What do ordinary Chinese think about Islam?

From Chinese Islam


[178]

The world of Islam, Volume I 1913, Issue 3/4

"Chinese Islam" should be spoken of here. Not from “Islam in China”. He closed the Muslims of Hsin-chiang, the "new frontier", i.e. H. the province of Chinese Turkestan, in itself. They are Turks. These are Muslims, the Chinese are by language and way of thinking.

I gave a brief overview of Chinese Islam in the article "China" in the Encyclopedia of Islam I, 875-890. This work is divided into a geographical-historical part and a sociological part, in which I arranged the activities of the Chinese Muslims according to the group-forming moments in sex life, ethnic life, economic life, imaginary life and state life. Much new material has arisen since the writing of that article, especially for the representation of the life of the imagination. I am giving a revision of the section about it after the studies on which my short lecture at the religious congress in Leiden 1912 was based on "Religious movements in Chinese Islam" (for a short excerpt see Theol. Lit. Zeitung 1912, Sp. 699 f.) , and after the preparatory work for my work “On the History of Islam in China” (in the series “Sources and research on geography and culture” published by R. Stübe, under the press). For this particular section, "On the History of the Religious Life of Chinese Muslims," ​​I will precede a historical overview.

I. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW. STATISTICS.

There is no definite news about the intrusion of Islam into China. The otherwise so talkative national Chinese chronicles, which zealously report on Buddhism and Christianity, speak little of Muslims. This has to do with the fact that the chronicles know almost only about the "great men" who are easily graspable values ​​and can easily be stretched into giants for good or bad, while the quieter movements escape them. As for the tradition of the Muslims of China themselves about the first touches [179] reports, is worthless and misleading, even if it is present in numerous stone monuments. She operates with the well-known comrade of the Prophet Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas, whom she makes the mother brother of Mohammed, and whose grave she worships in Canton, although this man never came to China 1 In addition, there is a tradition of Islam entering China on land via Hami (Qumul) by Muslim messengers and the replacement of 3,000 Arab and Chinese warriors, following a dream of Emperor T’ai-tsung (627 to 650). The legends are compiled by Thiersant and, more critically, by Devéria, Origine. The oldest monument about the beginnings of Islam in China, to which the legends perhaps go back, is a stele in the main mosque of Singanfu. i. after Broomhall p. 86 in the year 742. Then Islam became known in China under the emperor Kai-Hoang of the Sui dynasty (581-601). The inscription is only a copy or, more correctly, a free adaptation of the original, made during one of the repairs to the mosque, perhaps in 1315 by Sai Tien-ch’e (Saijidi Edschell). Not much better than the Sino-Islamic tradition is that of the official Chinese sources as found in the dynasty books. They, too, are interspersed with legendary motifs and above all influenced by national arrogance and the well-known Chinese lack of criticism. However, because of some geographic and linguistic data, they must not be ignored. Above all, I mention the fact that in all of the older Chinese literature, Muslims exclusively as ta-shih are designated, d. H. as Tajik (tāğik is the Middle Persian form of New Persian tāzī; it is the Iranization of Aramaic taijājē, actually "Arabs from the" Tai "tribe; The change in meaning can be explained by the fact that once an Iranian group regarded the Islamized Tai Arabs as representatives of Arabism, their name was extended to all Arabs, and then “Arabs” were set equal to “Muslims”; at last a more precise distinction was made between the various groups of Muslims, and then it was tāğik again restricted to the Muslim inhabitants of north-east Persia; on today's Tajik in the Pamirs see Justi in the ground plan of Iran. Phil. II, 411 f, with the wrong derivation of the name from Day "Crown-like headgear").

Later came as a name hui hui2 with the contemptuous variant hui tzū on, undoubtedly related to the name [180] of the Uyghurs, who were viewed by the Chinese as carriers of Islam, and whose popular name has now become a religious denomination (see above the development of tāğik). Unfortunately, another source, with which we normally have good experience when determining historical relationships, fails almost entirely: the inscriptions. There are no old original Islamic inscriptions in China; rather, we only have copies from later times. Far more important are the messages from the Arab authors. One cannot deny the better objectivity and sobriety. Here we have such excellent sources as the historical work of Tabari, which presents us with all the material known from its time, so that we can get an idea; substantial reports will hardly have escaped him. The Arab historians form a control of the Chinese annals that must never be ignored. They are completely silent about what the Sino-Islamic tradition reports. The Arab geographers are of particular importance. Your reports on the approaches to China by water and land are processed p. 875 a to 879 b of my article "China" in the Encyclopedia of Islam I. It follows from these reports that we are investigating the origins of Islam in China must lead in two completely separate areas; for the two ways by which Islam comes to China have different characters and a different goal: the land route leads to northern China and brings Islam only to the western parts of the northern kingdom, not advancing colonies to the coast; the waterway in the south sweeps the coast of China to Qansu, d. i. Hang-chou-fu, creating colonies everywhere, carefully guarding against expansion into the interior.3 That is one of the hallmarks of Islamic expansion in general: wherever it comes over the water, it stays on the coast; where Islam advances on land, it stays within. In general, Islam is afraid of water; from the very beginning he has the feeling of the supremacy of the unbelievers on the sea, and he almost never makes any effort to dispute this rule from them. But if there are Islamic naval expeditions, they are almost always unfortunate; all the renaming of Byzantium from the seaside failed. It was not until the Mongol era that Islam flooded through inner China, yes, one can say: without the Yuan dynasty, the Islamization of large parts of inner China was not possible, because it was only when it broke with the principle of splendid isolation. One cannot even guess as to the number of Muslims brought to China by the Mongol rulers [181] put up. We now have an example that is secured by numerous monuments of the combinations that emerged when the Mongol emperors attracted Muslim elements, and how a strong core for Islam was formed in China. Gengiz Chan (or Mangu Qān) already accepted a man from Bukhara who wanted to be a descendant of the Prophet, Shemseddin Omar, known as Saijidi Edschell, into the crowd of his officials. We have several biographies of this man; in the first place is the one in the Yüan-she, the official history of the Mongol dynasty (Book 125, Biography No. 12), which Vissière dealt with in d'Ollone p. 25 ff.; also one in Tien-hsi (II, 1 p. 23 f.) with notes about his sons Nasireddin, the Nescradin Marco Polos, and Husain; another in the great biography Ta ch’ing yi t’ung che (translated by Vissière in the Revue du Monde Musulman February 1908); The biography of Fa-hsiang is particularly important, treated critically by Lepage in d’Ollone p. 50 f .; Finally, there is a passage in Raschideddin, which is given in Blochet's translation in d'Ollone, p. 26 f. In Fa-hsiang, Saijidi Edschell is the fifth descendant of a Su-fei-êrh (Sufair?) and the 26th descendant of the Prophet (Vissière treated the ancestors and descendants of Saijidi Edschell in a special section in d'Ollone, pp. 176-183). Schemseddin Omar was then appointed to high offices by Kubilai (1260-1294); the emperor gave him the name Sai Tien-ch’e, a paraphrase of Saijidi Edschell "exalted lord",4 and appointed him governor of Yunnan to put order there. Later he was given the honorary name "Prince of Hsien-yang". He left five sons and nineteen grandchildren. Lepage rightly expressed doubts about Fa-hsiang's ancestry. It is not improbable that the later chroniclers invented this line of ancestry, partly to give the hero more prestige, partly to disguise the connection between the family's emergence and the invasion of the hated Mongols. According to the usual information, Saijidi Edschell came from Bukhara and administered Yünnan from 1273 until his death in 1279. He was buried in Wo-êrh-to near his capital. This grave with its inscriptions was only discovered occasionally by the expedition d'Ollone and aroused particular interest because a second grave with an inscription was found in Singanfu. It has now turned out that the second grave in Shensi is a cenotaph that only contained the court clothes of the deceased (see Vissière, Études Sino-Mahométanes, p. 41, note 1). [182] Even though Saijidi Edschell certainly did a lot for the spread of Islam in Yünnan, his son will be Nasireddin5 the main merit attributed to the spread of religion. He was Minister of State and first administered the Shansi Province, later he was governor of Yünnan, where he died in 1292; he was followed by his brother Husain. The other sons also had high government posts, as did their grandchildren. Among the other descendants is Ma Chu, in the 14th degree, who pursued scholarly studies and published his famous work "The Magnetic Needle of Islam" in 1665 (he lived between 1630 and 1710; from him as a pillar of those who reconciled Islam with Confucianism Direction is discussed in detail in II.); he supervised the restoration of the tomb and temple of his ancestor Saijidi Edschell; One of the inscriptions on the grave, which Vissière has translated in full, is from him, d'Ollone, pp. 95-1146. At present the head of the Na (Ma?) Family is Wa-ch'ing, imam of the Ma shou-chiai mosque in Yünnanfu (d'Ollone, p. 182). Just as in detail the spread of Islam under the provincial dynasty Sai took place, it can be seen as certain that the meaning of Islam for Yunnan stems from that time. Since then, there have been no significant influxes from outside. That influx, which cannot be emphasized sharply enough, came from the mainland, from the north. The Islamic coastal colonies have hardly been affected by this movement. Older than the Islamization of Yünnan is that of the provinces of Kansu and Shensi, even if the above-mentioned inscription from Singanfu does not guarantee the existence of a mosque in 742. We know even less about the fate of the Muslims Kansu and the neighboring provinces of Shensi and Setschuan than about that of the Yunnan Muslims. For the Franconian world, the two provinces most permeated by Islam have recently emerged excitingly through the uprisings in Yunnan from 1855 to 1873 and in Kansu from 1864 to 1877. It has hardly been seriously asserted that these two surveys had anything to do with each other; rather, the tension that had long existed between Han and Hui, Chinese and Muslims, was discharged independently in both areas. In the course of events, however, the religious-political factor intervened, which is dealt with in detail in II. The political nerd took over the matter. Occasionally, during the common Islamic uprising, special dynasties should be established. It then turned out as expected. Those who fought for more ideal motives felt that they were in danger of escaping from the Chinese rain under a [183] Islamic heretical special group and sided with the government. The Islamic family welcomed the quarrel, and the two groups were easy prey for them. The revenge of the Chinese was terrible. A systematic slaughter of Muslims was carried out in Yunnan in particular. But also in Kansu there was a lot of raging. One can assume that the failure of the uprisings brought the Muslims a 40 to 50 percent reduction in the number of souls. A word should be said about the often alleged connection between the uprising in Kansu and that in Turkestan: the two movements are completely different from one another in origin and course. In Turkestan it was an attempt to restore the state that had prevailed before the destruction of the Kalmak Empire by the Chinese in 1758, i. H. the restoration of the khodja rule. Now this sad company turned out to be utterly incapable. But the Muslim empire that the obscure Ja’qūb Bēk established7 was intended as the continuation or revival of the Mongolian state of the Jagataids. The difference in tendencies is clearly shown by the fact that even Tungans (Chinese Muslims) fought in the Chinese armies and also acted independently against their Turkish co-religionists. We can certainly see an effect of ethnic differences in this behavior.

