How are sewer locks made

Prussian Province: 1864-1918

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Village / Flecken / City of Barmstedt / Barmstedter Region - Rantzau / County of Rantzau

Excerpt from a postcard from the Barmstedter Marktplatz (approx. 1902) with the syringe house on the left and the shed for the hearse of the shoemaker's guild (since 1868), in the middle the gym and on the right the Barmstedter Hof, behind the Hotel Holsteinischer Hof. This house was only demolished in 2004 in favor of the thoroughfare from Königstrasse to Marktstrasse.

Schleswig and Holstein in the time of the condominium

The German Confederation from 1815 to 1866
For Barmstedt and the administration of the County of Rantzau, the German-Danish war and the Peace of Vienna on October 30, 1864 created a completely new political situation. The Danish rule in the duchies was over, but at the same time the forced administration of the German Confederation over Holstein and the German annexation of Schleswig created a new legal situation that was quite unclear. The entire future direction of German politics was subject to the proviso that the Rivalry between the two leading states Prussia and Austria-Hungary had to be resolved. The German Confederation originally comprised (1815) 34 principalities and 4 free cities, now had 35 members. Both great powers owned territories that did not belong to the German Confederation. Bismarck strove for Prussia small German solution on, i.e. the unification of the German states to the exclusion of Austria under Prussian leadership. Austria, on the other hand, aspired to Greater German solution an association of all German-speaking countries under Austrian leadership. The idea of ​​a corresponded to this goal independent Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein under the Augustenburg Duke Friedrich VIII. Bismarck, the Prussian Prime Minister, on the other hand, pursued the goal of one Incorporation of the area into the Prussian Kingdom.

To bridge this provisional period, the two powers reached an agreement condominium, so a joint administration of the two duchies by Prussia and Austria. That meant having two civil commissioners as overseers over the common government who were first in Kiel, then in Schleswig.

At the diplomatic level, Bismarck initially only demanded Canal locks on the Eider Canal to secure the connection between the East Elbe and Rhenish territories, inclusion of Schleswig-Holstein in the Zollverein and military, post and telegraphic sovereignty to Prussia. These questions were initially resolved in a compromise in the Gastein Treaty on August 14, 1865. From now on Schleswig was ruled by the Prussian governor von Manteuffel and Holstein by the Austrian governor von Gablenz. Rendsburg became a federal fortress, Kiel a federal port. The Duchy of Lauenburg fell to Prussia in exchange for compensation for Austria. However, Prussia very soon relocated its naval station from Danzig to Kiel, i.e. to the federal port, and thus attracted Austria. For Prussia, on the other hand, it was a nuisance that the Augustenburger and his partisans could operate freely in Holstein. (Degn, p. 246)

Adolf von Moltke, last administrator on Rantzau and first district administrator
The bicycle was developed as a high wheel from 1865 and initially served as sports equipment and as a "vehicle of emancipation", then became the predominant "means of transport for individual transport for those who could not afford a carriage, horse and cart." (Lange 1996, p. 61)

Adolph von Moltke, the administrator on Rantzau, had sworn an oath to the Danish king in 1852 as the royal-ducal administrator and had now been overrun by the new conditions, and he found himself in an uncertain position. His brother, the now famous Prussian Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke, prevented him from resigning and supported his position as a leading official. Resignation would have meant the loss of all income and thus - due to lack of property - the loss of the previous standard of living - and that was not insignificant and resulted in costs, e.g. B. for the six children. Wilhelm (17) and Helmuth (16) were meanwhile at the Christianeum in Altona, Marie (15), Friedrich (11), Ludwig (9) and Louise (8) were taught by private tutors on the Schlossinsel. (Jessen, p. 189)

In the years 1863/64 a Barmstedt gymnastics club foundedon which today's BMTV (Barmstedter men's gymnastics club from 1864 eV). It can be assumed that "gymnastics" at that time was not only to be understood as the present day gymnastics division, since according to the tradition of "Turnvater Jahn" it was a "comprehensive concept [to be understood] of exercise activities useful in everyday life and in war counted numerous exercises on equipment, so-called popular exercises such as running, jumping and throwing, climbing or fencing, vaulting, wrestling, swimming and games. " In many other areas of Germany, with the resurgent national movement, gymnastics clubs emerged in the 1860s, which had been banned after the failure of the democratic revolution of 1848. Unfortunately, little is known about the early years in Barmstedt, but it is likely that club life came to a standstill after a few years. In the schools of Prussia, on the other hand, gymnastics had already become a permanent subject and, with the predominant drill, served not only to improve physical fitness but also to educate subjects. (200 years of gymnastics ...)

"German War" of 1866 and the Prussian annexation of Holstein and Schleswig

North German Confederation 1866-71. Prussia (blue) already covered more than half of the total area through the annexation of its war opponents in the German War
On June 1, 1866, Austria applied to the German Confederation to leave the future of the duchies to its resolution, and at the same time had the Holstein meeting of the estates convened. Not only this challenged Prussia, but Austria also allowed a kind of subsidiary government of Duke Friedrich VIII of Schleswig-Holstein-Augustenburg in Holstein. Therefore, Bismarck was able to determine a breach of the Gastein Convention with the determination of a condominium and on June 9, the Prussian troops under Manteuffel marched in from Schleswig. Austria then applied to the German Confederation to mobilize federal troops against Prussia. This agreed, whereupon Prussia declared the union to be dissolved.

