How do I sell to large retailers

Wholesaler Retailer End customer, who is allowed to sell to whom?

Hello :)

A couple of friends and I recently discussed what is legal and what is not.

For example, it was about:

-A person buys goods from a wholesaler (you can only buy there with a trade license) -This person then sells these goods privately (without VAT) e.g. on Ebay or to friends or without profit.

That should be illegal, right? On the other hand, the tax office never gets something like that - or is the commercial purchase recorded somewhere?

In the same breath we were also a little irritated about VAT.

For example, if a company manufactures washing machines and sells them to a wholesaler -> Does the company have to charge VAT?

If the wholesaler sells the washing machine to a store-> Does the wholesaler also have to charge VAT?

If the shop sells the washing machine to an end customer (private) -> VAT is then incurred there - As you always see on the receipts: D

The consideration then is ... How can a store, for example, survive when it has such strong competition on the Internet and already has to drop 19% VAT on its products? If a wholesaler would also sell his goods, he would have at least a price that is 19% lower than a shop o.O.