If the community spirit that unites the Muslims of China also suffered disturbances from sectarianism and local party struggles, it can be seen as a main motive for the maintenance of the community under difficult circumstances. But the church not only lasted, it also grew, and significantly. Natural reproduction alone is not a sufficient explanation. Muslims have known how to increase their numbers in another way: through conversion. Practicing this on children was the simple means of buying them from Chinese parents in dire need (on this and on parallels from Christian missionary practice, see my "China and Islam" in Islam. Orient I, 45 and note. 1). Many hundreds of thousands of Chinese children have entered the Islamic community in this way. The number of Chinese women brought to Islam through marriage is not small. With the adults it is not the sermon of the true religion, which the Muslims should hardly dare to practice openly, that has an effect, but the dependence on a powerful one. Soldiers are often converted by their Islamic officers; the Islamic mandarins make proselytes less often, if only because of their frequent [184] Moving house. d'Ollone himself met several Muslims who were newly converted; others could tell of the conversion of an ancestor and give his name. The number of conversions fluctuated in the different periods according to the power of the Islamic officials. In the last days of Emperor Kuang-hsü, conversions were rare because the court had been suspicious since the great uprising and the Muslims had been discredited (d’Ollone 431).8 The gain on the way of that competition for souls, which, whether it is practiced by Islamic civilians or by appointed "missionaries" of the Christian world, must be branded as unfair and a worthless fraud, was of course more than offset by the Bloodletting, which the zealous Islamic converts received from their pagan masters as a reward for the uprisings that have already been reported. The number of Muslims in China was previously estimated at thirty million and more.9 Later estimates are at twenty million. That would be a twentieth to a thirteenth of the entire population. However, the expedition d'Ollone found the Muslims far below this quota in the areas it touched and which are still the most Islamized. d'Ollone estimates the Muslims at one percent of the population on the street he is walking on, but admits a higher rate for Kansu and Yunnan (Davies, Yunnan, 1908, assumes three percent for Yunnan, i.e. 300,000 out of ten million, claims but a far lower ratio for Setschuan, which is four times more populated than the other two provinces combined). That would mean four million Muslims for all of China (d’Ollone, p. 429 f.). The estimated values ​​in Broomhall, pp. 197 ff. Are only approximate values, which are quite uncertain and, above all, do not allow any conclusions to be drawn about the relationship between Muslims and the remainder of the population; because there is also no reliable information about the total population. Broomhall sent questionnaires to over 800 people in China and had 200 information from various parts of the empire. The following picture emerges for the provinces:

Kansu: minimum 2 million, maximum 3,500,000; the Muslims are unevenly distributed; they are more numerous in the western part and the increase in the birth rate is greater than that of the Chinese; some areas have been depopulated as a result of the uprisings. In the important government city of Liang-chou-fu, there are only 70 Mohammedans who are tolerated there. There are said to be 250,000 Muslims in Hsi-ning-fu, including the administrative region, and 25,000 in Lan-chou-fu, the capital.185] There are several mosques in larger towns; sometimes the Muslims are not allowed to live within the city and the mosques are then in the suburbs; so it is in Ning-hsia and Ping-liang.

Shensi: allegedly before the uprising 1,000,000; after this there was a great migration to Kansu. Official data for Singanfu 9480, for the whole province 26,000; in no case are more than 500,000 to be assumed. Singanfu has 7 mosques, Han-chung-fu 3.

Schansi: According to the information on individual areas, the total can be estimated at 25,000.

Tschihli: the figures differ considerably, and the estimate fluctuates between 250,000 and 1,000,000. Beijing with 30 to 40 mosques (main mosque: Nin-chieh; the Turk Ali Riza teaches there) has over 10,000; There are strong colonies south and north of Beijing; To the north of the Great Wall, Muslims live on the newly cultured land on the Mongolian border and form feared bands of robbers there.

Shantung: between 100,000 and 200,000; few in the east, the Muslims are numerous in the center and in the west. There are details of a molla for Chi-nan, Chi-ning, Yen-chou-fu, Ta-yan-fu, Tsa-chou-fu, Sin-ching-chou, Sai-chou and Ching-chou-fu, die have proven to be quite correct in part.

