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Human medicine

CERTIFIED TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH ***

(National coat of arms)

Faculties of the

Human medicine

Created by:

Prof. Dr. Ali Almahdi Obed

Dr. Abdelaziz Hussein Alhallafi

Dr. Noori Abdelaziz Mejder

Dr. Mohamed Yosuf Almeges

Dr. Ramdhan A. Ben Roin

Dr. Jamal Albahlool Bardam

and more

Checked by

Dr. Mohamed Salih Al Arabi

Prof. Roger Green

Expert from UK

First edition

2009

(Official seal of the registrar of the medical faculty of the Garyounis

(Benghazi) University)

*** This translation and the other translations of the curricula of the

Med. Faculties of the Univ. Sirte & Sebha made by this office

are only allowed with the original stamp & original signature of the office

be used. A copy without an original stamp from the office is not permitted

be used.

لا يسمح بالأستفادة من نسخ غير مصدقة من هذه الترجمة وتراجم المناهج الأخری التي أنجزت من قبل هذا المکتب

بدون وجود ختم وأمضاء أصليين للمكتب عليها

Barzini translation agency

C1, 8; 68159 Mannheim

.


THE CONTENT

title

Department of Anatomy

Anatomy Curriculum (First Year)

Department of Anatomy

Anatomy Curriculum (Second Year)

Page no.

Department of Biochemistry 13

Medical school

Department of Biochemistry

Department of Anatomy and Histology 35

Family & Community Medicine 45

1

7

25

Medical school

Internal Medicine Curriculum for

Undergraduate medical students MB.

B.Ch

Department of Surgery

Surgery curriculum

basis of

surgery

Microbiology and immunology

Curriculum for the pre-diploma hours

Medical Faculty

91

115

173

The Committee on Clinical

183

Parasitology in the great

Jamahiriah

Department of Pathology 193


DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

CURRICULUM IN ANATOMY

FOR THE FIRST YEAR

[medical]

The aim of this course is to teach pre-diploma

Medical students applying in human morphology

topographical, systemic, surface and radiological anatomy,

and to give the pre-clinical students the basic knowledge of anatomy

convey what is necessary for clinical practice.

• The teaching program consists of:

lectures

Internships

Total hours

94 hours

128 hours

222 hours

• Prescribed medicine books:

1. Gray’s Anatomy for students.

2. Cunningham’s manual of practical anatomy.

3. Clinical Anatomy by Richard S. Snell.

4. Medical Embryology by T.W.Sadler.

• Specialist books:

1. Gray’s Textbook of Anatomy.

2. Cunningham’s Textbook of Anatomy.

3. Surface and Radiological Anatomy by Hamilton Simon.

4. Developmental Anatomy by LB.Arey.

• The course duration is one academic year with the following content:

1. Regional, applied, surface and radiological anatomy

of the upper extremities.

2. Regional, applied, surface and radiological anatomy

of the lower extremities.

3. Regional, applied, surface and radiological

Anatomy of the thorax.

4. Anatomy of Development [Allg. Embryology] and

congenital abnormalities.

5. General anatomy

Department of Anatomy 3


• Detailed curriculum for the first medical year:

1. General anatomy:

■ Anatomical terms.

■ skin and fascia.

■ skeletal system.

■ Joint system.

■ muscular system.

■ vascular system.

■ nervous system.

2. Regional anatomy of the upper limb:

■ Upper limb bones

■ Chest area.

■ armpits.

■ back.

■ Scapular region.

■ arm.

■ Elbow bend.

■ forearm.

■ hand.

■ Upper extremity lymph nodes.

■ joints of the upper extremities

■ Surface and applied

• X-ray of the upper extremities

3. Regional anatomy of the lower extremities:

■ bones of the lower extremities.

■ thighs.

■ buttock region.

■ hollow of the knee.

■ leg.

4 Department of Anatomy


■ foot.

■ Lower extremity lymph nodes.

■ Joints of the lower extremities.

■ surface and applied.

■ X-ray of the lower extremities.

4. Regional anatomy of the thorax:

■ rib cage.

