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Surat - Surat

Metropolis in Gujarat, India
Metropolis in Gujarat, India

From above: Tapi river panorama, Vesu skyline, Surat airport, Surat aerial view
Nickname (s):
Coordinates: 21 ° 10'12.864 "N 72 ° 49'51.819" E /. 21.17024000 ° N 72.83106083 ° E. / 21.17024000; 72.83106083 Coordinates: 21 ° 10'12.864 "N 72 ° 49'51.819" E. /. 21.17024000 ° N 72.83106083 ° E. / 21.17024000; 72.83106083
country India
Status Gujarat
circle Surat
Zone 7
government
• Art Mayor Council
• Body
• Mayor Hemali Boghawala (BJP)
• Community Commissioner Shri Banchhanidhi Pani, IAS
• Police Commissioner RB Brahmbhatt, IPS
Area
• A total of 474.185 km 2 (183,084 sq mi)
elevation 13 m
population
• A total of 6.176.000
• Rank 1. in Gujarat
• Density 13,000 / km 2 (34,000 / sq mi)
• Subway rank 9 ..
• Demonym Surati
Time zone UTC + 5: 30 (IST)
PIN code (s)
Area code (s) 91-261-XXX-XXXX
Vehicle registration GJ-05, GJ-19, GJ-28
Gender ratio 1,27 ♂ / ♀
coast 35 kilometers
Literacy level 86,65%
language Gujarati
website www .suratmunicipal .gov .in https://surat.nic.in/

Surat is a city in the western Indian state of Gujarat. Located at the mouth of the Tapti River, it used to be a large seaport. It is now the commercial and economic center in South Gujarat and one of the largest urban areas in West India. It has a well-established diamond and textile industry and is a clothing and accessories mall. It is the second largest city in Gujarat after Ahmedabad and the eighth largest city by population and the ninth largest urban agglomeration in India. It is the administrative capital of the Surat District. The city is located 284 kilometers south of the state capital Gandhinagar. 265 kilometers south of Ahmedabad; and 289 kilometers north of Mumbai. The city center is located on the Tapti River near the Arabian Sea.

According to a study by the Economic Times, Surat will be the fastest growing city in the world from 2019 to 2035. The city recorded an annualized GDP growth rate of 11.5% for the seven fiscal years between 2001 and 2008. Surat was named "Best City" in 2013 by the annual Indian Urban Systems Survey (ASICS). Surat is selected as the first smart IT city in India, comprised of the Microsoft CityNext initiative working with IT service majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro. The city has 2.97 million internet users, about 65% of the total population. Surat was selected for an IBM Smarter Cities Challenge scholarship in 2015. Surat was selected as one of twenty Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.

According to Swachh Survekshan 2020, Surat is the second cleanest city in India on August 20 from August 21, 2020. It suffered a major pipeline fire that caused some damage.

Surat, famous for its diamond cutting and polishing, is as Diamond City of India known . The city has various machine factories such as Essar, Larsen and Toubro and RIL. Surat won the Netexplo Smart Cities Award 2019 with UNESCO in the resilience category. The Mayor of Surat will receive the award next March at the UNESCO home in Paris, France.

etymology

Surat was founded by a man named Gopi who named the area Surajpur or Suryapur. Duarte Barbosa described Surat as a Suratt. Jacob Peeters called Surat Sourratte, a Dutch name. There are many other names of Surat in history. Surat is referred to in some literature as Surrat, Surate or Thrushat.

history

Surat Dutch-Armenian Cemetery

In the 12th and 15th centuries, Surat was ruled by Muslims. In 1514, the Portuguese traveler Duarte Barbosa described Surat as an important seaport frequented by many ships from Malabar and various parts of the world. By 1520 the name of the city became Surat. It was burned by the Portuguese (1512 and 1530) and conquered by the Mughals (1573) and ambushed twice by the Maratha king Shivaji (17th century).