Honan: probably just over 200,000; Huai-ching-fu has 40,000 Muslims and the surrounding villages are all Muslim; Cheng-chou 10,000 (large families); in Huai-tien-chi the entire population is Muslim; Mosques are numerous; almost every Hsien city has one.

Kiangsu: estimate very uncertain, maybe 250,000: in Nanking 10,000 with 25 mosques; almost every major city has a mosque.

Setchuan: the areas of which news are available add up to about 50,000; Given the large extent of the province, it is possible to close to around 250,000; Islam's main link is in the northwest (Sung-p’an-t’ing, etc.), and it is making remarkable progress on the Tibetan border. In Cheng-tu, both the Lao (Kiu) -chiao (with 12 imams and 100 ahongs) and the Hsin-chiao (with 15 ahongs) seem to be represented.

Kuei-chou: barely over 10,000; in total only 4 mosques.

Yünnan: estimate fluctuates between 100,000 and 1,000,000; the uprising has torn great gaps; Muslims are likely to give too low numbers to mislead Chinese suspicions. The Muslims [186] make up hardly more than three percent of the total population (see Davies' comment above); the Muslims of Yunnan are said to be indistinguishable from the Chinese in clothing and way of thinking. According to Davies, Muslims live ten times as densely in the plains as in the mountains; he estimates the total population at 10 million. At three percent, Muslims are around 300,000, a huge gap from Thiersant’s 4 million. But Soulié (Rev. Monde Mus. Oct. 1909) estimated 800,000 to 1,000,000 and missionary Rhodes 1,000,000. The mosque was depressed after the uprising, while in the past the Muslims had important prayer houses (temple in Ta- li-fu served as a mosque.)

Hupeh: little more than 10,000; Wu-chang has 3 mosques and Han-kou 2 mosques.

Kiangsi: little more than 2500.

Anhui: estimate 40,000; more numerous in the north; the capital Anking has 6000 (with surrounding area) and 2 mosques.

Chekiang: about 7,500; Hang-chou-fu, which all older Arab geographers call Qansu and where at the time of Ibn Batuta was a rich and powerful Muslim colony, today has only 120–1000 (?) Families (including the area) and 3 (4) mosques.

Hunan: about 20,000; the largest colony seems to be in Chang-te: 3000 with 3 mosques.

Kuangtung (with Hainan): about 25,000; the great Canton, the Chānfū of the Arab geographers, the ṣīni kalān Ibn Batutas, today (including the surrounding area) has 7,000 to 10,000 Muslims with 5 mosques. Hainan has 2 places with mosques.

Kuangsi: 15,000 to 20,000, of which 8,000 in the capital Kuei-lin, evidently immigrated from the north; Kuei-lin and Wu-chou each have 6 mosques.

Fukien: probably only 1000; Mosques in Amoy, Fu-chou, and Chang-chou-fu; the 40 or 50 Muslims in Amoy are civil servants.

Manchuria: around 200,000, Mukden 17,000, Kai-yuan 3500, Hsin-min-fu 2500, Chin-chou-fu 3500, Fa-ku-men 2000, Liao-yang 2500, Kuang-ing 7500.

Mongolia: Muslims only sit in the south; There is no estimate.

Although Turkestan is not covered here, it should be noted that the estimate ranges between 1,000,000 and 2,400,000.

The estimates show, minus Turkestan, a minimum of 3,700,000 and a maximum of 7,400,000. It is noteworthy that the missionaries living in the country show strange differences.187] found one center of Islam and important schools where the others had seen nothing.

II. ON THE HISTORY OF THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF THE CHINESE MUSLIMS.


The whole life of ideas of the Muslims is under the influence of religion, i. H. of the dogma formulated by the Church, which, as it is itself a product of living conditions of all kinds, mass ideas and individual creative spirit and constantly undergoing these influences, creates, fertilizes, changes and differentiates those moments from which it originates. In addition, these very moments also work in a non-dogmatic direction, sometimes trying to destroy the dogma. Finally, elements are at work that use dogma only as a means of dominating the masses; then dogma comes into the service of politics, a typical example of which is the development of Shiism by the Alides and their followers. These are perpetual fermentation processes that sometimes lead to strange phenomena, but which always point to movement. If this leads to the complete rule of a party or a person with their supporters, the community is in a bad way. If the movement remains in a state of flux, and if it always brings new elements to itself, the strength of the community remains, even if this is not always expressed politically. This fluid state is favored by the fact that in the regulation of the entire life of Muslims in religious law, the Shari'a, state society has only been considered in a very imperfect way. Almost everywhere there is a lack of strong parish organization, which is centered on the idea of ​​the state. So the environment asserts itself in such a way that large parts of the law are ignored at all or undergo a change in contact with conditions that are different from the conditions under which they arise.

If such influences are particularly numerous and strong in China, this can be explained by the isolation in which the Muslims of China have always found themselves, and by the strength of the state thought in China, provided that state life is regulated in its basic features by a philosophical one -practical system that has gained an iron foundation through centuries of tradition and fills the whole nation. It is a sign of the strength of the self-contained religious system of Islam that its adherents in such a [188] Lands could establish themselves and assert themselves. If Chinese Islam, bound by the state and social conditions in China, has made considerable concessions, this does not go beyond what we otherwise observe in the religious life of the peoples. After all, there have been phenomena here that are of great interest in the history of religion, and among them the inclusion of Chinese motifs in the Islamic philosophy of religion stands out. In addition, extensive Islamic circles are under the influence of the Chinese folk religion. So one can say: the Muslims of China are Islamic only in the external exercises of a ritual kind, which are established by the church, and in the oral confession; as far as ethics are concerned, they hardly differ from the other Chinese.

In addition to this common Islamic tendency to take in imaginary moments from the environment, there is another one that is just as common: the split in questions of religious doctrine, specifically in the ritual exercises just mentioned. Naturally, this tendency has a particularly strong effect in the case of communal independence, in the absence of a tight church regiment. Differences in doctrine grow into divisions that seriously damage the community, above all making it unsuitable for resisting the common enemy. Here the parallelism with western evolution is striking down to the last detail.10 Difference in teaching means here: Difference in cultic individual forms which, in themselves completely insignificant and indifferent, are made the main thing. The emphasis on such quisquilies is mostly the work of people who take into account the general human tendency of the masses to see the essence of ecclesiastical communion in the strict observance of external ceremonies, and to accept as a reformer whoever preaches a change in them. However, these men almost always pursue secular goals in their “reform activities”: after they have won a sufficient number of supporters for their system and their teaching, they want to construct the new community as a new state with themselves at the top.

Does the inclusion of Chinese ideas in the dogmatic teaching structure of Islam lead to an Islamic-Confucianist syncresis, and the deviation from traditional cultic exercises has the character of bid’a, the "heretical innovation", these shifts are attached to an antithesis in society that also otherwise proves to be decisive for the structure of currents: the class stratification. In the class state par excellence, the Chinese, [189] in which the literature is nicely arranged according to high and low social classes, this moment is particularly effective. The syncresis is in fact practiced in the upper classes, the deviation from the traditional system of teaching finds main support among the lower classes. Of course there is no question of an absolute separation, the boundaries are rather fluid, but one can say: the Muslims who are aimed at a compromise with Confucianism do not participate in the sectarianism, and again: the sectarians are far removed from China. For the religious scholar, the Islamic-Confucianist syncresis is undoubtedly more interested: one can see here how thorough study and deepening lead to inner balance and reconciliation. It is rationalistic goings-on, combined with deep inwardness, which seek to give the cult commandments a truly religious content; one would like to say: a rationalism that has been turned into pietism.