■ chest wall.

■ pleura and lungs.

■ Heart and great vessels.

■ Mediastinum.

■ Diaphragm.

■ Lymph nodes of the thorax.

■ Joints of the thorax.

■ surface and applied.

■ X-ray of the chest

5. General embryology:

■ gametogenesis.

■ ovulation.

■ fertilization.

■ Cell division.

■ Nesting.

■ Two-leaved & three-leaved germinal disc.

■ Embryo period.

■ fetal period.

■ Fetal membrane & placenta.

■ Twins & Congenital Malformations.

P.S .: The development of the CNS - respiratory system and the limbs

is taught in the 1st year.

EXAM:

1. Continuous assessment.

2. Final exam.

The assessment includes a written and a practical exam,

during the final exam from written, practical and

oral exams.

• Written exam:

■ For assessment: includes short essay questions, multiple-choice

Questions and filling in blanks.

■ For the final exam: includes multiple-choice questions, filling out

of blanks, pairings and diagrams.

• PRACTICAL EXAM: Recognition and commentary.

• ORAL EXAM: two boards, one for bones and

the other for soft tissues.


DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

CURRICULUM IN ANATOMY

FOR THE SECOND YEAR

[medical]

The aim of this course is to teach pre-diploma

Medical students applying in human morphology

topographical, systemic, surface and radiological anatomy,

and to give the pre-clinical students the basic knowledge of anatomy

convey what is necessary for clinical practice.

The teaching program consists of:

Lectures .. -............................................. 118 Hours

Internships ............... ------- ....................... ---- - 128 hours

Total hours ................................................

246 hours

• Prescribed medicine books:

1. Gray’s Anatomy for students.

2. Cunningham’s manual of practical anatomy.

3. Clinical Anatomy by Richard S. Snell.

4. Medical Embryology by T.W.Sadler.

5. Clinical Neuroanatomy by Richard S. Snell.

• Specialist books:

1. Gray’s Textbook of Anatomy.

2. Cunningham’s Textbook of Anatomy.

3. Surface and Radiological Anatomy by Hamilton Simon.

4. Developmental Anatomy by L.B. Arey.

6. Carpenter's Core Textbook of Neuroanatomy.

• The course duration is one academic year with the following content:

1. Regional, applied, surface and radiological anatomy of the

Head & neck.

2. Regional, applied, surface and radiological anatomy of the

Abdomen & pelvis.

3. Regional, applied anatomy of the brain [neuroanatomy].

4. Anatomy of development [special embryology] and innate

Anomalies.

Department of Anatomy 9


• CURRICULUM IN DETAIL FOR THE SECOND YEAR

1.Regional anatomy of the head and neck:

- skull, cervical vertebrae.

- Neck fascia.

- Neck triangles.

- neck.

- throat glands.

- blood vessels.

- Eye socket and its contents.

- scalp.

- Face.

- cranial cavity.

- The temporal and lower pit of the sleeping quarters.

- Lower jaw region.

- cranial nerves, neck plexus.

- nasal cavity.

- oral cavity.

- Pharynx & Larynx.

- ear and eyeball.

- Lymph nodes of the head & neck.

- Joints of the head & neck.

- X-ray of the head & neck.

2. Regional anatomy of the abdomen and pelvis:

ABDOMEN:

- Abdominal wall, rectus sheath, inguinal canal and external genitals.

- Important levels and subdivisions of the abdominal cavity.

- Anterior abdominal wall and lumbar fascia.

- Contents of the abdomen:

a. Peritoneum.

b. Internal organs of the abdomen.

c. Blood vessels - nerves - lymphatic vessels.

- lumbar vertebrae.

- X-ray of the abdomen.

- POOL:

- pelvic body.

- Perineum.

- pelvic organs.

- blood vessels - nerves - lymph vessels.

- pelvic muscles - pelvic floor - pelvic fascia.

- Joints of the pelvis.

- X-ray of the pelvis.


5. Central nervous system:

SPINAL MARK:

- Gross anatomy.

- meninges.

- Construction.