In this so-called German war fought among others Hamburg and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, but also Italy on the Prussian side, Hanover and Bavaria on the Austrian side. The strategic direction in Prussia was Helmuth Graf von Moltke, Brother of the Barmstedt administrator. In the battle at Königgrätz in Bohemia the Prussians finally triumphed. Thanks to the Prussian victory, Italy was also able to receive the contested Veneto from Austria in its third war of independence. The only thing missing for territorial completeness was the Papal State in the urban area of ​​Rome, which was protected by French troops for the Pope.

The victory made both Bismarck and Wilhelm I as well as Moltke famous and popular in national liberal circles. Bismarck now openly admitted that he had broken the constitution with the army reform, which led to the split in the national movement. From those who subsequently agreed, the emerged National Liberal Party, especially supported by industrialists, bankers and Protestant educated citizens. The others, "who put freedom before unity, gathered in the German Progressive Party. Moltke received the highest award from the king, the Black Eagle, and a 200,000 thalers endowment. With these funds he was able to buy a good, which he finally bought with the Kreisau manor found in Silesia. "(Jessen, p.187f)

in the Peace of Prague of August 1866 Bismarck was able to get Austria to waive all claims against Schleswig-Holstein. In addition, Austria had to surrender Veneto to Italy and its allies, the Kingdom of Hanover, Nassau, Hessen-Kassel and Frankfurt, were annexed by Prussia. Bavaria and Saxony came under Prussian tutelage. Prussia founded the as a replacement for the German Confederation on August 18, 1866 North German Confederation. With the establishment of this first German federal state, Austria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and Dutch Limburg were finally pushed out of the process of nation-state formation.

With a Annexation patent of the Prussian House of Representatives and the Ownership patent from King Wilhelm I of January 12, 1867, Schleswig-Holstein was made a Prussian province. Schleswig-Holstein has now also been included in the German Customs Union. The Hanseatic cities of Hamburg, Lübeck and Bremen did not join until 1888. In February 1867 there was the first election for the constituent North German Reichstag. All men aged 25 and over who had full civil rights and received no poor relief were eligible to vote.

Barmstedt - a place in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein

Mayor Hermann Diedrich Greve (1868-1881), brewery owner
The administration extensive reforms took place in the new province. The previous antiquated Danish national structures were replaced by the Prussian ones, which had already more strongly absorbed the social, economic and political change process of industrialization. Criticism was suppressed by the Berlin government. V. a. the Prussian three years of military service many young men eluded themselves Emigration to America. (Bohn, p. 95) became an administrative center Schleswig. The Prussian President supervised the provincial government located here. Were under the government 20 circles With District administrators set up at the top and district assemblies as advisory bodies. With that the offices, administrations, Harden, manor districts etc. disappeared. The self-government of the municipalities and cities was strengthened by a more liberal municipal order.

In connection with the administrative reform, a number of names have also changed. In Barmstedt, the Authorized representative the mayor. As before, however, he carried out his office on a voluntary basis and from home. The last authorized representative was Nicolaus Springer been. He had held this office since 1863. His successor from 1868 was now the Mayor Hermann Diedrich Greve, brewery owner's main occupation.

In the countryside, the previous bailiwicks became political communities, which in turn were grouped into administrative districts. The district order determined their duties and rights. In 1889, three administrative districts were created in the parish of Barmstedt: 1. Lutzhorn with Lutzhorn, Groß Offenseth, Klein Offenseth, Bokholt, Rantzau forest estate, 2. Shirting with shirting, Langeln, Heede and Bilsen and 3. Bevern with Bevern, Ellerhoop, Seeth-Eckholt, Kölln-Reisieck and Bullenkuhlen. In 1948, these districts were dissolved and reunified, creating the current Rantzau office with the municipalities of Bevern, Bilsen, Bokholt-Hanredder, Bullenkuhlen, Ellerhoop, Groß Offenseth-Aspern, Heede, Shirtingen, Langeln and Lutzhorn.

The applicable from October 1, 1867 Prussian constitution the former Danish administrator Moltke had to implement step by step as early as October 1866. He initially continued to exercise his office on Rantzau and carried out Prussian laws such as the separation of justice and administration, the introduction of general conscription, Prussian tax laws and the elections to the first district assembly. There was, in some cases, considerable resistance from the population to some of these innovations.

According to the Prussian constitution, the district assemblies and city council assemblies had to send delegates to a provincial assembly with very limited rights.

Ice cellar for the Barmstedt brewery

Ice extraction on the Krückauwiesen

In 1866, the farmer and brewer Peter Grelck from the Prussian Ministry of Finance in Berlin rented one on the grounds of the official gardens of the court officials Ice cellar authorize. The ice was "harvested" in winter on the flooded meadows of the Krückauniederung and stored in a covered pit.