Those activities that have already been touched on, which arise from the fact that Islamic circles come under the influence of the Islamic popular religion, occupy a middle position. They are of course lower than the syncretistic efforts, but the circles that practice them will not infrequently take part in them, while the acceptance of external Chinese ceremonies should not lead to the conclusion that one of the higher religious systems prevailing in China has penetrated them. Such low adoption of Chinese elements in Islam happens automatically: the Chinese origin of most Muslims and the suggestion of the environment work here, which are probably not directly banned in non-Chinese Islam, but which Western Muslims as bid’a "Heresy" are likely to be felt.

It is different with the higher class of Chinese borrowings. There is likely to be a purposeful tendency here, in that comprehensive spirits, who were familiar with both the Islamic and the Chinese systems, worked towards an approximation and equalization. One can call this direction, which seeks to compare true Islam with true Confucianism and find in both of them an originally identical religion, the direction of reconciliation or theology of mediation. We only know this direction from literature; At least I could not find any evidence that it has representatives today who pass it on orally. One would like to assume, however, that the works of this tendency are printed again and again, and above all because these works on [190] stir a chord that can easily be made to sound with all people, regardless of religion, who belong to the Chinese culture: I mean the power points from the great classics, which every half-educated person knows. I would not like to omit the remark here that any attempt to approach the Chinese religiously without operating on the main points and the general ideas of the classics is an attempt by inefficient means.11 The first and probably the most important mediation theologian of Chinese Islam is Saijid Ma Chu, the author of the ch’ing chên che nan "Compass of Islam".12 This 45th descendant of Muhammad and the 15th descendant of Saijidi Edschell, who restored the tomb of his great ancestor in 1709 and celebrated him in a memorial stone, has already been mentioned (p. 182). From his life I only mention that he, after a note in the "magnetic needle" (see ibid.), In which he refers to his own travel report Yü p’iao yang ko chi, until after fo-lan-chi (France? Europe?) Has come.13 Ma Chu had a thorough Chinese education and, like his ancestor Saijidi Edschell, belonged to the people of the type of Emir Beshir of Lebanon, who prayed today with the Muslims in the mosque, tomorrow with the Christians in the church. H. he was a pagan inside. In doing so, however, he carries around with him a large jumble of ideas that are specifically linked to Mohammed in theological-mystical literature and passes them on in good faith. Also, his personal relationship and interest as a descendant of Mohammed should not be underestimated. So he also vigorously advocated the interest of Islam wherever it seemed appropriate to him: in 1683 and 1684 he addressed requests to the emperor K'ang-hsi, in which he explained the meaning of the Koran not only for Islam, but also for Islam Depicts Confucianism and asks for some rights for Muslims.14 In the following I am now giving an overview of the content of his “compass”, which reveals his position between Islam and the religion of Confucius.15

Volume I. Chap. 1 p. 1a, 6 ff. yüan chiao "Establishing Religion". - The arrangement is usually such that the "guest" k’o asks a short question and the answer is given to it. The “guest” is explained as follows: “The world is an inn, man is a traveler who stays there; for how long can a person's life last? It is from this world that one understands and one enters the sacred territory and the wise passport; therefore the questioner is called "guest". "- The first question is: Where did Islam begin? Answer: Islam began in Arabia; to this the remark:" Arabia was formerly called the Mecca Empire;15a in the local language it says one k’ai; the heavenly space k’ai-êrh-pai (ar. ka’ba) is located in the city, hence the name "(the [191] that means: t’ien-catch is actually just the name of the Kar'ba as "heavenly space"; then you have the whole city of Mecca t’ien-catch called; but it will be common t’ien-catch Used in a broader sense for “Arabia”. - It is then (1a, 9 ff. By Adam (a-tan) acted, the ancestor, who with the ancestor pan-ku of the Chinese being compared; the explanation of the tsu-hsi is used for this purpose. - p. 4b, 4 then the question is asked: “If the two teachings (namely of Laotze and Buddha) are already wrong, what about the teaching of Confucius? (proper. the Confucianists, the ju-chê). The answer establishes the main teachings of Confucius with a few sentences from the main works and then goes on: “Without these, the human path is not complete; without them there is no government law, etc. "16 So it goes on with general eulogies of Confucius until the phrase comes in p. 5a, 1: “In the Sung time the teaching of Confucius was explained; it was meant well; but it is a great pity that these Confucius scholars did not receive the word of Allah and did not receive the teaching of the holiest; his teaching only got there where language and[1] Writing were; that is very regrettable! ”- (p. 5a, 4)“ Our teaching passed from one saint to another from Adam's death until Muhammad appeared; he destroyed the wrong ways and passed on the teaching of the earlier saints to the later generations; he gathered the perfection of ten thousand generations. ”- (pp. 5a, 6f)“ His coming was prophesied in the scriptures, and when he came they were all in agreement; therefore ancient and present call him a saint, and the whole world considers him a saint. ”- (p. 5a, 8) Question:“ How is it that the holy people of China have not heard God's word? ”The answer operates first with a comparison: "Even if people have not seen the birth of the animal Ling and the bird Fêng, can one therefore claim that Ling and Fêng do not exist?" Another argument p. 5b, 1: "It is It is possible that the Koran also perished in the great book burning of the Emperor Ch'in. ”- Furthermore (5b, 1f):“ The word often comes in Shi-ch'ing and Shu-ch'ing shang-ti in front; from this one can conclude that the heart of the earlier saints was connected with heaven. ”- New question p. 5b, 3:“ Both teachings, both that of the Muslims (hui) as well as those of the Chinese (han), have their origins in prehistoric times; now why are their teachings not identical? “The answer assumes that people spread and came to countries of different cultures, so they changed; people are also intellectually different; China is tens of thousands of li east of Arabia, and it has been eight thousand years since Adam; of course, changes occurred in these differences; nevertheless the country was still similar to Islam and only worshiped the Shang-ti; but since the doctrine of Lao (Taoism) and She (for Sakjamuni) emerged, Buddha was worshiped and geniuses were worshiped, gods and demons were worshiped; thus the scholars of China went astray; how could Islam arise there? "- New question p. 6a, 1:" How do you explain the difference between the 40,000 years that one reckons in China and between the several thousand years of the Koran? "Answer: If the books of China do not speak of the fire of the Emperor Ch If it had been destroyed, we would have evidence that it was 3,000 years from the creation of the world to the Flood, and a little over 4,000 years from the Flood to now; this is how the 8,000 years of the Koran can be explained; “The prehistory of China is then dealt with in detail. - New question p. 6b, 1: "Why do you put things in front of people, even though they are the noblest?" Answer: "The Koran says: 17 "I created all things only because of man, and the created man is only there to know me". " 18 "Furthermore, the Koran says [192] (P. 6b, 5): 'The earthly world is the paradise of the bad, on the other hand the prison of the pious; what one has today but does not have later cannot be called joy '. ”- New question p. 6b, 8:“ While everything is best in China, how should the West have a preference? ”Answer ( P. 7a, 3): “Like me in my yü p’iao yang ko chi ("Record of migrations and sea voyages abroad"), I drove from Fuchien to the west across the sea, to France (fo-lan-chi; it is probably meant Europe in general), I also came to the realms of the blacks and the redheads [one thought earlier of the Portuguese and Dutch], as far as the great ocean; it was so far removed from our kingdom, and yet the people were all of our faith; In these countries the landscapes, the customs, the products, the castles, the cities, the armor, the utensils, the clothes were like those of the East; from there to Arabia there were innumerable countries, kings, emperors, and yet all of them believed in the teaching of St. Mohammed; now the people of our faith are only one ten-thousandth of the whole world, and the east is only one-thousandth of the world; but the people of our faith are only a hundredth of the three doctrines, nine sects and a hundred philosophers ". - (p. 7b, 3)" From Sui and T'ang to Yuan and Ming our doctrine began to be known in the countries; but the teaching was poor, the students could not understand it, and the main ideas could not be properly explained in China in spite of the many sages, so we call the religion ch'ing-chên, 'purifying and making truthful' ”(the sense is not entirely clear; perhaps it is more likely to think of: purified and made truthful.) Note here the idea that Islam has gone through a corruption.