It was the wealthiest port in the Mughal Empire. Although Surat was a wealthy town, it looked like a typical "dingy" merchant town with mud and bamboo dwellings and crooked streets, although there were some mansions and warehouses of the local trade princes and Turkish-Armenian institutions, English, French and Dutch, on the riverside Dealers. There were also hospitals for cows, horses, flies, and insects run by religious Jains, confusing travelers. Some streets were narrow while others were wide enough. In the evening, especially near the bazaar (market square), the streets were full of people and merchants (including banyan merchants) selling their wares. Surat was a heavily populated city during the Mughal period, but it also had a large temporary population: during the monsoon season, when ships could come and go safely from the ports, the city's population swelled. In 1612 England established its first Indian trading factory in Surat. The city was sacked twice by the Maratha King Shivaji, the first being sacked in 1664. Shivaji's raids deterred trade and wreaked havoc in the city.

Surat later became the trading center of India, exporting gold and cloth. The main industries were shipbuilding and textile manufacture. The coast of the Tapti River from Athwalines to Dumas was specially designed for shipbuilders who were usually racers. The city continued to be prosperous until the rise of Bombay (now Mumbai). After that, the shipbuilding industry in Surat declined and Surat itself gradually declined over the course of the 18th century. In the years 1790-1791, an epidemic killed 100,000 Gujaratis in Surat. The British and Dutch both claimed control of the city, but in 1800 the British took control of Surat.

By the middle of the 19th century, Surat had become a stagnant city with around 80,000 inhabitants. When India's railways opened, the city began to thrive again. Silk, cotton, brocade, and gold and silver items from Surat became famous and the ancient art of making fine muslin was revived.

Geography

Surat is a port city on the banks of the Tapi River. When the Tapi were dammed up, the original port facilities were closed. The closest port is now in the Magadalla area and Hazira in the Surat metropolitan area. It has a famous beach called "Dumas Beach" in Hazira. The city is at 21 ° 10'N 72 ° 50'E /. 21.17 ° N, 72.83 ° O. / 21.17; 72.83. It has an average height of 13 meters. The Surat district is surrounded by Bharuch, Narmada and Navsari. To the west is the Gulf of Cambay and the surrounding counties. The climate is tropical and there is plenty of monsoon rains (around 2,500 mm per year). According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the city falls below seismic zone III on a scale from I to V (in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes).

climate

Surat has a tropical savannah climate (Köppen: Aw), which is strongly moderated from the sea to the Gulf of Camboy. Summer starts at the beginning of March and lasts until June. April and May are the hottest months. The average maximum temperature is 37 ° C. The monsoons begin in late June and the city receives around 1,200 millimeters of rain through late September, with the average maximum during these months being 32 ° C. In October and November the monsoons recede and the high temperatures return by the end of November. Winter begins in December and ends at the end of February with average average temperatures of around 23 ° C and negligible rain.

Surat has seen around 20 floods since the 20th century. In 1968 most parts of the city were flooded, and in 1994 a flood caused a nationwide disease outbreak, with Surat being the epicenter. In 1998, 30 percent of Surat was submerged due to flooding in the Tapti River after water was released from the Ukai Dam, 90 km from Surat. In August 2006, more than 95 percent of the city was under the water of the Tapti River, killing more than 120 people who stranded tens of thousands in their homes with no food or electricity, and closed shops and schools for weeks.

Climate data for Surat, Gujarat (1981-2010, Extreme 1877-2012)
month Jan. Feb To damage Apr Can Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 38,3
(100,9)
41,7
(107,1)
44,0
(111,2)
45,6
(114,1)
45,6
(114,1)
45,6
(114,1)
38,9
(102,0)
37,2
(99,0)
41,1
(106,0)
41,4
(106,5)
39,4
(102,9)
38,9
(102,0)
45,6
(114,1)
Average high ° C (° F) 30,8
(87,4)
32,3
(90,1)
35,4
(95,7)
36,7
(98,1)
35,8
(96,4)
34,0
(93,2)
31,2
(88,2)
30,8
(87,4)
32,3
(90,1)
35,1
(95,2)
34,1
(93,4)
31,9
(89,4)
33,4
(92,1)
Average low ° C (° F) 15,2
(59,4)
16,7
(62,1)
20,7
(69,3)
24,0
(75,2)
26,8
(80,2)
27,0
(80,6)
25,9
(78,6)
25,5
(77,9)
25,4
(77,7)
23,3
(73,9)
19,6
(67,3)
16,5
(61,7)
22,2
(72,0)
Record low ° C (° F) 4,4
(39,9)
5,6
(42,1)
8,9
(48,0)
15,0
(59,0)
19,4
(66,9)
20,2
(68,4)
19,9
(67,8)
21,0
(69,8)
20,6
(69,1)
14,4
(57,9)
10,6
(51,1)
6,7
(44,1)
4,4
(39,9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1,5
(0,06)
0,3
(0,01)
0,4
(0,02)
0,2
(0,01)
3,9
(0,15)
245,2
(9,65)
466,3
(18,36)
283,8
(11,17)
151,8
(5,98)
41,8
(1,65)
7,1
(0,28)
0,6
(0,02)
1,202,8
(47,35)
Average rainy days 0,1 0,1 0.0 0.0 0,3 7.0 14.6 12.7 6.7 1.7 0,5 0.0 43.8
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 ACTUAL) 41 34 33 42 58 70 80 79 70 52 44 43 53
Source: India Meteorological Department

