What is the poorest city in Bangladesh
Country Profiles Migration: Data - History - Politics
Dr. Benjamin Etzold is a research associate at the Geographical Institute of the University of Bonn. He did his doctorate on street trade in the megacity of Dhaka and was involved in a research project on climate change, hunger and migration in Bangladesh. His main research interests include geographic migration and development research with a focus on social vulnerability and working conditions. Email: [email protected]
The growth of the clothing industry has contributed to the increase in internal migration in Bangladesh. The production and export of textiles began in the 1980s and has since fundamentally changed Bangladesh's role in the global economy. While around 120,000 people were employed in 380 textile factories in 1985, in 2000 there were already 1.6 million workers in 3,200 factories and in 2014 even 4 million workers who were employed in 4,200 textile factories . The boom in this branch of industry also led to social changes, as young women from rural areas who had not migrated in large numbers until then could now earn their own livelihood by working in factories in Bangladesh's cities . The clothing factories are mainly located in and in the immediate vicinity of the state capital, which has contributed significantly to the growth of both the economy and the population of the megacity Dhaka (see Table 6). Other large cities could not keep up with the massive population growth of Dhaka. Chittagong, for example, once the most important port city in Bangladesh, has not only lost economic importance; their share of the country's urban population has also decreased significantly.
There are many reasons for an increase in internal migration within Bangladesh: People are mobile in order to earn the extra money they need to meet their families' daily needs. By taking up work elsewhere, they try to overcome existential crises such as hunger in the time before the rice harvest ("Monga"), to better spread risks and to cushion shocks such as crop failures. And with better education or a better job in the city, people are investing in their own future. Different migration systems therefore exist side by side: permanent rural-urban and urban-urban migration, temporary migration to the cities of the country and seasonal work migrations to agricultural regions. Access to migration opportunities and choice of destination reflect patterns of social inequality: Members from affluent households move to urban areas for secure jobs in formal economic sectors or to study at university. The rural "middle class" and "lower class" either move to Dhaka to work in the clothing industry, construction or informal economic sectors, or move temporarily to other rural regions to work as harvest workers. The poorest people in Bangladesh often cannot afford the initial investments required to migrate. In addition, they do not have access to the relevant networks and in some cases they are not even in the physical condition to move within the country. Because of their regional ties, they remain "trapped" in poverty .
This text is part of the country profile for Bangladesh.
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