Cape. 2 (pp. 7b, 8-10b, 7) ti jen “Thorough knowledge.” People have received four sacred books, the first being: t’ien kun wan wu "Heaven, Earth and All Things"; the second is: ku wan hsin fei “Antiquity and the Past”; the third is: fu êrh ko ni (ar. furqān; on this the note: 'this is the book name given (by the supreme emperor)'); the fourth is "'body, life, nature, command'; this last book is older than the other three books. " 19 - p. 8 a, 2 “When a person recognizes himself, then he recognizes things and sees the way; In the Koran it says: 'Allah created the body of man according to the seven worlds; to a le shih (ar. ’arš" throne ") he created the human heart;20 through the formless true light he created the soul '”etc. - chap. 3 p. 10 b, 7 ta yung "Great method" (named after the ta yung of Confucius; this chapter deals with the existence of God. - S. IIa, 4 ff: “The wonders of Allah are two: 1. ta yung, 2. tso know 'Doing and Performing' ". Under ta yung then the attributes of God are dealt with, etc. - p. 13a, 5 chên tzŭ “True mercy.” The human heart is illuminated by God's light. Then: man's relationship to other created things, etc. - p. 14 b, 7 t’ien t’ing "Predestination" (ar. qadar); the guest asks: the good and the bad belong to what Allah has determined earlier; 21 but now they say again: Allah alone has pity on the poor; if he has pity on the poor, why is the predestined not the same? Now there is the noble and the low, the poor and the rich, etc. (various opposites are cited), all sorts of differences: one would have to conclude from this (p. 15a, 1): this is what man himself took; but how does it then belong to the predestined? And if it comes from the predestined, how can man take it himself? Answer: Predestination is like a great sea; self-determination like a ship (chu chi); the living conditions (actually [193] Thing and cause) are like wind and waves (fung t’ao); if there is no ocean, then of course there is no ship; hence predestination does not diverge (separate) from self-determination; if there is no ship, then the ocean does not function (does not appear); therefore self-determination does not emerge from the circle of predestination; z. B. the five colors, the five tones, the five tastes are predetermined; the changes and transformations of these five colors, five tones and five tastes are self-determination; if you separate them, they don't go apart, if you mix them, they don't come together. ”- p. 15a, 6“ The guest says: I have understood the predestination; I would now like to hear the following important (yüan) how Allah created predestination (tsao hua). Answer: Allah set in motion the great command (ar. kalām, the word, λογος) and opened the gate of all wonders (miracles); the big command is the big brush [pi therefor qalam]; all laws, spirit, appearances and numbers all come out of the brush (should mean: emanate from the brush); in which great orders are contained there is character and wisdom (chih); the transformation of these is infinite. ”- (p. 15a, 9, 2)“ The origin of all different things, such as saints, wise, ordinary, stupid, heaven, geniuses, gods, demons, water, stone, grass, wood, metal is already designed in an earlier world. ”- (p. 15b, 1, 5 :)“ In the Koran it is said that different tastes come out of the white sugar cane juice; what is completed by them has completed itself; what is corrupt has corrupted itself, 'furthermore: what is left of nature and wisdom flows as a proposition; what now the primal force (yüan ch’i) are concerned, so are in it yin (the feminine principle) and yang contain (the masculine principle); of these two will be yang to fire [so it is in the I’ing], the yin becomes water; Water and fire now mix and there are infinite changes; on it all things such as grass, wood, metal, stone, water, sky, geniuses, gods, demons, saints, wise, ordinary, stupid appear [ie in a different order than p. 15a, 9] in the later world; for color, tone, smell, taste, purity, dirt, strength, weakness - that which things originally have cannot be changed; what things do not have cannot be added; this is the predestination of grass, wood, metal, stone; the bird (proper the feathers) flies in the sky, the fish swims in the water, the game runs in the mountains, the worm crawls on the earth; what acts against his ability will not change but will die; this is the predestination of the water, the earth, of flying, of running. ”- (p. 15b, 8, 4)“ The geniuses are created from light, pure, clear, not spurious; the gods are made of fire; when they hit things, they burn; the demons are born of darkness [this means the feminine principle here; Wang protests here against the fact that the female principle in the original Chinese view is something bad or inferior, as one can infer from the equation with darkness here; this view is generally widespread among Europeans, but it is incorrect; he was her z. B. also met with Mr. von Brandt, who expresses this thought in the introduction to his "The Chinese at Home"]; they harm the merit and are jealous of the good. “- (p. 15b, 9, 6)“ The heavenly geniuses are in heaven, the gods dwell on o fu [so it is probably the mountain qāf meant]; the demons fill the world; what acts against his nature moves him, as it were T’ai shan“[The famous mountain in Shantung]. - (p. 16a, 1, 4) “This is the predestination of heaven, of geniuses, of gods, of demons; the holy man watches and sleeps not; because in this state [receives194] and he protects (keeps) the faith [i mo na; Wang notes the spelling of the mo with superior niü was quite unusual and otherwise did not occur to him; here is this niü probably just a different spelling for what is popular with foreign words k’ou]; the wise sleeps and wakes; in this state he receives faith; the erring only sleeps and does not wake up (does not wake up); in this state he drives away faith; this is the predestination of the holy, the wise [but here a different sign than before], the ordinary, the stupid [there is a discrepancy here: four against the aforementioned three] ”. - (p. 16a, 4, 1 ff) “The guest says: What is self-determination? Answer: The tame poultry, the wild birds, that hai ni (Sea monsters, sea serpent), the fish in the pond, all inhabited mountains and waters - their fate is not one; Tigers, panthers, wolves are hit by the hand of the hunter; the thousand-footed worms die under the feet of the blind man; that is the self-determination of the water, the earth, of flying, of crawling; the geniuses have no reward and yet know merit; the demons know the punishment and feel no remorse, the good ones from the gods are near to the geniuses of heaven, the bad ones from them are with the demons; this is the self-determination of the heavenly geniuses, the gods and the demons. "- (p. 16a, 7 ff)" Look at wealth and nobility as if you dipped your hand in hot water (that is, as something perishable and repulsive), hating injustice like poison, the dying of the faithful and the good for their honor, the stealing of life (to be a thief, t’o shen) of the bad and the wicked - that is the self-determination of the saints, the wise, the common and the stupid. "- (p. 16b, 1,)" The guest says: Can self-determination belong to predestination? Answer: Do the good or do the bad That is man's own doing; but there is also something that man does that he did not want to do; there is also something that man causes but did not want to cause (translation questionable); in the heavenly beech (t’ien ch’ing for “Koran”, otherwise usually only ch’ing) is it [called 22 ):, I created all men and gods in hell; they had eyes and yet could not see, they had ears and yet could not hear, they had hearts and yet could not think '; that they are deaf, dumb, and blind need no explanation; therefore self-determination does not come from predestination; in the heavenly beech (Koran) it says: if I love him, then I am like his ears, eyes, hands, tongue; then he hears through me, he sees through me, he reaches through me, he speaks through me ' 23; therefore predestination does not move away from self-determination. He (the guest) also says; How can Allah change the predestination? Answer: The change is also part of predestination; without predestination there is of course no change; without change, the predestination does not appear. ”- Chap. 4 (p. 16b, 8) chên tê "True virtue". "The guest asks: What is belief (imo na)? Answer: Faith is the clear (pure) virtue of the heavenly command. 