1868 End of the county of Rantzau - start for the district of Pinneberg

Manor house on the Schloßinsel - until 1867 apartment of the administrators of the County of Rantzau, from 1868 apartment of the magistrates
Drostei in Pinneberg, previously the residence of the Landdrosten of the Pinneberg lordship, from 1868 the seat of the district administrator and administrative center of the new Pinneberg district, now a cultural center
The new royal Prussian district court on the Schloßinsel

The most important change for Barmstedt was that Cancellation of the Rantzau administration, which was previously responsible for the county of Rantzau. It was included in the newly formed Pinneberg district together with the dominion of Pinneberg, the Uetersen monastery (with the exception of the Horst estate and the bailiwick of Krempdorf), the noble estates Haseldorf, Haselau and Seestermühe and the Flottbek chancellery. For the post of the future district administrator, the two previous senior officials Moltke (65) and the previous Pinneberger Landdrost Friedrich Graf von came Baudessin (46) in question. Despite his age, the Oberpräsident Scheel-Plessen struck - probably also under the pressure of his meanwhile influential brother, the chief of staff, - Adolf von Moltke before, so that this with effect from April 6, 1868 took up his post as district administrator could compete and with his wife to Pinneberg in the Drostei moved. Since residence was compulsory, he initially lived in the palace with 25 rooms, which he could only afford because, as a former Danish administrator, he continued to earn more than twice as much as a normal district administrator.

The Separation of the judiciary from the administration should create legal equality for all subjects. Above all, this had consequences for the privileges of the noble landowners, who, like the senior officials, have so far combined almost all sovereign rights for their district in their person. The province of Schleswig-Holstein was in 70 district court and 3 regional court districts split with a higher regional court.

New district court on the Schloßinsel: Moltke was now responsible as district administrator for a much larger district, but only a senior official in the administration. The judge's office, which he had also previously exercised, was transferred to a newly appointed district judge, who probably had what was then the most modern courtroom in Schleswig-Holstein available in the court building on the central castle island, which had just been built in 1863, because it was replaced by the previous state function one of the 70 local courts has now been set up on the castle islands From then on, the magistrate lived in the former residential building of the administrator.

Moltke retired on June 1, 1870. After the emerging German Empire became apparent with the beginning of the war against France, he wanted to run for a mandate from the Conservative Party in the Reichstag. First, however, he and his wife paid a visit to his brother at Gut Kreisau and then went on vacation to Lugano, where he died on April 7, 1871. His funeral took place in Barmstedt at the new cemetery "Auf der Ohe" (today Moltkestrasse) "with a large participation of the population" (Mosler; Jessen, p.190).

Franco-German War 1870/71

Nationalist escalation of the crisis between Prussia and France: In the summer of 1870 it came through a Succession question in Spain to an international crisis that Bismarck used to realize his plans for a German empire to be founded by the princes under Prussian leadership. The French government under Napoleon III. attempted under threat of war the Hereditary Prince Leopold von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, a relative of the Prussian royal family, whose candidacy Bismarck had run, to prevent, which initially succeeded by his personal resignation. However, when it was additionally demanded that Wilhelm I should continue to do so in the future
Street fight in Pont-Neyelles in December 1870
renounce the throne, and the king, who was on a spa stay in Ems, had this telegraphed to Bismarck, he used it Emser dispatchby shortening them, sharpening them and then having them published. Both the German and French press, as expected, made the diplomatic matter a matter of humiliation for the whole nation. The nationalism became for the first time an almost mystical mass movement in Germany, which combined hatred of the French with a willingness to make sacrifices in war and encompassed the southern as well as the northern German states. As the Paris government on July 19, 1870 declared war on Prussia, the support not only of the princes, but also of the masses for Prussia was no longer a question.However, there was resistance to this war from individual parties in southern German states, but it had no effect. (Mommsen, p.94ff, Jessen, p.196f)

Moltke had planned the campaign for a long time, the troops were well prepared and the first weeks of this war were in the Battles at Metz and Sedan victorious despite heavy losses for the German allies. Napoleon III was taken prisoner, whereupon the empire fell in Paris and the new republican leadership continued the war for months with popular armies under Gambetta. Through his diplomacy, Bismarck was able to ensure that the French government received no support from abroad, but got into a dispute with the Chief of Staff Moltke over his unauthorized conduct of negotiations with the Paris Defense Council. At the end of January 1871, Paris surrendered. One consequence of this was that the French troops withdrew from Rome, so that this city is now the capital of the newly founded Italy could be. In the peace negotiations, France had to Alsace and one Part of Lorraine give away, plus the incredibly high sum of 5 billion francs as war indemnity, with parts of north-east France remaining occupied by German troops until the final payment. The peace treaty was signed in Frankfurt in May 1871.

Forging an empire and the Bismarck era

Waloil lamp. Until the 1870s, candles and oil lamps were the most important means of lighting. The lamps were mostly made with animal oils, v. a. Whale tan, operated which threatened to become scarce due to declining whale populations on the world's oceans.
The main outcome of the war was that Foundation of the "German Reich" as a small German solution under Prussian leadership, the Kaiserreich. There was resistance to this plan from Bavaria in particular. However, Bismarck was able to bring negotiations to a conclusion by November 1870 with the four southern German states for their affiliation to the North German Confederation, whereby Bavaria was able to enforce individual particularist special interests, but Prussian hegemony was not in question (Mommsen, p. 99). The The imperial proclamation took place on January 18, 1871 in Versailles, that is, before the Parisians surrendered. The princes had arrived and the Grand Duke of Baden cheered for "Kaiser Wilhelm", which angered him because he had ordered the title "Kaiser of Germany".