economy

Map of the economic centers and industries of Metropolitan Surat

Surat ranked 9th in India with a GDP of 2.60 lakh crore in fiscal 2016 ($ 40 billion in 2016). Surat's GDP in 2020 is estimated at around $ 57 billion by the City Mayors Foundation, an international think tank on urban affairs. [3]

Diamond polishing

Surat is an important hub for diamond cutting and polishing. The first diamond workshops in Gujarat appeared in Surat and Navasari in the late 1950s. The main group in this industry are people from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Due to the demand in the American market from the early 1970s to the mid 1980s (with only a brief recession in 1979), the diamond industry in Surat grew tremendously. Currently, most of the diamond polishing workshops are held in the Varachha area of ​​Surat, mostly by people from the Patel community.

Globally, 8 out of 10 diamonds on the market in Surat have been cut and polished. This industry earns India around $ 10 billion in annual exports. This decreased by around 18% in 2019 due to lower demand for diamonds. The decline continued in 2020 when the industry closed for a few months due to the COVID-19 pandemic in India.

It was a legacy of old Dutch trade ties and began after a Surti entrepreneur returned from East Africa and brought diamond cutters with him. The rough diamonds are mined in South Africa and other regions of the African continent and from here they reach Antwerp, Belgium as smooth gemstones, where the international diamond trade is mainly carried out by Hasidic Jews and Jains from Palanpur in northern Gujarat.

textiles

Surat's textile district ring road

Since Surat is known for the production of textiles, including silk, it is known as the nation's textile center or the silk city of India. It is very famous for its cotton mills and surat zari craft. Surat is the largest center for MMF (chemical fiber) in India. It has a total of 381 dyeing and printing plants and 41,100 weaving machines. In total there are over a hundred thousand units and mills. The total annual turnover is around 5 billion rupees. There are over 800 cloth wholesalers in Surat. It is the largest clothing manufacturer in India, and Surti clothing material is available in every state in India. Surat produces 9 million meters of fabric annually, which is 60% of all polyester fabric production in India. Now the city is focused on increasing exports of its textiles.

Information technology

There are many domestic IT companies for SMEs in Surat. MNC IT companies such as IBM, HCL have satellite or virtual branches in Surat. On February 14, 2014, the government of Gujarat DST STPI Surat on Bhestan-Jiav Road in Bhestan near the BRTS route Udhana-Sachin.

Surat City Council will call for an Information Technology (IT) Hub and Indian Information Technology Institute (IIIT) to be set up on the outskirts of the city.

The Microsoft CityNext initiative has teamed up with IT service majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro to leverage technologies for the sustainable growth of cities in India. The first intelligent IT city in India is founded by the Microsoft CityNext initiative in Surat, Gujarat. In 2011, Surat hosted India's first Microsoft DreamSpark Yatra (a technical event) with speakers from Microsoft's headquarters in Redmond, Washington. The event was organized by ex-Microsoft student partner Samarth Zankharia.

In May 2015, tech giant IBM selected Surat for its Smart Cities program from 16 locations around the world to address challenges such as waste management, disaster management and citizen services. As part of the program, IBM will send a team of experts to each of the cities selected, where they will work closely with city officials for three weeks to analyze data on critical issues faced by local authorities. The collaboration continued until 2016.