24 - What is the clear virtue? - The clear virtue is to confess. - What is confession? - To confess is to cultivate this virtue and carry out this command. The philosophers did not understand the origin of receiving orders; some said: nature is good; some said: nature is bad; some said: good and bad mixed; Law and reason are empty and void; they have no definite definition, and the principle of heavenly command is hidden in them; Allah says (17a, 3, 13): I began to create man in perfection and truthfulness; then I let it sink into the middle depth, into the total depth; the perfection is nature, the total depth is the body; there are two kinds of nature: true nature and innate nature; true nature comes from the great [195] Command (the speech of God) from the same source; namely, that is the nature of humanity, justice, decency and wisdom, and it comes from the earlier world. ”The section closes with an explanation of the innate nature, which is also of two kinds. - p. 17b, 1. "The guest says: nature and life (hsing ming) are closely related to the body, how can you separate them and make them two? Answer: A parallel to this is formed by light and sun; the light is not sun; when there is no sun there is no light; so is the ratio of yin and yang: yin is not yang, but if yin is not there is no yang; it is the same with nature and life: nature is not life, but if there is no life there is no nature; if you separate them, there is an earlier and a later. ”- Chap. 5 (p. 17b, 4ff.) t’i "The substance". "The relationship between God and man is the true light of faith (i mo na) and its wonders ”etc. - Only the following passage was dealt with in more detail in this section, but it is of particular interest because Sufi moments can be precisely demonstrated and the Sufi terms are circumscribed and explained in Chinese. - (pp. 20a, 2, 16ff.) "In the holy book it says: 25 If of all people sê tê êrh (See definition below) in proper virtue (shun te) Is revealed, then people are in the light and splendor of the Lord; if the brilliance of orderly virtue is absent, then the rebellious black pit (mine) is there; if that sê tê êrh reveals themselves in rebellion, then they (people) are on the wrong track and are seduced by demons and are in a place where private nature (self-will, empty desire, the hawa, the passion) prevails. "Now follows the comment (lines 5, 3): sê tê êrh is the name of the first layer of the heart; Chung-hsiu (that is Ma Chu, see p. 182) says: as is well known, the passage from the Koran reads like this 26: the heart has seven layers (ch’i ts ’êng) to represent the seven heavens (or: which correspond to the seven heavens); each layer of sky has a planet; so every layer of the heart also has a precious pit (mine); the planets set the four times in motion. The precious mine creates all matters. The first layer is called the Pit of the Right Way sê tê êrh; this pit dwells in the skin of the heart; every time false doctrines and demons want to penetrate here, and when man keeps watch from here, then the gate of true virtue opens and the gate of heresy closes. The second layer is called the pit of true virtue ko lê pu (ar. qalb); Allah deposited the faith (i mo na) here so that the believers (mo-min27) think and understand. - The third layer is called the pit of compassion shih a fu (ar. sighāf); if one is loving and has compassion for all beings, then it does not come out of the realm of this heart. - The fourth layer is called the pit of shining (enlightening) and seeing fu wa tê (ar. fu'ād); the things this pit sees are not wrong. - The fifth layer is called the pit of love for God ha pei t’ê (ar. habbat); this heart loves no other thing than Allah. - The sixth layer is called the pit of the wonderful world shu wei ta (ar. suwaidā); this pit is the source eye [probably literal translation of ar. ’Ain, which of course means here: the real, the self] of the miracles of Allah, it is the miracle store of all secrets; it reveals the wonderful world; she is in contact with the supreme Lord. - The seventh layer is called the pit of splendor and appearance wu ho chê (ar. wuhūğ?); this pit is completely surrounded by the great method of Allah, the true Lord, they are expressed in it ”(here the commentary closes). "These kind of (bad) people, if they pray regularly (pai li, the reverse of [196]li pai)they only do this to make a name for themselves and to find grace; that's just because they haven't learned ”. There now follows a tiresome section on the virtues of learning to pp. 21a, 2, 12, then as follows: “There are three levels (types) of teaching: teaching with the tongue, teaching with the heart, teaching with nature (character) ; There are three types of hearing: hearing with the ear ”, etc. - Chap. 6 (p. 21b, 2) ch’iung li "Exploring the Law". The guest says: How do you distinguish Islam from the three religions? ”- Chap. 7 (p. 25b, 7) ko wu "Natural Science" [literally: exploring things]; Wang confirms Tsai's statement that the influence of classical Chinese teaching is unmistakable in this chapter. - The title of this chapter is a quote from the ta hsüe (at the beginning). - chap. 8 (p. 29b, 3); hsing ming "Nature and Life". Wang thinks that the words belong together and correspond roughly to the anima, the life principle; Line 8, 5: "if a substance (t’i "Body") is without nature (spirit), then it is like heaven and earth without the sun; if there is spirit without clear virtues, then it is the sun without shine. ”- (p. 32a, 9)“ The guest says: How can be explained hsing ming? Answer: was in the earlier world ming, is in the later world hsing; it is like seeds and fruit; when you sow, that's what you call mingwhen you harvest, that's what you call hsing". - chap. 9 (p. 35a, 1) ssŭ hsing "the four elements". The guest says: We (i.e. the I ch’ing) say: five elements; why does Islam only speak of four elements? [Tsai's comment on this: “This is an error that is widespread in China; In reality, the I ch'ing knows nothing of five elements, but these are only mentioned in the Shu-ch'ing, "explains Wang: in the I ch'ing the matter is disputed; it's not sure with that wu hsing the five elements chin mu shuihuo tu (Metal, wood, water, fire, earth) are meant. 28] - chap. 10 (p. 38a, 1) t’ien hsien "The heavenly angels"; this section is not introduced by a question. - The heavenly angels are different from the gods and demons. - “Allah created many angels to rule the world .... There are four great angels who are the chiefs; the first is the angel chê pai lê i (ar. Ǧibrā’īl) ....; by order of God he proclaims all the sacred books and the precepts of religion and ceremonies (chiao hui li fa), rewards the good and punishes the bad, saves from danger, watches over the prosperity and so on; From the prehistoric man Adam to Mohammed there have been holy men who handed down holy books and who followed the right path (chên tao) have declared; the time was different, but the thing was identical; the words were different, but the law was one, etc. - (p. 38b, 2) “The second angel is the angel mi kco i lê (ar. Mīkā’īl). ”- (38b, 6)“ The third angel is the angel i ssu la fei (ar. Isrāfīl). ”- (39a, 1)“ The fourth angel is êrh tzŭ la i (ar. ’Izrā’īl).” - Chap. 11 (p. 40a, 2) shên kuei "Gods and demons."