On April 16, 1871, the new imperial constitution in force, which was basically the expanded constitution of the North German Confederation. It was not the emperor who was sovereign, as the generally accepted name suggests, but the Federal Council, in which Prussia did not have a majority. But since the office of emperor was tied to the person of the Prussian king, as was the office of imperial chancellor with that of Prussia. Prime Minister, the Prussian hegemony became a political reality despite the federal nature of the constitution. In addition, Bismarck was the only minister, the individual departments were led by state secretaries under him. The democratic element was formed by the Reichstag, for which a general, equal, direct and secret electoral law applied. However, only male Germans over 25 years of age were eligible to vote, which corresponded to 19.4% of the population at the time. There was a pure majority voting system, i.e. only the candidate from a constituency with the highest number of votes was elected.

First Reichstag election in Holstein: Interestingly enough, the "particularist" Jensen, a representative of the anti-Prussian German-Schleswig-Holstein party, which made a mixture of Augustburg, democratic and social-democratic demands, won the first Reichstag election in the constituency of Pinneberg / Segeberg: repeal of the Prussian annexation; Introduction of people's militias (meaning the fighting cooperatives of 1848); full self-government in the political and ecclesiastical community; Relief of hardship and misery through social reforms. This "state party" received only 2 out of 10 Schleswig-Holstein mandates. The MP Jensen had worked with Moltke in the Schleswig-Holstein interim government from 1848-52.

For the Prussian Landtag, thus also in the province of Schleswig-Holstein, the highly undemocratic continued to apply Three-class suffrage, which granted the 1st class of eligible voters with the highest tax revenue (4% in 1908) as many MPs as the 3rd class (82%), and the conservative Junkers' electoral districts in the east of the Elbe were strongly overrepresented.

The railroad as an economic engine. Paul Friedrich Meyerheim: Locomotive construction. From the cycle Life story of a locomotive (1873–1876) (wikipedia)
The boom of the early days: Economically, the founding of the empire fell into the Founding period, one Time of rapid economic boom across Europe, where many entrepreneurs and bankers, v. a. thanks to the construction of the railways quickly became very wealthy. In Germany this boom was intensified by the reparations payments from France, the larger coherent economic area by the abolition of borders in the empire and the freeing up of industrial capacities after a phase of war production. A single currency, the mark was introduced, whereby 119 different types of coins of the previous states were abolished. The minting of this amount of gold coins was only possible through the use of French gold. Of the 5 billion francs, 2.5 to 3 billion flowed directly into the German capital market. Paper money was not yet legal tender. In addition, in 1870 the license requirement for stock corporations was abolished, which together with the freedom of trade introduced in 1869 and the global economy led to an unprecedented boom in Germany as well.

Structural change and strong economic development also in Schleswig-Holstein: The Prussian freedom of trade, also introduced in Schleswig-Holstein in 1867, and economic freedom of movement, together with the densification of the railway network, led to a increased industrialization of the country. Numerous Suppliers arose and an unfolding Banking system led to the funding of a variety of Joint stock companies in the fields of iron processing, construction and mechanical engineering. The construction of the Kiel Canal in the 1880s and 1990s was of particular importance here. In the Agriculture advanced mechanization through the cooperative system, since now the Steam engine could be used jointly. The production was additionally through the use of the just invented Artificial fertilizer increased, so that a food and beverage industry could emerge. Steam farms there was soon in every village, which in turn led to more and more farmers on Dairy farming surrounded. An important concomitant phenomenon was the widespread expansion of businesses that specialized in the mechanization of agriculture. As a consequence of this the proportion of people working in agriculture fell from 50% in 1867 to a third at the end of the century. Many of the "released" moved from the countryside to the increasingly industrialized cities (urbanization), especially Altona, Neumünster and Kiel, but the Emigration overseas, especially to North America, became a mass movement. By 1900, more than 200,000 Schleswig-Holsteiners left their homeland this way. (Bohn, p. 97)

Black Friday in front of the Vienna Stock Exchange
Founders' crash: However, the wave of speculation led to the 1873 Founders' crash, to the first global financial crisis caused by a stock market crash. From 1871 to 1873, 928 stock corporations were founded in Prussia, compared with 88 in the years 1867 to 70. 61 new banks were founded. The euphoria had led to overcapacities, overproduction, frivolous lending and a speculative bubble that resulted in a fall in share prices, payment difficulties, bankruptcies and a withdrawal of private investors from the stock market. The crisis came from the Vienna Stock Exchange when, on Friday, May 9th, 1873, 120 companies went bankrupt, the prices plummeted from an average of 180 guilders to 10. In the summer the crisis hit London and New York, and in October also Berlin . "Because of the shortage of money on the capital market, there followed a widespread collapse of stock exchange, joint-stock and speculative companies. Of 843 joint-stock companies founded after 1870, 120 were in liquidation in 1874, and 37 had filed for bankruptcy." (see DHM). The result was an economic crisis in the form of economic stagnation or contraction, often called a depression. In Germany there was no more growth until 1879. Heavy industry, mechanical engineering and construction were particularly hard hit. Mass layoffs and bankruptcies led to social hardship for many people. To protect domestic industry and agriculture, which had come under price pressure, the German Reich, like other countries, imposed protective tariffs from 1879 onwards. Gradually, there was an economic consolidation, with the cost of living rising due to price increases without corresponding wage increases for the poor population compensating for this.