- arterial supply and venous drainage.

- Applied anatomy.

- BRAIN:

- Rough anatomy and structure.

- Meninges.

- arterial supply and venous drainage.

- brain stem.

- cerebellum.

- IV. Ventricle

- Diencephalon and the III. Ventricle.

- Cerebral hermisphere and lateral ventricle.

- spinal fluid.

- Basal ganglia and limbic system.

- Autonomous nervous system


4. Systemic embryology:

- digestive system.

- genitourinary system.

- Gill arches.

- Face - roof of the mouth and nose.

- tongue and salivary glands.

- Central nervous system

- Special sense organs.

- Endocrine system.

■ TEST:

1. Continuous assessment.

2. Final exam.

The assessment includes a written and a practical

Exam, while the final exam consists of written, practical

and oral exams.

■ WRITTEN EXAMINATION:

- For assessment: includes short essay questions, multiple choice questions

and filling in spaces.

- For the final exam: includes multiple-choice questions, completing

Spaces, pairings and diagrams.

■ PRACTICAL EXAM: Recognition and commenting.

ORAL EXAM: two boards, one for bones and the

others for soft tissues.

Department of Anatomy 12

For the correctness of the translation:

*** This translation and the other translations of the Med.

Faculties of the Univ. Sirte & Sebha made by this office are only allowed to

to be used with original stamp & original signature of the office. A copy

without the original stamp of the office may not be used.

_________________________________________________________________________M.

Barzingi

Barzingi translation agency:

Oath Interpreters & translators C 1, 8

Tel .: 0621.30 59 59 + 156 31 36

68159 Mannheim

Fax: 0621. 30 59 54 + 156 31 37

Mobile: 0176.832 60 922


Certified translation from the English language ***

Department of Biochemistry

Biochemistry Program Curriculum for

First year medical students (M.B.B.Ch)

No subject hours

1 acids, bases and buffers 04

2 Structure of amino acids and proteins 15

3 Immunochemistry 05

4 enzymes 15

5 Structure and biochemical basics of the

08

Function of vitamins and vitamin deficiency

6 chemistry of carbohydrates 07

7 chemistry of lipids 06

8 cell membrane 05

9 Chemistry of Nucleic Acids 06

10 body fluids 05

11 mineral metabolism

12 Biological Oxidation 05

Lectures:

Tutorials:

Internships:

87 hours

8 / year

7 / year (2 hours / event)

1. Acids, bases and buffers

• Water

• Acids and bases

• buffer

2. Structure of amino acids and proteins

• Introduction and biomedical significance

• Nomenclature and classification of amino acids

• Abbreviations and symbols for the most common amino acids

• Derived amino acids

• Properties of the amino acids

• Optical properties of the amino acids

• Optical activity

• stereoisomerism

• Acid-base properties of amino acids

• Henderson-Hasselbach equation

■ Deriving the equation

■ Evidence of buffering

■ Applying the equation

• Alanine titration

■ Dissociation of the amino acids - PKs

■ Alanine and histidine titration curve

■ buffer pairs

■ Isoelectric point

• peptides and proteins

• peptides

• Introduction and meaning

■ peptide bond

■ Naming of peptides

■ Naming of polypeptides


■ Characteristic properties of the peptide bond

■ Biologically active peptides

• Structure of proteins

• Introduction

• Primary structure

• Determination of amino acids

■ acid hydrolysis

■ chromatography

■ Quantitative analysis

■ Sequence of the peptides from their N-terminus

■ Edman reagent

• Secondary structure

■ α-helix

■ p-leaflet

• Tertiary structure

• Quaternary structure

• Protein folding and related diseases

• Denaturation of proteins

• Structure and functional relationship

• Globular proteins, myoglobin and hemoglobin

• Type and structure of hemoglobin

• O2 binding to myoglobin and hemoglobin

• Allosteric modulators of hemoglobin

• hemoglobinopathy

• Fiber proteins

• collagen

• Keratins

• elastin

• Cytoskeletal and motility proteins

• axoneme

• myosin

• Actin, tropomyosin and troponin

• muscle contraction

• Separation of proteins

• Salting out

• dialysis

• Ultra centrifugation

• electrophoresis

• chromatography

1. Immunochemistry

• Immune system cells.