Volume II, pp. 1a, 2 jên chu "The knowledge of God". The commentary says: "Of the five rules (wu ch'ang; this is a Confucian term; by doing Lün yi are the five ch’ang Humanity, justice, decency, wisdom, truthfulness) of the heavenly commandment (t’ien ming, Translation of šarī’a) none precedes the knowledge of God; whoever does not enforce the knowledge of God, there is no way to return home [ar. ma’ād]; the former prophet ta wu tê (i.e. David) asked the Lord about the secret (sirr) from: 'Allah has no like'; how is this not-having to be understood? He is almighty and very great; why did he create all things? Allah's command (word) is: 'I am a hidden treasure (pao); I like man to recognize me, I created (tsao hua) man only so that he can recognize me. ”In the Koran it says: 'Color and world are identical; Law and world are identical; Wonder and world [197] are identical; the substance (t’I) and the actuation (yung, also “application”) of Allah are identical; your eyes are sharp but they are not open; therefore you can be the true being (pên jang; proper "origin", ar. haqīqa) Not see Allah; your ears are sharp, only they are not open, so you can do the miracle speech (miao yen) Not hear from Allah. In the Qur'an it says [the following quote appeared similarly, see p. 192): 'If all people know themselves, then they also recognize Allah as Creator; if you know Allah then you can talk yourself, but then you don't talk yourself ’[Wang does not understand; the train of thought is Sufi]; who can talk can talk about the secrets and subtleties of this moving and resting (chi white and tung ch’in, that is a real Chinese combination, something like "cause and effect"); he who cannot speak can hardly talk about the secrets and wonders of this true being (pên jang) talk ".— (p. 3b, 6)"wu k’o, the five lessons ’; these are the prayers of the five times (wu shih chao pai). ”- (p. 3b, 7)“ The guest asks about the source (yüan) and the root (pên) of the five prayers. Answer: Who is the source and root of the body (shên t’i) and who knows life, he also knows the source and root of the five prayers. He also asked: can I hear more? Answer: the source of life is like the origin of the great command (word) and is the holy splendor of the Most Holy Mohammed; the source of the body, which is at the same time the origin of the human being, is Adam the primeval man (jên tsu).“ 29 - (p. 4a, 1) "When Adam did not yet have shape and body, there was already life (ming, Spirit) of the Most Holy Mohammed. Mohammed designed (chü) already (already represented) the origin of the world and the universe. Allah created the holy light of the Most Holy Mohammed [the light played no role in the ancient Chinese religion and does not play a role today either, it only came to the Chinese through Buddhism]; he also created a mirror and made him (Adam) mirror himself; out of gratitude to Allah he made the prosternation five times (k’ou shou, proper knocking on the head, for which one usually says k’ou tao d. i. Kowtowing); Allah was very pleased with this five-time prostaration; then Allah determined the beginning (chung tzŭ, proper “seeds”) of prayer five times for all people. ”- (p. 4a, 4)“ The five times[2] Prayer has its origin in the source of life. When Adam was formed out of earth and came into life, Allah commanded the angels to put the most holy light in Adam's forehead (ting ê, proper crown-forehead); they should lead him up to heaven, and let him wander through all the heavens, so that he could enjoy heavenly joy, then they should lead him down into the earthly world, so that he might establish the human way and establish religion and rule the world. The grace and mercy (tz’ŭ) God's clearly appear in the command to Adam, for yin-Time (3–5 in the morning) he should do the ceremony (chao li) do twice (own two pai); to know-Time (1 - 3 p.m.) he should do it four times; to shên-Time (3–5 p.m.) four times; to -Time (5-7 p.m.) three times; to shark-Time (9 a.m. to 11 a.m.) four times; Adam carried out the order and did that pai done (did it to the end); thanking Allah, he asked about the secret (sirr) and said: Does this kind of grace and mercy refer only to us or to other people as well? Allah deigned to say: 'This grace relates to you first, then to Muhammad and all fellow believers'; for that Allah made Adam make the prosternation five times is the holy light (ling kuang) Muhammad's. The beginning (seed) of the five-time suǧūd reappears in the tree (shu) the body shape of Adam; furthermore: the morning prayer begins with Saint Adam; the midday prayer begins with the saint i bu la hsin (Ibrahim); the afternoon prayer (pu, another name for double periods 3 to 5, otherwise [198]shên) begins with the sacred yü (ü) nu ssŭ (Junus); the dawn prayer (hun) begins with the sacred êrh-sa (’Isā, i.e. Jesus); the evening prayer (hsiao) begins with the sacred mo sai (Mūsā; notice here sai against sa at ’Isā); These five prayers are the creations of the five great saints (prophets); further: from the most holy light and from the root of the fivefold suǧūd and from the branch of Adam's five temporal prayers comes the flower of the four other prophets; even if the country is different and the generations are distant, they emerge with time; the ceremonies began with Saint Mohammed. The prophet brought the night in the house of yün mu ho ni (Umm Hānī) to; It was almost midnight when the Lord commanded the angels to call the prophet to heaven; he walked through all the heavens up to the ninth heaven, up to the true region, which is the highest; he stood upright and raised his hands, he recited that tê k’e pi êrh (takbīr) and made a rak'a (chao li i pai); further he made the angel chê pai le i (Gibrā’īl) also a rak’a; Allah gave him a hundred thousand lights and ordered the Prophet to make another rak’a. ”- (p. 5a, 1)“ The Prophet carried out the command and finished the prayer; then he asked what the secret was: 'This particular Ascension Ceremony (t’ien hsiao)Is it only given to me or is it also given to other subjects of faith ’? Allah replied, 'I gave you five heaven horses (t’ien ma); only then could you come here; I will also give your subjects of faith five heavenly horses [hsien ma is perhaps a transcription or literal translation of an Arabic word], namely 1st recitation of the takbīr, 2. Standing upright, 3. Recitation of a ye tê d. i. Koran verses, 4th bowing, 5th prosternation; let your subjects of faith move to the next category (?) and allow them all prayers and praises (ch’i chu), then determine the five prayers as a regular rule ’; Allah said: I will take the most noble merit and honor the disciple of the faith; I reward the merit and forgive the mistake; this is again the flower of the chao pai of the five saints and the fruit harvest of receiving orders from the most holy (chih shêng). The fruit comes from the tree, the tree comes from the fruit; that is why it says in the Koran 30: Since our saint (prophet) left the world, there is no one to succeed him and become a saint (prophet); the Muslims (the mo-min) received these five prayers, just as nature has the five rules [the five ch’ang des Lün-yi, see above] and[3] the body the five bowels and time the five hsin "Movements"; they can protect against the wrong path and let cross the bitter sea (k’u hai, Buddhist for human life), let cross the fire area [this means hell; should not be Buddhist] and let rise into the kingdom of heaven; is that little? ”- (p. 5b, 1)“ Every morning before eating and drinking and before going to work one should pray for one's deceased parents, namely two rak’a; this is in order to fulfill the human way and corresponds to the heavenly way, and in doing so it harms neither the body nor the spirit (hsing ming); this is called great piety (ta hsiao). “Now follows lines 3 to 8 Commentary, which seems to contain a lot of Arabic in transcription. - (pp. 5b, 9) k’o shih “About donation;” is about zakāt. - (p. 11a, 2) chai chie “Fasting” up to p. 15a, 4. - Strangely enough, the pilgrimage is missing; as if no importance was attached to this part of the law. - (p. 15a, 5) yü chiao "About the teachings," d. H. about the different teachings or teaching methods. - (p. 15a, 6) “With compasses (kui) and angle measure (chü) one measures (judges) things (wu); The circle is used for round things, for square things (catch) one uses the angle measure; people are transported by ship and wagon; on the water you go by ship, on the land you go [199] man with car; with statecraft (ching) and weighing (chuan) one holds the world together; in ordinary times one behaves according to the state art book (ch’ing); in troubled times one has to weigh; if you are conservative you become one-sided; if one is one-sided, one is far from the way of the prophet; who at the one-sidedness (p’ien) holds on, gets cocky (chiao); whoever is high-spirited is close to heresy (i tuan chih hsüethe wrong side, the wrong end); this is called (so white) Overconfidence (ch’i chi, ar. ’Uǧb, kibrijā) and damage to things (shang wu)and thereby violating the law; if one violates both things and the law, then one