Diamond Research and Trade City (TRAUM)

Rough diamonds are checked for quality

The Gujarat government is planning another project near Surat that will resemble Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT). The Chief Minister has suggested that the government would like to develop DREAM to include a five-seven-star hotel, bank, IT, business trading house, entertainment zone and other facilities while the Surat Diamond Bourse (SBD ) will be based there. Allocation of Khajod land for the project is beneficial for the state government as it has 810 hectares of available land. The trade center near the village of Sarsana will have a pillarless, air-conditioned hall with an area of ​​100,160 square meters and a pillarless dome measuring 90 by 35 meters.

transport

Built in 1860, Surat Station is under the administrative control of the Indian Railways Western Railway Zone. In early 2016, Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation rated the facility as the best large station in India for its cleanliness.

The Sitilink or Surat BRTS is a rapid transit bus system in the city. Initiated by Bharat Shah, an additional urban engineer from Surat Municipal Corporation. It is operated by the Surat Municipal Corporation and, as of August 2017, had a network of 245 buses connecting key locations.

Surat International Airport is located in Magdalla, 11 kilometers southwest of Surat. It is the second busiest airport in Gujarat in terms of both flight and passenger traffic. Currently, airlines such as Air India, Alliance Air, AirAsia India, SpiceJet, IndiGo Airlines, Air Odisha and Ventura AirConnect offer flight services from Surat to various major cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Goa, USA. Jaipur, Visakhapatnam. There are also international flights for the Sharjah route operated by Air India Express. In addition to the capital, Surat Airport also serves various locations in South Gujarat, including Navsari, Bardoli, Valsad, Bharuch and Ankleshwar.

Surat Metro is a rapid transit system under construction for the city.

Civil institutions

The Surat Municipal Corporation is responsible for the maintenance of the city's urban infrastructure and for the performance of related administrative tasks. Currently, the BJP is the ruling party with a majority. Under the provisions of the Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporations Act of 1949, Section 4, powers have been delegated to three separate statutory agencies: the Board of Directors, the Standing Committee, and the Commissioner. It ranked 7th out of 21 cities for Best Administrative Practices in India in 2014. It reached 3.5 to 10 compared to the national average of 3.3. It is the only city in India that publishes municipal budgets on a weekly basis.

Science center

Science center and science museum

Surat Science Center is a multi-facility complex built by Surat Municipal Corporation in 2009 and the first of its kind in the West Indies. The complex houses a science center, museum, art gallery, auditorium, amphitheater and planetarium.

Pandit Dindayal Upadhyay indoor stadium

Pandit DinDayal Upadhyay Indoor Stadium, Surat

With a capacity of 6,800 seats, the Pandit Dindayal Upadhyay Indoor Stadium is the first of its kind in the western region of India. The stadium often organizes national and international indoor games such as volleyball, table tennis, gymnastics, handball, boxing, wrestling, badminton, basketball and tennis. It has a central arena measuring 63 x 33 m, rooms for participants and team officials, and other important facilities, including snack bars. This is also a suitable place for organizing cultural programs, music concerts, theater, fashion shows, seminars, conferences and much more. TEDxSurat 2018, the largest TEDx conference in Gujarat and one of the largest TEDx conferences in the world, also took place in the indoor stadium on October 7, 2018.

Lalbhai Contractor Cricket Stadium

The Lalbhai contractor's cricket stadium has a capacity of more than 7,000 and has hosted several Ranji, Irani and Duleep Trophy games. The stadium also serves as a primary destination for aspiring cricketers and enthusiasts. The stadium has also hosted several charity matches for international cricketers.

public safety

Surat started the "Safe City Project" in 2011 to ensure the safety of the city with the help of surveillance cameras. The project was led by Sanjay Srivastava (IPS), who was the joint commissioner of the Surat police at the time. Considered the largest surveillance screen in the country, the 280-square-meter video wall will be installed in Police Commissioner Rakesh Asthana's (IPS) control room. This way, the police can follow the entire city live with 10,000 CCTV cameras across the city. Surat Police have decided to install 5,000 surveillance cameras in sensitive areas across the city. While 1,000 cameras will be night vision cameras, 4,000 other will be simple CCTV cameras. This was installed on a PPP basis with the help of the city business people, city social figures, Surat Municipal Corporation and Surat City Police.