• Structure of the immunoglobulin

• Types and fractionation of immunoglobulins

• Primary and Secondary Immune Response

• HLA

• Monoclonal antibodies.

2. Enzymes

• Definition and nomenclature of enzymes

• Catalytic activity of enzymes

• Mechanisms of action of enzymes

Biochemistry 17


• Cofactors and prosthetic groups

• Attachment to the active center

• Specificity of the enzyme action

• Factors Affecting Enzyme Kinetics

• enzyme concentration

• substrate concentration

• pH

• temperature

• Activators and Inhibitors

• Enzyme inhibition

• irreversible

• Reversible

■ Competitive

■ Not competitive and

■ uncompetitive

• Enzyme regulation

• amount of enzyme

■ Inducible and constitutive enzymes

• Allosteric regulation

• Covalent regulation

• Zymogen activation

• Enzyme modulators

• Compartmentalization

• Multi-enzyme complexes

• Use of enzymes in medicine

• Measurement of enzyme activity

3. Structure and biochemical basis of the function of

Vitamins and vitamin deficiency

• Introduction

• Fat-soluble vitamins

• Vitamin A

• Vitamin D

• Vitamin E

• Vitamin K

• Water soluble vitamins

• L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

• thiamine (B1)

• Riboflavin (B2)

• niacin (B3)

• pyridoxine (B6)

• biotin

• folic acid

• cyanocobalamin (B12)

• pantothenic acid

• lipoic acid

4. Chemistry of Carbohydrates

• Chemical properties of carbohydrates

• Classification of carbohydrates

• monosaccharides

• Trios

• Tetroses

• pentoses

• Hexoses

• Cyclic forms of monosaccharides


• Physical properties of the monosaccharides

• Derivatives of monosaccharides

• Amino sugar

• Deoxy sugar

• Sugar acids

• Sugar alcohols

• sugar phosphates

• glycosides

• disaccharides

• maltose

• lactose

• sucrose

• lactulose

• Polysaccharides

• Strength

• dextrins

• glycogen

• Dextrans

• cellulose

• Agar Agar

• inulin

• heteroglycans

• hyaluronic acid

• Chondriotin sulphate

• heparin

• heparin sulphate

• Dermatan sulphate

• Caratan Sulphate

• Conjugated carbohydrates

• Proteoglycans

• glycoproteins

■ Laminin

■ Fibronection

■ blood groups

• glycolipids

5. Chemistry of Lipids

• Definitions and meaning of lipids

• Glycerin and its medicinal importance

• Fatty acids and eicosinoids

• Classification

• Physical and chemical properties

• Classification of lipids

• Structure and function of lipids

• Simple lipids

■ fat

■ wax

• Complex lipids

■ phospholipids

■ glycolipids

■ Sulpholipids / aminolipids

■ lipoproteins

• Precursors and derived lipids

■ fatty acids

■ glycerine

■ steroids

■ fatty aldehydes

■ ketone bodies

■ vitamins


6. Cell membrane

• Features of the membranes

• Biochemical structure of the membrane

• Factors affecting membrane fluidity

• Transport through the membrane

• Disorders of the membrane

7. Nucleic acid chemistry

Definitions

• nucleic acid

• DNA

• RNA

• Other nucleic acids

• Genomes and genes

• bioinformatics

• Chemical structure of nucleic acids

• Monomers

• Bases for DNA and RNA

• Sugar for DNA and RNA

• Nucleotides and nucleoside phosphates

• Differences in shape

• DNA

• Types of RNA

• Directionality of DNA and RNA and their meaning

• Complementation

• Crick-Watson model

• Organization of the different units

of the molecule

• Types of DNA

• Structure of a chromosome

• chromatin

• nucleosome

• Organization of DNA in chromosomes

• Coding

• Not coding

• Repetitive

• Non-repetitive

• Genomes

• human (somatic and mitochondrial)

• Bacterial

• Viral

• Function of the RNA in relation to structure

• mRNA

• tRNA

• rRNA

• snRNA

• Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA

• Genetic code

• Thermal properties of DNA and RNA

Biochemistry 21


• Effect of ionic strength on DNA and RNA

• Analysis of DNA and RNA

• nucleic acid derivatives

• cAMP

• cGMP

• SAM

• Coenzymes

• Synthetic nucleotide analogs.