Rich and poor in the Empire

In Hamburg, emigrants board a steamer going to the USA (around 1850)
Social misery in the big cities as a result of urbanization made the social question on a dominant topic of domestic politics. The labor movement, which was now gaining popularity, drew consequences in Gotha in 1875 through the unification of the two existing parties ADAV and SDAP Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (SAPD). At the same time, in bourgeois circles, v. a. represented by Glagau, Marr, Treitschke, a anti-Semitism increasingly popular who claimed the "soulless materialism" of Jewish circles as the cause of the crisis.

Large-scale emigration: An important consequence of the economic depression was the swelling of the Wave of emigration, primarily to America.

Bourgeois residential building in Hamburg's Rothenbaumchaussee, today the embassy building

Architecture, art and urban planning:

  • The architecture of this period (around the turn of the century) is called Wilhelminian style or as historicism designated. It expressed itself in representative buildings that reflected the increased self-confidence of the rich bourgeoisie. In contrast to the epoch of classicism from the beginning of the century, antiquity was not copied, but styles from many epochs were adopted, sometimes mixed in the most varied of ways. Romanticism in particular exerted its influence on the clients of large buildings. The castles in are famous today Schwerin or in Bavaria that Ludwig II of Bavaria built. Although he hardly appeared politically, he was able to do several with the help of endowments from the Welf funds at the instigation of Bismarck Fairytale castles build for yourself. He was also a special patron Richard Wagner'swho composed his "Ring des Nibelungen" with recourse to legends of the Middle Ages. For his music, Wagner was able to build a festival theater in Bayreuth with Ludwig's help, which subsequently became a place of pilgrimage for national culture. The Reichstag building in Berlin was built between 1884 and 1894 in the neo-renaissance style. This was created in Hamburg at that time town hall (1884-97), several pompous state administration buildings and a number of impressive streets. Through the expansion of the port, former bourgeois and workers' residential areas were converted into industrial areas and the Speicherstadt built from 1883. The dock workers were relocated to suburbs such as Hammerbrook and Barmbek and completely new parts of the city. Tenements emerged, which were necessary due to the immense influx of workers from the rural area. Eppendorf and Eimsbüttel, which had previously been villages and villa suburbs, became districts of Hamburg from 1894 onwards. Every morning the workers walked in long columns from these workers' quarters to their workplaces in the port.

The old Barmstedt town hall in Bahnhofstrasse, initially built as a doctor's villa
Moltkestrasse. Postcard from 1916
Bahnhofstrasse, laid out in 1895, here with the villas built at the beginning of the century and the station building from 1895 in the background

In Barmstedt the Bahnhofstrasse newly created. When the Elmshorn - Barmstedt railway, including the station building, was completed in 1895, Bahnhofstrasse was also completed. As can be seen in the picture, representative villas were soon built on both the upper and the lower end. The old City Hall was built in 1903 as a doctor's villa for Dr. Oetken and, after his death, served as town hall for the city of Barmstedt from 1931 to 2007. The one leading to Elmshorn and Rantzau Moltkestrasse, which only now got its name after it had previously been called "Auf der Ohe", has been rebuilt. Most of the houses in both streets have typical features of the Wilhelminian style.

The war memorial, also called parish memorial, for those who fell in the wars of 1870/71 in front of the church with the mighty imperial eagle was also a memorial to the establishment of the empire after the Franco-German war
Kerosene lamp from the end of the 19th century. The era of crude oil began around 1870. After Ignacy Lukasiewicz from Poland invented the kerosene lamp, the demand for crude oil rose suddenly.

Soon after the founding of the empire, all over the country - supported by national associations - War memorials erected in memory of those who fell in the Franco-German war. At the same time they had the function of keeping in mind the national unification achieved with this war and the victory of Prussia. Barmstedt also received a splendid columnar parish monument on the lawn in front of the church, opposite the "long schoolhouse". It still stands today, but without the crowning imperial eagle with outspread wings. It is possible that this - like in Alveslohe - got lost after the Second World War. However, it was not renewed here in Barmstedt. The national feelings were stimulated on the one hand by such monuments, but on the other hand by the newly introduced national holidays. The most important was the sedan day on September 2nd. In all schools, instructions were held on the battles of 1870/71, on the Hohenzollern House, and corresponding ceremonies. In addition, "Emperor's birthday" became increasingly important. At the time of Wilhelm I celebrated March 22nd, later at the time of Wilhelm II on January 27th. The Barmstedter Zeitung reports z. B. in detail about the Emperor's birthday on March 22nd, 1887. Dr. Helmut Wulf, a boy from Barmstedt who was just 5 years old at the turn of the century, later recalled this:

"A short celebration was held in the schools and the students brought candles, flowers and oak greens with them to decorate the classrooms. The main sponsors of the events were the clubs, such as the military and warrior clubs, gymnastics clubs, choirs, song tables and men's choirs and mixed choir from 1905. There was also a remainder of the comrades-in-arms club from 1848, and the last 5-6 men still carried their flag with great pride when parades were carried out through the streets of the city. (Wulf, p.284)

This so-called chain picture from 1870 depicts the socialist opponents of the Franco-German war and protagonists of the early SDAP, who were temporarily in custody

Foundation of a local SDAP association in Barmstedt: Shoemaker journeymen and construction workers founded the "Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany" in Barmstedt in 1874. (Klose, BZ 09.03.1974) A group of the "Eisenacher" emerged here in the shoemaker's town, which had emerged in 1869 on the initiative of August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht in Eisenach from various groups of the political workers' movement. They were strongly internationalist, Marxist and anti-Prussian and thus stood in part in opposition to the ADAV, which had advocated the "small German solution" under Prussian leadership. The contrast that was shown here to the cult of worshiping Prussia with the war memorials was still widespread, at least before 1871, in bourgeois circles in Barmstedt as well as in the rest of Holstein. However, the founding of the empire gave rise to facts that gradually forced the national position to be adapted to the new reality. A year later, in May 1875 in Gotha, too, both directions were united in the social democracy "Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany", the SAP, and thus to a compromise on the essential issues. In the Gotha program, which was sharply criticized by Karl Marx, it said:

“In today's society the means of labor are monopolies of the capitalist class; the resulting dependence of the working class is the cause of misery and servitude in all forms. The liberation of work requires the transformation of the work equipment into the common good of society and the cooperative regulation of the overall work with charitable use and fair distribution of the labor yield.The liberation of labor must be the work of the working class, against which all other classes are only a reactionary mass. "

and in the second paragraph:

“Proceeding from these principles, the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany strives by all legal means for the free state and socialist society, the breaking of the iron wage law by abolishing the system of wage labor, the abolition of exploitation in all forms, the abolition of all social and political inequality . "

Incidentally, the Barmstedt local association had already given a membership of 60 for this party congress, while the Elmshorn local association was the third largest in Schleswig-Holstein with 300. In the Reichstag election in 1874, the new party had won 2 of 10 Schleswig-Holstein seats, which it had only achieved in the Rhine Province (1 seat) except in Saxony (6 seats). (Danker 1988, p.33)

On the left of this picture postcard from 1909 you can see the Grelck sawmill in Feldstrasse, on the right you can see the Abel mill

In the years 1872/73 the carpenter Jasper Grelck left a forest area that is important for today's Barmstedt area, the Grelckschen or Heeder firs, plant. On the agriculturally difficult to use land, which has a size of 112 hectares and consists largely of dunes, a landscape was created on the north bank of the Krückau between Lutzhorn, Heede and Heidmoor, which for generations of locals helped determine the landscape feeling of their home. Shortly afterwards he founded a carpentry and sawmill on Feldstrasse.

Bismarck's domestic and foreign policy

Reich Chancellor Bismarck, War Minister von Roon, Chief of Staff von Moltke
Bismarck's diplomacy: With the Three emperor agreement From 1873 between the monarchies of the German Empire, Austria-Hungary and Russia, Bismarck was able to achieve that a rapprochement between France and Russia was initially prevented, so that France, which had just been defeated, remained isolated. The Balkan crisis from 1876 onwards, however, broke this alliance when Russia attacked the Ottoman Empire and thereby injured Austro-Hungarian interests. The Berlin Congress of 1878, in which all the great powers and the Ottoman Empire were involved, created a "peace" solution for Southeastern Europe, which in the "Berlin Treaty" provided for new borders and areas of rule for the rival great powers in the Balkans. In order to put Russia under pressure, the German Reich concluded a secret defensive treaty with Austria-Hungary in 1879, the so-called. Dual Alliance, in which both sides assured each other full military support in the event of a Russian attack. Russia then renewed it again in 1881 with the Three Emperor's Alliance the old treaty which obliged all three powers to be benevolent in neutrality in the event of an unprovoked attack by a fourth power. This contract network was in turn supplemented by the expansion of the two-way network into one Triple Alliance by the admission of Italy. The three emperors could no longer be continued in 1887 due to the increasing differences between Russia and Austria-Hungary in the Balkans. In order to prevent the German Reich from facing two fronts, which was now becoming possible, Bismarck and the Russian Foreign Minister signed a three-year term in June 1887 secret agreement, the so-called Reinsurance contract. In this way, both sides assured each other of benevolent neutrality - in the case of an unprovoked attack by Austria-Hungary in the case of Russia, and by France in the case of Germany.