Demographics

Surat population growth
census population % ±
1871 107,100
1881 109.800 2,5%
1891 109.200 –0,5%
1901 119.300 9,2%
1911 114.900 -3,7%
1921 117.400 2,2%
1931 98.900 –15,8%
1941 171.400 73,3%
1951 223.200 30,2%
1961 288.000 29,0%
1971 492.700 71,1%
1981 912.600 85,2%
1991 1.519.000 66,4%
2001 2,811,614 85,1%
2011 4,591,246 63,3%
Source:

A resident of Surat is called Surati . According to the 2011 census of India, Surat has a population of 4,467,797. Surat has an average literacy rate of 89%, which is above the national average of 79.5%, the male literacy rate is 93% and the female literacy rate is 84%.

Men make up 53% of the population and women 47%. In Surat, 13% of the population is under 6 years old.

education

Universities

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology in Surat is one of 31 National Institutes of Technology recognized by the Government of India as Institutes of National Importance. The Indian Institute of Information Technology in Surat was founded in 2017.

Most regional universities are affiliated with Veer Narmad South Gujarat University (VNSGU, named after the poet Veer Narmad), which is headquartered in the metropolitan area of ​​Surat. The colleges are also affiliated with SNDT, Gujarat Technological University, and other universities. Government Medical College in Surat is a more than 50 year old medical school with an annual admissions capacity of 250 students and an affiliated tertiary care hospital, New Civil Hospital. The Surat Municipal Institute for Medical Education and Research (SMIMER) is a municipal medical college affiliated with Veer Narmad South Gujarat University. Auro University has also started offering education in Surat.

Culture

eat

Known for its food, Surat has its own list of prized street foods. There is a famous saying in Gujarati language "સુરતનું જમણ અને કાશીનું મરણ" which " Eating in Surat "and" Dying in Kashi "mean for the ultimate experience of the soul .

Surat's unique dishes include Locho, Ghari (sweet), Surti Bhusu, Alupuri, Kavsa, Ponk, Undhiyu, Dhokla, Khaman, Sev Khamani and so on.

The love of food in Surat is so great that there is an alley called "Khaudra gali". This means that the gourmet alley all has stalls with different types of dishes which are Mysore Dosa.

Surat in literature

People

  • Abbas-Mustan, Bollywood directors
  • Hashim Amla, South African cricketer
  • Henry Barnes-Lawrence (1815-1896), Anglican clergyman and founder of the Association for the Protection of Sea Birds
  • Kiransinh Chauhan, Gujarati poet and screenwriter
  • Abdulgani Dahiwala, poet from Gujarati
  • Ismail Darbar, Bollywood composer
  • Freddy Daruwala, Bollywood actor
  • Harmeet Desai, table tennis player
  • Prachi Desai, actress in Bollywood
  • Savji Dholakia, an Indian businessman. He is the founder and chairman of Hari Krishna Export.
  • Pratik Gandhi, Bollywood actor
  • Yazdi Karanjia, theater person - known as one of the doyen of the Parsi theater
  • Sanjeev Kumar (real name Haribhai Jariwala), film actor
  • Mareez, Gujarati poet of the 20th century, popular for his ghazals
  • Narmad, Gujarati poet, playwright, essayist, public speaker, lexicographer and reformer under the British Raj
  • Dhwanil Parekh, Gujarati poet of the 20th century
  • Hardik Pandya, Indian international cricketer
  • Laljibhai Patel, an Indian Diamantaire and philanthropic social activist, the chairman of Dharmanandan Diamonds Pvt. Ltd. Ltd. (DDPL)
  • Hendrik van Rheede (1636–1691), Dutch botanist and colonial administrator. He died on the coast of Mumbai and was buried in the Dutch cemetery in Surat.
  • Mufaddal Saifuddin religious leader of the Dawoodi Bohra
  • Gunvant Shah, educator and columnist
  • Bhagwatikumar Sharma, author and journalist
  • Farooq Sheikh, actor and television presenter
  • Naval Tata, former chairman of the Tata Group
  • Virji Vora, businessman known as the "trade prince" during the Mughal era

See also

References

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Surat.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Surat .