8. Body fluids

• blood

• Composition

• plasma proteins

• Biochemistry of the coagulation factors

• Milk and first milk

• Function

• Composition

• Cerebral spinal fluid

• Function

• Composition

• seminal plasma

• Function

• Composition

• synovial fluid

• Tears

• sweat

• saliva

9. Mineral metabolism

• Calcium, phosphorus, their regulation and role of PTH, calcitonin,

Vitamin D in metabolism, aldosterone and related hormones that

affect the mineral metabolism.

• Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Magnesium.

• Iodine, fluorine and iron metabolism.

• Metabolism of trace elements such as copper, zinc and magnesium.

10. Biological oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation

• Concepts of energy

• Free energy

• First and Second Law

• High energy connections and ATP / ADP cycle

• Redox potential and its relationship to free energy

• Structure of the mitochondria

• Introduction: enzymes involved in biological oxidation and

Coenzymes:

• Respiratory chain and its components.

• Oxidative phosphorylation; Oxidative decouplers

Phosphorylation.

• Inhibitors of the respiratory chain; Energy storage;

• Mechanisms of oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production.

• Regulation of oxidative phosphorylation

• Oxygen electrode

• Mitochondrial disease.


Practical curriculum for the biochemistry program for

First year medical students (M.B.B.Ch)

No.

experiment

1 basic principles of laboratory technology

2 Determination of total serum proteins

3 Determination of L-ascorbic acid in urine and blood

4 Analysis of the enzyme kinetics based on the ALP activity

5 Determination of total serum calcium

6 Determination of inorganic phosphates in serum

7 Isolation of DNA from biological samples


Medical school

Department of Biochemistry

Biochemistry Program Curriculum for

Second year medical students (M.B.B.Ch)

No subject hours

1 Molecular Biology 18

2 Basics of Metabolism 02

3 Carbohydrate Metabolism 22

4 Lipid Metabolism 18

5 Amino Acid Metabolism 22

6 Hormones and Biosignaling 15

7 Integration of Metabolism 06

8 nucleotide metabolism 06

9 Heme Metabolism 08

10 Xenobiotics 05

11 Clinical Enzymology 05

12 Clinical Nutrition 05

Lectures:

Tutorials:

Internships:

132 hours

9 / year

10 / year (2 hours / event)

1. Molecular biology: (gene expression)

Replication: THEN synthesis

• The cell cycle

• DNA replication

■ is semi-conservative

■ Basic requirements

■ Initiation

■ Replication fork

■ Formation of a new DANN strand

■ Leading strand

■ Okasaki fragments

■ Further function of DNA polymerase 1

■ Completion of DNA synthesis

• Eukaryotic DNA replication

• Telomeres and Telomerase

• Inhibition of DNA replication

• Transcription: RNA synthesis

• Initiation of transcription

• Promoter

• Initiation factors

• Enhancers and Silencers

• Transcription frequency signal

• Extension phase of the transcription

• Completion of the transcription

• Processing of the RNA after transcription

• Inhibitors of transcription

• RNA-dependent synthesis of DNA

• Translation: protein synthesis


• Genetic code

• Translation

■ Activation of amino acids

■ Initiation of translation

■ Translation extension phase

■ Completion of the translation

• Post translation processing

• Inhibitors of protein synthesis

• Mutation and DNA repair

• Causes of Mutations

• Types of mutations

• DNA repair

■ Photo activation

■ Excision repair

Regulation of gene expression

Gene regulation in prokaryotes

Gene regulation of eukaryotes

Regulation of cell death "apoptosis"

