Why are most Brazilian models white
So are Paulo Lins and Daniel Munduruku the quota men of two minorities? Not at all. It is true that the Indians actually only make up 0.4 percent of the Brazilian population, which is not least due to the fact that they have been massacred again and again since the 16th century. The Afro-Brazilians, on the other hand, are the majority in the country. With the last census in 2010, the ratio tipped for the first time. Of the almost 191 million Brazilians, 47.73 percent described themselves as white, 50.74 percent as black or brown.
The respondents had to choose between the five options white, black, brown (pardo), yellow and indigenous. The term "pardo" is an attempt to find a collective term for the innumerable shades of skin color. But Pardo also means "gray, doubtful". "Pardo is not the color of people, it is the color of cats or wrapping paper," said historian Wania Sant'Anna. The black movement also rejects the word pardo as a category for skin colors.
Whites are served first
Racism and discrimination have been a criminal offense in Brazil since 1988. Everyday life looks different. Black lawyers, footballers and politicians are regularly checked at gunpoint by the police when they are driving. You will be turned away from office buildings or restaurants (by the black porter). Waiters serve the white and then the dark-skinned guest first. The models on the covers of Brazilian magazines are white, as white as Gisele Bündchen, for example. Just like the stars in the popular telenovelas are white and blonde. Blacks tend to fill supporting roles such as housemaid, chauffeur or crook.
The cruel racial theories with which the white elites were still planning plans for the resettlement, deportation, sterilization and extermination of blacks in the 19th century had originally come over from Europe.
As a reaction to the dark years, Gilberto Freyre founded the myth of a racial democracy in Brazil in 1938 with his basic sociological work "Manor and Slave Hut". He saw the society of whites, blacks and indigenous peoples as an opportunity for Brazil, which should be based on the harmonious coexistence of the ethnic groups. Today his theses are criticized because this alleged harmony prevented a debate about the real problem.
Carnival ban for black people
Politicians soon used Freyre's theses for their goals. Getulio Vargas, who ruled Brazil as a dictator from 1930 to 1945, needed a strong national feeling for his centralized state. A Brazilian identity of its own that could unite the huge country should be established as quickly as possible. At this time, the Afro-Brazilian culture with its samba, carnival parades, the martial art of capoeira and the candomblé belief became part of the Brazilian identity.
What is now considered to be the epitome of Brazil was previously a criminal offense. Capoeiristas and Candomblé priests were persecuted, the carnival was taboo for blacks. Samba was considered uncivilized "Negro music".
The appropriation of their culture, however, did not protect the Afro-Brazilians from discrimination. 124 years after the end of slavery, people of color and natives still attend poorer schools than whites, they earn less, cannot afford to see a doctor and statistically die earlier. Often through violence.
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