destroys man and himself - (p. 15a, 9) At the time of the prophet three people once asked; one said: does the sun come out of the earth? the Prophet said, 'right'; the second asked: does the sun come out of the mountain? The Prophet said; ,correct'; the third said: does the sun come out of the sea? the prophet said: 'right'. There were the students (ti tzŭ) in doubt. The prophet said: He who speaks of the earth speaks so because he dwells there; He who speaks of the mountains speaks so because he lives in the mountains; He who speaks of the sea speaks so because he lives near the sea. Does the sun really come out of the earth, out of the mountains, out of the sea? - (S.15b, 4) The place from which he sees is not the same; The wrong idea comes from the usual place of residence; Hence: those who go up from the middle man (rise above the middle man), with whom one can talk about the upper; those who go down from the middle man (those who go down below mediocrity) cannot be talked to about the superior; those with whom one can speak of the superior are those who wait to believe (who are called to believe, capable); with whom one cannot speak of the higher are those who chase away faith (let it slip away); those who are waiting for it are always those with whom one can talk about the higher 31; they can be safely led on the right path (chên tao); those who get right without guidance are the chiefs of the superiors; those who come to the right path with guidance are the middle ones of the upper ones; who, despite being guided, do not get on the right path are the lowest of the lowest. - (p. 15b, 8) “The believers of Arabia (ti’en catch) are numerous, the Muslims of the Eastern countries are few; the religion of the Arabs is a religion; the religions of the eastern countries are ten in number; where the many belong to one (i.e. where the many people only have one religion), the book (the Koran) is written in the same script 32, the pronunciation is the same (the mouth has the same tones), and what is spoken is heard the same; then the doctrine will easily be spread and the way will easily flourish ”. - (p. 16a, 1) “If one wants to go into much with a little (sense is probably: when a few stand opposite many), it is as if a man with a stick (kan) against a strong tiger (mung hu) fights [that should be true: Islam is not very widespread in China because it has to fight ten religions], as if one wanted to hold back a descending ship by force, as if one wanted to dance on a soft (bare) blade, and so the doctrine is difficult to spread and the way difficult to prosper. That means: if a person from Ch’i wants to spread something, then many people from Ch’u abuse him; if he knocks on it every day (works on it), he will never achieve his goal.33“- (p. 16a, 4)“ I dare to ask about the ten teachings (religions) of the eastern country (China).34 Answer: The ten teachings of the East are: Ju (i.e. the teaching of Confucius); Shuan (or Yüan, i.e. the teaching of Laotze); Shih (i.e. Buddha); Yin and Yang (i.e. the ancient Chinese religion); Shih pu (i.e. the ancient art of fortune telling that used to [200] was used in sacrifice); K’an yü (that's about the fung-shui-People; but that is not a religion at all); Hsin Suan (i.e. star calculator); Hsiang shih (i.e. people of physiognomy); Wu jên (i.e. fortune tellers); Luan p’an (i.e. calculator of marriages) ". The following is a criticism of these alleged ten religions that is genuinely Chinese outwardly; Incidentally, the author speaks almost exclusively of Confucianism, the other "religions" are only briefly dealt with; his full judgment on Confucius will be given later. - (p. 17a, 4) "The methods of religion are nine in number: 1. the method of the book, 2. the method of influence (ch’uan), 3. the method of cause (yin), 4. the method of the example {), 5. the method of warning with criticism (fung), 6. the method of pure warning (chin), 7. the method of mercy (know), 8. the method of virtue (), 9. the method of force (left); Each of these methods has something to do: the book method teaches the Koran literature and thus analyzes the highest law and lets people enter into the purest and finest and no longer lets them waver. The method of influence follows custom and usage, mild at first, then more severe, and lets them get used to it (mature) and enter into the purest and finest. The third method, the method of cause, follows the language of the place {hsiang-wen) and teaches the right law, it lets people belong to the center (core being) and does not let them go astray. The example method uses every matter (tuan, Event) and compares with it; it is shallow at first, then deep; it allows people to understand themselves and to belong to what is absolutely correct. The criticism method shows them the one-sided, the dependent, and lets them think for themselves and belong to the right size (normal size). The warning method uses the time of worry, wound and illness, and it uses the opportunity of fear, anxiety, sadness and joy, and in this roundabout way makes worldly things seem boring to man (shih = dunjā) and lets them think for themselves and belong to the normal way. The mercy method uses the time of starvation, freezing and adversity and uses the opportunity of embitterment and homelessness (wandering around) and donates clothes and food and comforts with fine words, whereby they feel grateful and turn to the right teaching. The virtue method tirelessly loves the good and strives ceaselessly and personally loves the good example and makes it see and feel and get on the right path. The force method has money and power; by applying severe penalties and prohibitions, it achieves decency by force and gradually lets them get used to the right path ”. - (p. 17b, 7) “The nine methods are used as the doctor has his specific prescriptions. Anyone suffering from a hot fever is given cooling medicine; those who suffer from cold are given warming medicine; those who are sick with weakness receive restorative medicine; those who suffer from constipation are given laxative medicine. If one is sick of heat and is given warming medicine, etc., the disease will not go away, and not a single one in a hundred will recover; then the sick person has no time to guard against it (against the wrong medicine; meaning: he can hardly escape from the wrong treatment); will he then go to the doctor? ”- (p. 18a, 2) When one is sick etc .; this section compares Arabia and the oriental countries. - (P. 18a, 9) “The religion of Confucius is like clothing, the religion of Islam is like food; without clothes you freeze, without food you go hungry. " 35 - (p. 18b, 7) “The old scholars did not follow the Koran (did not know the Koran exactly), and: whoever is poor in teaching (has not studied enough) cannot help himself; are such people sinners before Allah? Answer: From a [201] Piece of meat can be seen the trace of a whole bowl; with a drop of water you can bring out the taste of the great sea ”. Examples from Chinese history now follow; later there is no further talk of the old scholars; The section has probably been greatly shortened, but the sense in any case is: when there was no Koran, there were already researchers, and after the Koran came there were still people who were ignorant; it continues like this until the end of p. 20a. - (p. 20b, 1) “The guest says: Allah does not forgive someone who is over 40 years of age; will not those who are 50, 60, 70 years old and gain faith be forgiven? Answer: All men and women learn until the day of death, because human knowledge has limits, but the way and the law are infinite. " 36 - (p. 21a, 1) “The guest says: All believers have this heart (the same heart), but are not identical; why is that? Answer: In the Koran it says: Allah created the heart of man (nu p’u "Servants") after a lê shih (i.e. the throne); the heart is that a lê shih of the body; by a lê shih the limit of color and space is found and this approaches the wonderful world (the mystical world of wonders), half outside, half inside ”; it becomes everlasting with a lê shih operates until p. 21a to the end; also p. 21b speculations about the heart that cannot find grace in the darkness of Allah; all very mystical. - (p. 22a, 2) "In the Koran it says: I created man and the gods in hell". - (pp. 22a, 7), The earlier sage a pu tu la hsi (Abdullah?) Said: The heart worries about eight things every day until it gets tired and sleeps; it was someone who then asked him; the old sage replied: I take care of the time when I received life, in such a time there are people who have faith and those who have no; I take care of the time when one goes to the grave; there are some who are of those who are mild and clear, and others who are narrow and dark; within the lonely grave he (man) is tormented and asked by angels; there are some who can answer and some who cannot answer ”. - (Comment p. 22b, 1) “In the Koran it says: After a deceased has gone to the grave, two angels meet, the name of the one is meng k’e êrh (d. i. munkir), which is the other's name nai ye êrh (d. i. nakīr; to read is natural nai chi êrh