Regulation of cell proliferation

Recombinant DNA technology

Restriction endonucleases

DNA polymerases

DNA probes

Southern blot analysis

Polymorphism

DNA sequencing

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

DNA cloning

CDNA cloning

Transgenic organisms

Knockout mice

Gene library

Human genome project

Gene therapy

DNA vaccines

Animal cloning

Biosafety and Bioethics

Genomics and proteomics

Bioinformatics

Tumor markers

Basic concepts of metabolism:

Biomedical importance of the

metabolism

Metabolic pathways

• Catabolic Paths

• Anabolic Pathways

Carbohydrate metabolism with clinical correlations

Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates

Metabolic fate of absorbed hexoses and

their disorders

Interconversion of different hexoses

in the liver. Tissues dependent on blood glucose.

Biochemistry 29


• Glycolysis (aerobic and anaerobic)

• Oxidation of extramitochondrial reducing equivalents.

• fermentation (yeast and bacteria)

• Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate.

• Citric Acid Cycle.

• Gluconeogenesis and reversal of glycolysis.

• Glycogen metabolism and glycogen storage diseases

• HMP shunt; Uronic acid pathway.

• Metabolism of galactose, fructose.

• Blood glucose levels and factors that regulate them.

• diabetes; Glucose tolerance test; Anomalies in

Carbohydrate metabolism.

4. Lipid metabolism with clinical correlations

• Digestion and absorption

• Plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and its

Distinction.

• adipose tissue (white and brown)

• Adipose tissue and depot fat

• lipogenesis

• glycerin

• fatty acids

• Tryglycerides

• lipolysis

• Oxidation of fatty acids

• Ketogenesis

• ketolysis

• ketosis

• Metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids

• Cholesterol metabolism

• Phospholipid metabolism

• Fatty liver and lipotrophic factors

• The role of the liver in lipid metabolism

• Extra mitochondrial system for chain extension;

Regulation of lipogenesis.

• metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids; essential fatty acids and

their meaning.

• Phospholipids - their biosynthesis and breakdown.

• Cerebrosides, sulphatides and gangliosides.

• Disorders of lipid metabolism.

30 biochemistry


5. Amino Acid Metabolism with Clinical Correlations

• Introduction to the structure of amino acids and proteins

• Protein turnover and breakdown

• Biological value of proteins

• Nitrogen balance

• Protein energy malnutrition

• digestion of proteins and absorption of amino acids;

Mechanisms in their absorption (L- and D-amino acids).

• Essential and non-essential amino acids.

• Glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids.

• Amino acid catabolism

• deamination

• Transamination

• Transdesamination

• ammonia

• Swell

• Ammonia transport

• The fate of ammonia

• urea cycle

• Ammonia toxicity

• hyperammonaemia

• Important reactions of the amino acids

• Decarboxylation

• Transmethylation reaction and activated methyl cycle

• Fate of the carbon skeleton of amino acids

• metabolism of individual amino acids; Amino acidopathies.

• Tetrahydrofolate and One-Carbon Pool Metabolism

• Concept of the one-carbon group

• Folate as a carrier of the one-carbon unit

• Structure

• Active form and inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase

• Sources, fate and interconversion of the one-carbon

unit

• Congenital defects in amino acid metabolism

6. Biosignaling

• (mechanisms of action of hormones)

• Functions of hormones

• hormone classification

• hormone receptors

• Intracellular receptors

Biochemistry 31


• Extracellular receptors

• hormones and signal transduction

• Mechanisms of action of hormones

• cAMP as a secondary messenger substance

• The secondary messenger substance is cGMP

• Second messenger substance is kinase or phosphatidyl cascade

7. Integration of metabolism.

• tissue fuels

• Economy of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

• Type of metabolism of important tissues in a good nutritional state

• Type of metabolism of important tissues when hungry

• Mechanism of metabolism change in the liver

good nutritional status and hunger

• Substrate feed

• Allosteric effectors

• Covalent modification

• Induction and repression of enzymes

• Metabolic relationship in different nutritional and

Hormonal conditions

• Obesity

• Sports