Repressive measures against social democracy: After the end of his "Kulturkampf" against the Center Party, Bismarck saw the greatest domestic political danger in the growing labor movement. In his view, their political demands for reduced working hours, minimum wages and accident protection threatened entrepreneurial freedom so severely that he wanted to enforce repressive measures by law. The chairmen of the SAPD, August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht, were sentenced to two years imprisonment for high treason in 1871 because of their opposition to the German-French war and their public sympathy for the Paris Commune. After Bismarck had failed in a first attempt due to the majority in the Reichstag with his anti-socialist laws, he dissolved the Reichstag after a failed assassination attempt on Kaiser Wilhelm and had new elections held, in which he untruthfully accused the Social Democrats of complicity in the attacks. With the votes of the Conservatives and National Liberals on October 19, 1878, the new Reichstag passed the "Law against the Public-Dangerous Endeavors of Social Democracy" (Socialist law). Bismarck saw the social democracy, which in 1877 had already received almost half a million votes, as a threat to the existing social order and developed a series of coercive measures to reduce its influence. The law came into force just two days after it was passed. Unions were generally banned. The party was not banned and could continue to participate in elections. But gatherings, gatherings and public celebrations were banned, press and professional bans were imposed, members were arrested or deported. The party therefore developed new forms of organization and resistance, e.g. B. Party congresses abroad and unidentifiable groups disguised as reading circles, card players and Sunday strollers. (Fischer, p. 168)

From 1883 the telephone was introduced in Schleswig-Holstein. Kiel received its first connection, Flensburg in 1884 and Meldorf in 1885. In many cities, however, there was initially no connection to the outside, only within the city. The young lady was called from office with the crank.

Bismarck had, however, also recognized that the social revolutionary danger was flanked by a Social legislation had to be met. In 1883 the statutory health insurance introduced for permanent workers. 2/3 of the contributions were paid by the workers and 1/3 by the employers. In this way, many workers had a realistic chance of medical treatment for the first time. In 1884 the employer had to pay for it Accident insurance in addition, which for the first time granted healing treatment and support to the workers who had had an accident in the company and their families, regardless of the employer's compassion. Previously, families whose breadwinner had died in an accident at work were absolutely destitute and had no claims whatsoever on the company or the state. In 1889 the Old age and disability insurance. The labor movement rejected the laws because it saw no substitute for the fundamental overcoming of the capitalist social structure; class society was not abolished as a result, but stabilized. The reforms went too far for the liberals; they saw them as state socialism.

In order to eliminate harmful competition for them, it came to in various industries Cartel formation. These methods were much more advanced in the USA. Oil wells had been discovered in Pennsylvania, the oil of which was further processed into petroleum (literal translation for "petroleum") in refineries. John D. Rockefeller monopolized the refinery processing and later also the distribution with his Standard Oil and amassed a huge fortune. The invention of pipelines allowed competition to arise again, but through their purchase this market also largely came to Rockefeller. It was not until the unbundling, enforced by a special law in 1911, that led to the split into several companies, including Exxon, whose growth, however, proceeded even faster because the automobile now led to an ever-increasing consumption of this fossil raw material.

In all industrialized countries now emerged Advocacy organizations on the employers' side to enforce demands against the government. At the same time, there were more and more workers illegally Unions founded in order to be able to enforce demands against the entrepreneurs in strikes and other actions.

Division of Africa by the colonial powers until 1914
The German Empire as a colonial power: The age of imperialism had changed the world since about 1870, when the major European powers began to bring ever larger parts of the world under their control economically and politically, if necessary also militarily, whereby the main aim was to prevent the other great powers from doing their "own" "To pursue territories interests. In Africa this "scramble for africa" ​​had that Colonization of Africa, started around 1880. The exploration of the continent by missionaries and geographers, combined with the commercial interests of private individuals in a time of technological advances (especially guns, steamships, railways) and economic crises, had led European governments to pay more attention to the not yet distributed "African cake". In order to establish the rules of the game, Bismarck invited the great powers to the so-called "Berlin Conference" (Congo Conference) in November 1884. V. a. Great Britain (Cape Colony), France (Algeria) and Portugal (Angola) had already taken possession of parts of the continent and the Belgian King Leopold II operated a colonization of the Congo Basin with the help of the Africa explorer Henry Morten Stanley. Germany, in turn, had declared several areas that had been "acquired" on behalf of German merchants to be protected areas. This is how the colonies came into being German South West Africa, German West Africa with Cameroon and Togoland. At the end of the conference, to which not a single African had been invited, all the powers involved in the Congo Act received claims to parts of Africa, but guaranteed each other free trade rights. The German Reich subsequently strengthened its interests overseas through "letters of protection" also for German East Africa with finally the areas of today's Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi, Witu, Somali coast and in the South Pacific, from 1898 also in Kiautschou / China. So by 1914 the fourth largest colonial empire in terms of area emerged - after the British, French and Russian empires.

The 70s and 80s in Barmstedt and the surrounding area

This picture postcard from 1902 shows the market square with the syringe house (left) and the gym.
The new Barmstedter dairy from 1880 on Königstrasse, where Lidl is today.

