Why do liberals always put others down
In 1867 the Reichsrat passed a constitution with a catalog of basic rights, the right of association and assembly was published, and in 1869 the church's influence in the field of education was reduced with the liberal Reich Primary School Act. In 1870, the Concordat concluded in 1855 between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Catholic Church was finally repealed and, with the electoral reform of 1873, direct suffrage for the Reichsrat was achieved.
From 1867 to 1879, the German Liberals held the majority of seats in the Reichsrat, where they were named "Constitutional Party " occurred. At the center of their economic policy were the establishment of companies, banks and stock corporations as well as the invitation to participate in these - often speculative - companies. With the stock market crash in 1873, however, confidence in the liberal economic policy and the power of those already weakened by internal struggles for direction dwindled Constitutional party. A part of the German liberals now turned more and more to German nationalism. Essentially, it was a conflict between the older and younger generations, which ultimately led to the division of the liberals and the establishment of the German national-liberal progress club.
Within the liberal camp, different political directions developed, which were adapted by the later major parties - the Social Democrats, the Christian Socials and the German Nationalists. Although the liberal legacy lived on in them, their common origin lies in their opposition to the ruling liberalism and in the attempt to counter the grievances within the multi-ethnic state. in the Linz program From 1882, representatives of the left wing of the dissolving liberal movement, including the later party leaders Georg Ritter von Schönerer (German National), Robert Pattai (Christian Social), and Victor Adler and Engelbert Pernerstorfer (Social Democracy), agreed on how to deal with social and national problems . In addition to German national concerns - German should become the state language - the demands related to the tax system, the representation of interests of the workers, the nationalization of the railways, the expansion of the right to vote as well as the freedom of the press, association and assembly.
The national and social problems that increasingly emerged during liberal rule - the miserable living conditions of a growing urban proletariat, the economic plight of the petty bourgeoisie, the craftsmen and tradesmen, and the worsening conflicts between the individual nationalities - liberalism did not know how to solve. He represented the interests of the petty bourgeoisie and workers inadequately and voted against an extension of the right to vote in order to secure the political supremacy of the property bourgeoisie. In contrast to the Liberals, however, the new political movements of the Social Democrats, Christian Socials and German Nationalists were devoted to the pressing social issues of the Habsburg Empire and the concerns of the population groups that had hitherto been excluded from the political decision-making process. Regardless of their common origins and cooperation, the later party leaders of the three major camps eventually went their separate ways due to their different ideological orientations.
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Hanisch, Ernst / Urbanitsch, Peter: Foundations and beginnings of associations, parties and associations in the Habsburg Monarchy, in: Rumpler, Helmut / Urbanitsch, Peter (ed.): The Habsburg Monarchy 1848-1918. Vol. VIII. Political public and civil society. 1st subband. Associations, parties and interest groups as carriers of political participation, Vienna 2006, 15-111
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Wandruszka, Adam: Austria's political structure. The development of parties and political movements, in: Benedikt, Heinrich (Ed.): History of the Republic of Austria, Vienna 1977, 289-486
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