10. Teachers' expectations: Expected proficiency can make one more proficient

Studies have shown that teachers who expect students to have “good intelligence” make them their own Increase performance. The children do not change their intelligence, but they use it to the full. In contrast, when the teacher expects “poor intelligence”, performance is reduced. The expectation with which teachers approach them can be fateful for students. Positive prejudices encourage children.

11. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy - Prediction shapes educational behavior

The following phenomenon has been summarized under the term “self-fulfilling-prophecy”: Through the image that parents, educators and teachers of children, they reinforce the behavior that they expect. They steer the child in the expected direction. It comes to "Self-fulfilling prophecy": Parents and teachers predict something that they think will happen. By their expectation, they behave in such a way that the prediction can become real.

12. Tactical and careful interaction with children creates a learning climate of positive expectation

With tactful parenting and teacher behavior, children can be sure that they will never be exposed, laughed at, and not unexpectedly called up and questioned. Students are not put to shame, grades and mistakes are not disclosed publicly; Corrections are made carefully so as not to devalue student work. Tactful parents and teachers avoid pointing out weaknesses of young people in front of others, insulting children with irony or ridicule.

13. Error-friendliness, a learning principle - learn from mistakes instead of devaluing children

The expectation of having to do everything right can create anxious tension in children. The joy of learning is lost when parents and teachers fight failure like an enemy. Error-friendliness is a teaching principle that supports children in thinking and in their creative imagination. Errors are not chalked up - possibly as a red battlefield in the student's exercise book. They are used as an opportunity to learn from mistakes instead of judging or judging children. Failures are necessary for development; if you don't try anything, you won't make mistakes. From the mistakes the adults see where the children stand and how they can help them further.

14. Confident expectations should be an educational imperative for parents and teachers

Because we never know for sure which abilities can develop in the child, the pedagogical imperative is: “Always act as if your child could become more than it just seems.” We should give the students - apart from the basic knowledge - many learning opportunities offer to see what they can train according to their person. The child needs challenges that he can overcome and participate in Develop strength can. Pampering educator behavior makes me weak, letting children do everything they can makes them disoriented and insecure.

15. Helping children learn - a prerequisite for learning confidence and continued success

Nothing spurs children on in their will to learn more than a successful achievement. Parents and teachers shouldn't be performance all the time measure upbut performance enable: by individual Requirements that make the learning objective achievable. Not all children have to learn the same thing, but every child does what they can. At the end of their study, students should recognize, "I've learned something." The satisfying feeling of having understood something stimulates further learning.

16. Learning is not possible without compulsion - practice work discipline and good learning habits

In order to strengthen the will to learn, we must also encourage children to learn “against the grain”. Coercion to support the ego should be understandable for the students, then it can stimulate their motivation to learn. It's not about suppressing or devaluing children, but rather letting them experience: I managed that, although it was difficult for me. You will be strengthened to overcome the inner resistance and thus experience to cope with a task. Learning should be fun, but learning without pleasure is also necessary; it strengthens children's willingness to make an effort. Good work discipline and good study habits make life easier for the child.

17. Arousing interest and discovering personal inclinations - Education: In search of knowledge

Children who are interested in learning not only prefer to learn, but also achieve more. Parents and teachers should look after children's interests, follow them and arouse interest. If we manage to interest students, we create an important basis for learning. It is one of the worst things school can do when the interest in learning wanes over the course of the school year. There is no education without interest. The educated person is a person who keeps his curiosity awake, preserves his responsiveness to the unknown. He remains on the search for knowledge and new experiences.

18. As parents, being interested in the learning of young people - taking part

Mothers and fathers should be interested in what children learn in class; not questioning and controlling, but sympathizing: through attentive accompaniment of the school work, through the encouraging word, perceiving the learning progress and allowing the children to experience that the children have made progress: by talking to one another about what they have learned, through help, if they can Child feels helpless by also accepting extracurricular activities.

19. School and family can create a climate of positive expectation

  • Require individual talents, talents and personality traits different service offers. Through differentiated teaching, children can experience success according to their learning ability, which makes them confident and ready to learn. Not everyone learns the same thing, but everyone learns what is attainable for them and experiences success with it.

  • In versatile Teacher-student contacts and in the parent-child relationship, teachers and parents get to know the children - not just as students, but with their whole person. You will discover individual systems.

  • Children and teachers need small classes with 15 to 20 students. Only in manageable learning groups is it possible to build up a helping pedagogical relationship in which teachers can respond to the individual nature of each student and act as learning helpers.

  • The collaboration between Parents, teachers and students In individual and group discussions, at parents' evenings, at joint events, in parent-teacher groups, it makes it easier to get to know children and to develop understanding for themselves.

  • in the interest-based teaching students develop personal inclinations. They experience learning as interesting and thereby increase their willingness to learn. Those who learn out of interest not only prefer to learn, but also achieve more. Not only school subjects count, but also areas of study that adolescents choose for personal reasons.

  • The individual performance assessment leaves children theirs personal learning progress experience - instead of the rivalry-oriented grades. For many children, digit notes represent threat, discouragement, humiliation, and determination. They have to be abolished by at least the sixth grade.

  • Children need a learning situation in which they can make mistakes. Error friendliness is a prerequisite for a climate of positive expectation. The mistake is not used for judgment or judgment, but for determined further learning. Mistakes are seen as a learning experience that helps.

  • By self-determined learning In open lessons and in free work, children experience their own activities and special abilities. Instead of the fanned-out lessons, which are chopped up into 45-minute hours, there is holistic learning with partners, small group work, group discussions and project teaching.

  • Children should learn in a targeted manner allowed: Every child can in his Working pace, in his Learn the learning style until it has reached the achievable goal. School should discover performance opportunities for children and take up possible developments.

  • One-sided theoretical instruction must be in favor practical action be overcome so that those children are not disadvantaged who are more likely to practical learning tend.

  • Children should as long as possible - at least until the 6th school year - learn together. Early selection reduces development opportunities, it is associated with learning-disruptive separation situations. Not only the gifted should be encouraged, but also the less gifted should be supported.

20. Affirming childhood as the now valid way of life - the right to be a child

Childhood must not be “the practice of the adult struggle for life”. Rather, we have to accept the “here and now” of the respective age group. The today's The child's happiness is decisive for his future. The now Developed ego strength is more important than the question of what it is later needs. At no cost must parents and teachers sacrifice the children's present to some future through their expectations.