In April 1875 the Barmstedt volunteer fire department founded. The compulsory fire brigade had existed since the middle of the 18th century, where all citizens had to complete their compulsory service, e.g. B. by forming chains in order to pass the water to the scene of the fire with buckets from wells and bodies of water. A fire extinguishing well was required by the administration for a long time, but it was not built in combination with a pump until 1846. The Barmstedt Citizens' Association now took the example of the Volunteer Fire Corps that had just emerged in Kellinghusen and created such a team here as well. They were technically supported by Edm. Bochsen, the agent of the Aachener & Münchener Feuerversicherungsgesellschaft, who was able to say that his company "wanted to have a fire engine made free of charge". Founding members were Zacherias Freudentahl, Heinrich Schlüter, Wilhelm Prange, Karl Wulff, Joachim Mohr, Heinrich Lüdemann, Jobs Sass, Fritz Brömmer, H. Röttger, Johann Wolters, F. Peters, W. Springer, N. Springer, F. Lohse, Hans Grelck, H. Stark, H. Lüdemann, and H. Wiese. Since then there has not always been a conflict-free coexistence of volunteers and compulsory fire brigades. From around 1910 the volunteer fire brigade apparently took over the helm.

In 1877 brewery owner Fritz Peters bought the old brewery site from Peter Grelck with the ice cellar on Rantzau and built a new building from which the Rantzauer Castle Brewery should be.

The "birthplace" of the Barmstedter Zeitung in Austraße

Barmstedter Zeitung founded: On April 5, 1879, the book printer owner Anton Füßlein published his first edition of the “Barmstedter Zeitung”. In the house at Austraße 3, next to the Brügmann company, plumbing and installation, he had set up a printing workshop. The appearance was very important for the authorities, as the local bailiff had to call out all the announcements beforehand. It appeared twice a week (Tuesdays, Thursdays) and soon had several hundred subscribers. After a few years, Füßlein relocated the business to Kirchenstrasse and enlarged the format to the current one.

The new tower of the St. Nikolaikirche in Elmshorn

In 1880 the Barmstedt dairy, as the second in the Pinneberg district to Elmshorn. It was founded as a cooperative on January 4, 1880 by 62 farmers from Barmstedt-Großendorf, Lutzhorn, Bokel, Brande, Groß- and Klein-Offenseth, Aspern, Hanredder, Bullenkuhlen, Bevern, Heede and Shirtingen. The production facility in Barmstedter Königstrasse was put into operation in the same year, on November 8th, 1880. In the first year, around 1 million kg of milk were processed exclusively into butter. The establishment of further dairy farms in the vicinity, even in Bokholt, Heede, Ellerhoop and Lutzhorn, initially led to a crisis, as entire villages ceased to be suppliers. But since all farmers in the remaining villages soon switched from traditional processing to mechanical dairy processing, the number of members rose to 100 by 1900 and the amount processed from 1.25 million to 3.4 million liters. (Dössel, p. 210)

The newly cut Propstei Rantzau. Drawing: Bernhard Theilig

Propstei Rantzau is enlarged / Elmshorn Nikolaikirche receives neo-Gothic tower: In Cologne in 1880, 38 years after construction work began again, the towers that had been missing since the Middle Ages had been completed. This and the long-running discussion about the shape and location of the old ones St. Nikolaikirche in Elmshorn, which had no tower since the Thirty Years War, finally led to the decision in 1880 to build one Neo-Gothic style tower to build. As early as 1860, Provost Harding had written to the Royal Administration of Rantzau in a letter: "A tower that can be dispensed with is certainly an ornament", although a beautiful one, as you can see in the Barmstedt church. From his point of view, the more important argument was that the bells could hardly be heard from more distant houses. (Voigt, p.99) On the other hand, the idea of ​​building a new church at a different location so that the market square in the middle of the city could really become a market square was only represented by a minority. The design came from the architect Hillebrand and was completely shaped by the regulation for new church buildings that had been in effect since 1861, which stipulated that the new sacred buildings should be built "in the so-called Germanic (Gothic) style". The construction work was completed within a year and resulted in a tower which, at almost 55 meters, was the tallest building in the city at the time.

Also in the Barmstedter Holy Spirit Church there was a modernization. She received new ones in 1886 Kerosene candlesticks. Before, there had only been candlelight at evening events.

The provost districts in the province of Schleswig-Holstein were redistributed through a new consistorial ordinance. The Propstei Rantzau received in addition to the parishes of Barmstedt, Hörnerkirchen and Elmshorn (the old county of Rantzau) the parishes of Glückstadt, Hohenfelde, Horst, Kollmar, Neuendorf, Stellau and Kellinghusen - 11 churches with 18 preachers. The term parish was replaced by parish. The supervision of the school system remained with the church.

Pharmacy, home and official residence of Mayor Johann Otto Rode
Mayor Johann Otto Fr. Rode (1881-1905), pharmacist

In 1887, for the first time, what has become an indispensable part of the city's life today Barmstedt children's festival hosted. The initiative came from the teachers of the boys 'and girls' schools under the direction of Rector Tank. "In the first years of 1887 the entire school youth went to the meadow in Vossloch on a mostly hot July day and in the evening in the hall to dance. On the meadow, sack races, egg skating were popular and every class played king and queen. As before mentioned, Rector Friedrich Tank and his teaching staff were the organizers, but citizens were already there as helpers - certainly initially quite voluntarily and unsolicited, simply from the knowledge that a sack of fleas is easier to look after than a happy crowd of children. Together, the children were well protected in the hustle and bustle of the festivities, and Barmstedt's women took care of their physical well-being with cocoa, coffee and cake.

The Wilhelmine era begins

  • Three emperors year 1888: