Where would the renaissance bourgeoisie keep their wealth?

Reviews

Bernd Roeck, The morning of the world. History of the Renaissance, Munich (C. H. Beck) 2017 (Historical Library of the Gerda Henkel Foundation), 1304 pp., Ill., ISBN 978-3-406-69876-7, € 44.

This book has been published in the historical library of the Gerda Henkel Foundation, a series whose aim is "to give proven scientists the opportunity to bring fundamental knowledge from the field of historical humanities closer to an interested public" (blurb). Bernd Roeck undertakes the “attempt to put the Latin European renaissance into a comparative perspective in order to make its world historical significance visible” (p. 1178). Taking up the much discussed thesis of Jacob Burckhardt and developing it further, Roeck understands the Renaissance as a historical phenomenon which, through recourse to classical antiquity, brought about the “modernity” of western character (p. 1172 f.). For Roeck, its importance lay in the fact that it enabled fundamental discursive, scientific and technical innovations, which established the lasting shaping of the early modern world by Europe. Roeck's declared aim is to justify the “hegemonic position” of the Europeans up to the 19th century less with “capitalism, colonialism and imperialism” (p. 19) than to underpin it with their intellectual achievements. As the subtitle suggests, Roeck takes a complementary, partly contrary position to two other weighty works published in the same series, to Wolfgang Reinhard's “The Submission of the World. Global history of European expansion 1415–2015 ”, which sees violence as the key factor for global European success, as well as Jürgen Osterhammel's“ Transformation of the World ”, which justified the rise of Europe in the 19th century with more economic and power-political analyzes , which mainly extend into the 17th century, but point to starting points in the Renaissance. With a view to international renaissance research, Roeck's study joins the line of primarily Anglophone science that wants to evaluate the renaissance on a global scale as part of the current, so-called “global turn” (see, for example, the Article by Peter Burke / Luke Clossey / Felipe Fernández-Armesto, The global Renaissance, in: Journal of World History 28,1 [2017], pp. 1–30). Roeck wants to go beyond the exemplary representations of the Renaissance in the European context by Peter Burke and John Hale (p. 1178). According to Roeck, “spaces of possibility” (p. 20) must be considered through “deep historiography” in “very long periods of time” (p. 24), since they reflect groundbreaking “achievements of individuals” (p. 603) or “large Individuals ”(p. 1001) unfold. It is clearly important to the author to correlate intellectual and technical innovations with their "real historical prerequisites" (p. 435) and after-effects. In fact, the chain of arguments covers the period from the Neolithic to the 20th century and practically until today, while the “great Renaissance” is understood as a development that took place without major breaks from the 12th to the 17th century (pointedly : P. 343; discussion of the epoch delimitation: pp. 1165–1169). The “report” (p. 20), which is essentially chronological, is divided into four major sections: I. “Basics: From the beginnings to the turn of the millennium”, II. “Development of possibilities: 1000–1400”, III. “Realization of the possibilities: 1400–1600”, IV. “Views: The, West‘ and the rest ”. What Burckhardt regarded as a renaissance takes up about half in the study, which is almost 1200 pages long. Roeck's study goes far beyond the famous design of the Basel historian, not only in terms of the overall layout and chronology, but also in terms of the integration of comparative elements. Section I begins with agriculture and animal husbandry, the development of literacy and alphabets. He introduces the Athenian Polis, the fundamental intellectual achievements of dialogue and critical method, and Greek philosophy. From the Roman Empire and its collapse it goes into late antiquity. Patristic and the canon of the “Seven Liberal Arts” are presented. The importance given to early medieval monasteries “for the genesis of the Renaissance” (p. 112) can hardly be overestimated. After the Irish Scottish Christianization, the development of early Islamic empires and Byzantium is blinded to. The so-called “Carolingian Renaissance” is briefly acknowledged (“Karl and his people played a major role in the genesis of the Renaissance. But the old has not yet been subjected to any critical revision…”, p. 134), and then the Italian policy of German emperors as part of the framework the Ottonian idea of ​​Rome as an “essential prerequisite” of the Renaissance (p. 141), while later the concept of an “Ottonian Renaissance” was rejected (p. 168). It continues with a look at rulers and state formations in Eastern and Northern Europe. Then the Latin language is characterized as the “super medium of the educated” as a prerequisite for the Renaissance (p. 148). In the following, the importance of the Byzantine and especially the Arab world for the transmission of ancient knowledge and its progressiveness in relation to the political formations of core Europe around 1000 is emphasized (p. 172). Section II first turns to East Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Asia and describes the latter as the “middle of the world” at the turn of the millennium (p. 185). Following on from the research of Joseph Needham, Roeck raises a question that is particularly topical in his opinion: "How did it come about that Europe had overtaken China since the Renaissance ..." (p. 186; now also the volume by Thomas Maissen / Barbara Mittler , Why China did not have a Renaissance - and why that matters. An interdisciplinary dialogue, Berlin-Boston 2018). With short strokes he traces the cultural bloom under the Song rulers, which Roeck calls the renaissance. Since the 11th / 12th In the 19th century, “lost Europe started a race to catch up like no other” (p. 197). This was made possible by population growth, economic developments, urbanization and the monetary economy. The investiture controversy is described as a prerequisite for the “restraint of religion” (p. 219) and the basis of “modern secularization” (p. 223), crusades and Reconquista are relativized in their importance for the Renaissance compared to exchange by travelers (p. 229). The Third Lateran Council, the Magna Carta, the German controversy for the throne, the feudal system, cities, guilds, guilds, brotherhoods, parliaments, assemblies of estates, universities ("The reception of Roman law ... was the most important renaissance before the renaissance", p. 253), state-building processes, the role of ministerials, the development of institutions. In all of these processes in continental Europe "signs of the great renaissance" have been shown since the 12th century (p. 262), while Mongolian conquests are identified as "an important reason for the end of the Chinese soaring in science and technology" (p. 270). Andalusia is characterized as a contact zone with the Arab world before the courtly culture, heroic epic, historiography, theater (spiritual drama) are presented in Europe. For the renaissance of the 12th century, a “gradual disentanglement of the spheres of religion and the world” (p. 286) is noted. Further features are the replacement of canon law from theology, increased manuscript production and the Ovid Renaissance (p. 289), exchange with the Arab world (p. 296), increased church building (p. 297–299, with reference to Erwin Panofsky ) and the reception of antiquities (“With the Renaissance of the 12th century, the appropriation of antiquity on a large scale cast its shadow”, p. 299). Regarding the depiction of the mendicant orders, Roeck states to Francis: "Some take him as the founder figure of the Renaissance, as a movement of humanity and subjectivity" (p. 303). Europe around 1300 with its reception of Aristotle is described as a "spiritual landscape ... of fascinating diversity" (p. 316). Roeck has recognized signs of individuality since the 12th century, "certainly much earlier than Burckhardt believed" (p. 318). The political developments in Italy and Europe are reduced to the formula: "The identity of the states gained a firmer foundation" (p. 333). In addition, Roeck emphasizes travel literature, map production, the “nautical revolution” (p. 337) and paper production since the 12th century. The importance of notaries, a class of lay people, middle classes in cities and commercialization is important for the development of Renaissance humanism in Italy of education. Brunetto Latini, Lovato de ’Lovati, Coluccio Salutati and others make their appearance under the heading“ The first humanists ”. Dante's comedy appears to Roeck as the “climax” of “that renaissance that began in the 12th century” (p. 357). In the course of wars and uprisings, the Avignon exile of the popes and the “mentality break” Pest, Boccaccio's “Decamerone” made “something like the self-esteem of the Renaissance” tangible for the first time (p. 411). At the same time, "a scientific turning point" was brewing in the field of natural research and mathematical studies (p. 421), while in China since the 14th century under the Ming there had been as much intellectual decline as in the Arab world. Section III introduces Florence as the cradle of the Renaissance. Here "antiquity" as a "cultural code" gave expression to the republican spirit as well as the imperial self-confidence of the elites (p. 453). Here there was also the “dawn of a new artistic era” (p. 459), namely “via exchange processes and with the help of a thousand cartridges” (p. 493). In the following, the church councils of the 15th century and the re-establishment of the popes in Rome are dealt with. Condottieri are characterized as "constructors of early modern statehood" (p. 497). In the field of education there was a "rhetorical revolution" (p. 501), not only because of the orientation towards Ciceronian Latin, but also because of the Greek scholars who initially came from the Byzantine south. The "beginnings of European humanism" (p. 533) are presented below - embedded in political developments - as well as Gutenberg's media revolution, the discovery of the New World, but also the establishment of the Imperial Court of Justice as the climax of the “legal renaissance” (p. 630) . The High Renaissance with its well-known representatives, from Cesare Borgia to Da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raffael, as well as Machiavelli and Castiglione, is described succinctly. While the renaissance was received in Europe, the Ottoman Empire experienced a decline and also Moscow had "not succeeded until modern times" in "catching up the lead of Latin Europe" (p. 713). Following the voyages of discovery, the focus is on the “colonization of America” (p. 718), Luther's “religious revolution” (p. 732), the peasant war (“peasant revolution”, p. 745), the Italian wars, the differentiation of Protestants, the detachment of Henry VIII of England from the Curia, up to the "identity finding" of the Catholics in the Council of Trent. Regarding the connection between Renaissance humanism and the Reformation, Roeck remarks: "Both currents sought answers to the same theological challenges" (p. 790). Then the field of astronomy with the Copernican turn is dealt with, but Renaissance magic and alchemy are also valued in their importance as much as later medicine ("Practicing the method of progressing through trial and error", p. 823). “European Tableaus” show Western Europe in the age of denomination and baroque, but also the north, east, center and Italy in times of shifts in emphasis towards the Atlantic and the new world. The European expansion is given a lot of space here, with “state-building processes” (p. 900), the formation of “colonial Spanish identities” (p. 901) and the emergence of hybrid forms in the new world using “formulas of the European renaissance” (p . 905). Attempts to conquer East Asia are mentioned as well as "Renaissance people" in "Polar Regions" (p. 918) or the history of the late Renaissance. The “Autumn of the Renaissance” (p. 927) heralds a tour through the sculpture garden of Bomarzo in 1580. The description of Mannerism is linked. Montaigne, Cellini and Federico Zuccari are presented as well as Rabelais as a figure of a “turning point in the Renaissance” or “counter-Renaissance” (p. 938). According to Roeck, Rubens, Veronese, El Greco and Caravaggio are also figures of the Renaissance autumn (p. 943). Its key words are the scholarly republic, polyhistorians, collections, museums, chambers of curiosities and the “order of knowledge” (p. 948). Giordano Bruno's life story is presented as an expression of a conflict "which we pursued in this book from Canossa on" (p. 959), Shakespeare's theater provides "evidence that now, around 1600, an old, once firmly established worldview was in the process of breaking" (P. 971). After a further look at scientific innovations with special attention to astronomy up to Galileo Roeck gives “Streiflichter” on “Life between Renaissance and Baroque” (p. 1011). Here you can read about the baroque state, the raison d'être (p. 1015), the Thirty Years War (p. 1017), England's rise to imperial power, the East India Company, the global competition up to 1700 and the Ottomans before Vienna in 1683. “The real winner in the wars around the globe was therefore the early modern European state ”- so Roeck (p. 1027). The English developments open up the “space of possibility” for “scientific revolution” and “industrialization” (p. 1033) and Isaac Newton (1643–1727) is “as much a Prometheus of European modernism as the last great magician of the Renaissance” (p. 1043) ). Roeck places a strong emphasis on the industrial revolution as the beginning of the “great drifting apart” between Europe and the rest of the world (p. 1044 f.). In contrast to the research opinions cited above, he does not see the special economic and cultural conditions in Europe in the 17th century as the sole causalities for this, but rather defines “powerful foundations” in the Renaissance (pp. 1046-1048). Section IV, on the other hand, describes Russia and the Ottoman Empire as stately and religiously not progressive. The limitation of “pastoral power” and its “paralyzing effect” (p. 1077) was only made possible through the Renaissance and Reformation (p. 1072 f.), In contrast to societies from Africa to Asia, which were shaped by Islam or Buddhism. In China, "the conditions at that time were somewhat reminiscent of Renaissance Italy" (p. 1099), in Japan there were "particularly strange parallels" with the European renaissance under the Tokugawa (p. 1107), but there were no technological breakthroughs and social upheaval did not occur until the 18th century. To answer the question of why China did not become the site of a great renaissance pointing towards modernity, while there was no industrial awakening or technological innovations there, Roeck mentions political and social conditions, the lack of chances of patronage, the failure to form a civil society as well Peculiarities of the mentality and worldview of Confucianism. The “gap to the West” is “deeply rooted in China's society, in its spirituality, in its system of rule”, not just in the economy (p. 1129). For the West, on the other hand, it was primarily “the fire of religious dispute” from which the “phoenix of modernity” rose (p. 1132). In addition to geography, the foundations are statehood, urbanism and bourgeoisie with middle classes and a critical public, marriage habits, corporations, meetings of estates, parliaments, growth and innovation, information networks, culture-specific social behavior, the emergence of competitive societies, political fragmentation, chances of patronage, institutions, the existence of a super language Latin and has been a super medium of printing as well as, ultimately, the containment of religion. Roeck's thesis reads: "At the beginning of all technical and scientific revolutions there was availability beyond the intellectual patrimony of the near and distant past" (p. 1150).Jack Goody's view that renaissance existed in the sense of looking back at the past in all writing cultures, counteracting, Roeck describes the European renaissance as unique, measured by its long duration, wide range and character: According to Roeck, it was “not easy Reincarnation. This was the reason for their special position in world history ”(p. 1162). The book leads to the strong thesis: "Perhaps the renaissance and with it the 'great divergence' were nothing more than a prerequisite for the current 'great convergence' - and thus only a phase of a single process, namely global modernization" (p. 1169 f .). Since Burckhardt's day, the Renaissance has repeatedly proven to be a difficult historical phenomenon to grasp, also because its understanding is shaped by a diverse Renaissance discourse with different attempts at definition that have a scientific constructive character - an aspect that Roeck does not deal with. Minimalist positions that extend to the point of denying the existence of the Renaissance as a historical epoch contrasts Roeck's book with a maximal position, so to speak. This becomes possible because Roeck expressly understands the Renaissance as a “flowing world with blurred boundaries” (p. 1164). No question about it: the designed panorama is impressive and fascinating. This is a far-sighted book, full of clever analyzes on a large scale, clear diagnoses and apt formulations. It is enriching and stimulating to see such a consistently well thought-out grand narrative unfolded with its committed positioning, which makes it possible to rethink many aspects of the Renaissance and the premodern. In general, with such a broad understanding of the Renaissance, the question must be whether the concept is not being overused, and whether we are actually talking about a history of Western civilization from a comparative perspective, especially since this is echoed in Roeck's narrative itself. One can be divided as to whether a particular emphasis on technology, science and progress will hit the core of the Renaissance. A certain teleology must also be questioned, in which the entire Middle Ages appear as a prerequisite for the “Renaissance bloom” and early modern history as its direct consequence in an almost uninterrupted chain of causation. Despite all the richness of detail, the presentation is not free from selection and generalizations (to name just one example: the use of the investiture dispute and the Canossa gang as a leitmotif for “secularization” or a conflict between “church” and “world”, p. 222 , 958 f., 1131 f.) And cites literature that is partly out of date for the (late) Middle Ages. If, furthermore, “the renaissance” with the metaphor used here is taken as a prerequisite for the economic and political supremacy of Europeans and their sense of mission, while other societies, in the course of the great narrative, are primarily asked what contribution they make to a “European miracle” ( P. 19) have made whether they went through a historical phase in which they corresponded to certain standards and value categories defined in Europe or fell behind (e.g. p. 276 f. With reference to Byzantium, p. 446 on “Niedergang of the Arabic sciences ”), this can be perceived as Eurocentric. Even if Roeck hints at the dark side of this and the “modernity” (e.g. p. 1152 f.) And is concerned with values ​​such as human rights, democracy or the separation of church and state (p. 1172 f.), The perspective taken risks to obscure the view of historical alterity. Roeck's decision for such a further development of Burckhardt shows once again the discursive nature of Renaissance concepts. The readership targeted in the series will undoubtedly be well informed and entertained by Roeck with his book about the Renaissance. In addition, specialists from the various disciplines can also provide important food for thought. Especially the strong theses and big questions of the long duration as well as the "cultural comparisons" invite - depending on the research position - to deepen or justified contradiction. At the time, this was also a characteristic of Burckhardt's “attempt.” + TABRE + Tobias Daniels

Andrea Giardina (a cura di), Storia mondiale dell'Italia, con la collaborazione di Emmanuel Betta, Maria Pia Donato, Amedeo Feniello, Roma-Bari (Laterza) 2017 (I Robinson. Letture), XXX, 847 p., Fig. , ISBN 978-88-581-2983-8, € 30.

The flourishing industry of the “places of remembrance” is bringing out its independent Italian “twin” a year after the “Histoire mondiale de la France” 2017 in the same scope and format as a slightly different variant of this pattern. Because here, too, we are dealing with a collection of selective topics, however dealt with in the respective historical context, which, to the displeasure of the inventor at the time, Pierre Nora, unlike him, but as in the French work, also form a balanced chronological series here. It begins with "Ötzi" around 3200 BC and ends with the refugees on Lampedusa in 2015. Like many of the other subjects discussed, both already have political implications, not least because of the question of how far they are from a coherent "Italian" story Can be talked about. Andrea Giardina, the most prominent of the four eds., Deals extensively and successfully with this problem. A temporally and factually coherent "world history of Italy" with the traditional claim to complete representation would not only be a nationalistic fiction, but simply not feasible. Continuous national identity is no more tenable historically than the idea of ​​an Italian national character. And even the undisputed unique cultural heritage of Italy with its important personalities is not only relativized by Bertolt Brecht's suggestion that Caesar also had a cook (p. XXII). Because the two grandiose universalisms of Italy, the Imperium Romanum and the Roman Church, are based to a decisive extent on interaction outside of Italy. “Scoprire l’alieno nel simile” (p. XVIII) therefore means “presenze italiane nel mondo e mondiali in Italia” (p. XVI) discover. Mestizo is trump card and program (p. XXV). Just as the historical unity of Europe is paradoxically based on its fundamental inconsistency, so the truth of Italian history has always consisted of often contradicting stories, as they are discussed in the 180 chapters of the vol. And, thanks to their wealth, have become a kind of overall picture to shape. The impeccably qualified, predominantly Italian authors deal with their subject on four to five pages with five to seven references, mostly Italian or translations into Italian, less often English, French or German original titles. Each chapter has a date, specifically like the killing of Carlo Giuliani at the G8 summit in 2001, focused on 1864, when "Garibaldi global" made his appearance in London, or on 1563, the conclusion of the Council of Trent on behalf of the so-called " Counter-Reformation ”, or rather arbitrarily like 150 BC, when there is talk of European metal deposits in the Greenland Ice Sheet. This is followed by a short title that is as snappy as possible, z. B. “1680 La casa dei violini” about the Stradivarius or “1933 Il gigante italiano” about the boxing world champion Primo Carnera, followed by a still lively short introduction. The chapters are grouped into twelve series that correspond to traditional periodization. After a short introduction, an informative map of the respective locations is sent in advance. The colorful variety of topics also includes innovations in cultural history such as numerals (1228), glasses (1286), patent systems (1474), the Olivetti program (1964) and the latest consumer habits (1986, 1988). Embarrassing topics in recent Italian history are dealt with openly and critically (1896, 1922, 1931, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1943, 1946, 1947, 1994). Organized crime was only mentioned in 1931 as “classic” Italian-American, and strangely enough, the topic of resistance was not mentioned at all. Nevertheless - a book worth reading and aesthetically pleasing! + TABRE + Wolfgang Reinhard

Giuseppe Galasso, Storia della storiografia italiana. Un profilo, Roma-Bari (Laterza) 2017 (Biblioteca universale Laterza 676), VII, 249 pp., ISBN 978-88-581-2770-4, € 20.

Data all stampe pochi mesi prima della scomparsa il 12 febbraio 2018 all'età di 88 anni, l'ultima opera dello storico, giornalista e politico napoletano, fra i massimi esponenti dello storicismo italiano di impronta crociana, raccoglie la sua personale sintesi pensiero storiografico e politico italiano, dal medioevo fino agli anni Novanta del secolo scorso. Storico medievista e modernista di formazione, l’autore ha frequentato a lungo i temi della tradizione culturale e civile italiana. Ha affrontato buona parte delle tematiche del pensiero storico e della riflessione politica nazionale, forte della sua linea interpretativa storicista crociana, i cui temi fondamentali sono l'irriducibile contemporaneità della storiografia, legata al valore che anima la personalitá universal e singolar che si attua nella storiografia. Il volume nasce dalla ripubblicazione come saggio autonomo di una corposa introduzione pubblicata nel 2013 nella cornice dell '"VIII Appendice" al volume dell'Enciclopedia Italiana della Treccani "Il contributo italiano alla storia del pensiero" dedicato a storia e politica, diretto dalore . Per quell’opera, egli si occupò di redigere un saggio introduttivo che delineasse un profilo complessivo della vicenda storiografica italiana dal medioevo, appunto, al secolo XX. Il saggio è qui ripubblicato senza sostanziali modifiche, ma con l'aggiunta di una seconda parte che costituisce "un suo completamento per il lungo 'dopoguerra storiografico'" (p. VII), periodo che nel volume enciclopedico era stato affidato a un altro studioso (Massimo Mastrogregori, L'Italia repubblicana, pp. 597-630). Il profilo tracciato dall’autore delinea il carattere intrinseco alla storiografia italiana, che con lo storicismo crociano giunge alla sua forma più consapevole ed elaborata e, grazie a esso, si può collocare di diritto nel più ampio contesto europeo. La prima parte, dunque, mantiene il suo impianto a carattere introduttivo, proprio del precedente volume enciclopedico, di guida alle voci ordinate per temi e per persone che seguivano nella precedente pubblicazione. La trattazione è divisa in brevi paragrafi che seguono lo svolgimento cronologico e tematico degli sviluppi storiografici e della riflessione politica italiana, alla ricerca dell ’" italianità "attraverso cui si manifestavano le presenze e le attività. Nell'organizzazione interna a questa sezione, colpisce la continuità assoluta che l'autore propone tra l'epoca medievale e quella moderna: la vera cesura è invece nei confronti del mondo antico dato che “nella generale crisi e involuzione in cui tramontò l'antica civiltà ellenistico-romana del Mediterraneo la storiografia non soffrì meno di qualsiasi altro settore o elemento di quella civiltà ”(p. 5). Tuttavia, non potendo appiattire l'intera produione storiografica dal secolo V fino al presente entro la parabola unicamente nazionale, certamente impossibile da concepire per buona parte dei secoli medievali, l'autore propende piuttosto per la dicitura storiografia “in Italia”, almen epoch antecedenti all'anno Mille. La seconda sezione del volume, "Dalla tradizione alla ricerca di altre dimensioni", tratta, come si è detto, degli sviluppi storiografici italiani dal dopoguerra agli ultimi decenni del secolo XX. Queste pagine molto dense offrono un itinerario ragionato fra le diverse teorie della storiografia e le molte scuole storiche in cui si sono divisi gli studiosi italiani in quei decenni. Nel descrivere il percorso della storiografia italiana ed europea attraverso il difficoltoso superamento del secondo dopoguerra, l’autore parla esplicitamente di crisi del concetto di storia e della categoria della storicità. Lo storicismo crociano, egemone in Italia fino a quel momento, stava infatti, tra gli anni Cinquanta e Sessanta, lasciando il posto a nuove voci e interpretazioni storiografiche che ponevano le scienze sociali come il “nuovo verbo del mondo culturale post-bellico” (p . 219). Oltre alla lucidità con cui sono tratteggiati questi sviluppi, il saggio è reso ancora più stimolante poiché l'autore, che spazia magistralmente su tutti i vari settori storiografici dall'antichità all'età contemporanea an presenta al letta e faett esperienea an presenta aletta e faett , i dialoghi e le discussioni storiografiche con tanti colleghi, in quanto parte attiva della stessa accademia di cui traccia un bilancio.

Edoardo Manarini

Volker Reinhardt, pontiff. The History of the Popes, Munich (C. H. Beck) 2017, 928 pp., Ill., ISBN 978-3-406-70381-2, € 38.

Presenting a history of the Popes from the nebulous beginnings to the present day may seem like a risk or an immense, daring undertaking to most. Even epoch-making historians such as Leopold von Ranke, Ludwig von Pastor, Erich Caspar, Johannes Haller and Bernhard Schimmelpfennig limited themselves in their "stories" to a single age, at most to a millennium, and did not focus so much on the individual popes, but rather on the supra-personal institution of the papacy with its respective structural room for maneuver. The same applies to more recent works, such as those by Klaus Herbers and Georg Schwaiger. The historian Volker Reinhardt, who worked in Friborg - one of the leading experts on the history of the papacy and the Roman Church in the early modern period - did not shy away from such a challenge. Compared to similarly structured works, such as the popular scientific overview presentation by Horst Fuhrmann and the still strongly denominational papal story by Franz Xaver Seppelt, Reinhardt's book, despite the narrative, sometimes entertaining tone and the absence of an annotation apparatus, makes a much higher claim to scientificity , which is expressed above all in the enlightened and historically conscious criticism of the historical myths that are still associated with the papal office to this day. The almost 1000-page volume with over 100 illustrations is structured strictly chronologically. The focus is on the profiles of the individual pontificate or the individual popes as public figures. Structural framework conditions are always taken into account, but a lot of previous knowledge is simply a prerequisite. The advantages and disadvantages of this setting of priorities can best be illustrated by a concrete example: From the “Lord of Christendom” (Innocent III) the reader learns a lot about his family origins and school-university education, quite a lot about those in his treatise World conceptions occurring “from the misery of human existence”, even more about his “political” actions, but next to nothing about the Fourth Lateran Council initiated and directed by him and its epochal consequences. The concept of the vol. Also forces the author to cite at least the key data about all popes, even if the sources are extremely few and far between. In the case of other pontificate, on the other hand, for which there is an abundance of materials, the candidate has to proceed quite selectively, without being able to go into the selection criterion used. As a rule, the aspects that have had or have the greatest “media” echo are those that are discussed, regardless of whether they actually had a decisive impact on the institutional development of the papacy (for example the questions of the family and the sexual Moral doctrine among the younger popes). A nuanced nuance of important terms such as power, authority, (church) state, curia, politics, chancellery and encyclical would also have been helpful in some places in order to emphasize their historical relevance beyond the continuity staged by the popes. Although the work generally dispenses with the coining and formulation of strong historiographical theses, a stimulating suggestion for the interpretation of the two-thousand-year papal history cannot be overlooked: The external perception for the respective ruling pontiff is primarily a question of tactical discretion and image building, both of which in the service of the successful maintenance of the institution. It is about an interpretation that, from the point of view of the reviewer, applies above all, but not exclusively, to the pontificate of the last two centuries.The volume, which is completed with a selection bibliography, four cards and a register of persons, can be characterized as a satisfactory compromise between a scientific manual and a popular scientific overview, which tries for all epochs to take into account the current state of research and any controversies, and - the ideal of historiography invoked by Reinhardt sine ira et studio In spite of this, it offers interesting suggestions about the main features of the oldest, still operating institution on the old continent. + TABER + Étienne Doublier

Roberto Rusconi, Habemus papam. Il papato da Pietro ai nostri giorni, Bologna (Il Mulino) 2017 (Farsi un’idea 254), 134 pages, ISBN 978-88-15-27067-2, € 11.

Overviews of the papacy have always enjoyed great popularity, and this has increased in the past few decades. The little booklet to be displayed differs from the existing works in two main points: On the one hand, the author avoids a chronological structure with the most important historical stages, instead he examines some aspects as examples: title and choice of names of the popes, papal elections, cardinals and administration or canonization of popes. On the other hand, the author is evidently not so much concerned with an in-depth historical contextualization or the description of historical developments, but rather with a presentation of the current challenges facing the papacy against the background of its history. This orientation also explains the clearly recognizable focus on the Popes of the past 150 years, especially on the developments of the past years, which went hand in hand with the resignation of Benedict XVI, with the re-election of an Argentine, which is emphasized here, and with inner-curial lines of conflict. For it is precisely these faults that put the papacy in the eyes of the author before important fundamental decisions, for which a number of suggestions are given in the final chapter. A register is missing as well as notes. Instead, the little book ends with a list of the Popes and some reading recommendations on the subject. + TABER + Florian Hartmann

Harald Müller (ed.), The loss of uniqueness. On the crisis of papal authority in the struggle for the Cathedra Petri, Berlin-Boston (De Gruyter Oldenbourg) 2017, X, 244 p., Ill., ISBN 978-3-11-046154-1, € 69.95.

The interdisciplinary collection to be displayed here. emerged from a symposium at the Historisches Kolleg 2015 in Munich. As Ed. Harald Müller explains in the introduction, his aim is to examine the disorder and uncertainty resulting from the multiplication of offices and structures in the course of the schisms in the medieval Latin Church. In view of the general loss of authority at the top of the church, familiar levels of perception and action lost clarity, which created an awareness of the crisis. In retrospect, efforts were made to restore the uniqueness, even if only in the “official” succession lists of the Popes, which to this day - just think of the “double” John XXIII. - have quite a few inconsistencies. In the volume one finds allusions to current references to the resignation of Benedict XVI. and thus the “latent papal double leadership” (p. 13, fig. 1). In his contribution, the ancient historian Stefan Rebenich strives for a "dialogue between ancient history and papacy historiography" (p. 21) with a focus on the concepts of monarchical rule of the 4th and 5th centuries. The late ancient emperor did not rule absolutely, but required acceptance and consensus, for which the late Roman imperial constitutions in particular Codices Theodosianus and Justinianus worried. As soon as the Roman Curia, the imperial residences were places of performative confirmation of monarchical rule in art, literature, architecture, festival culture and ceremonial. Clientele relationships and patronage constituted elitist networks. The Christianization of the monarchy progressed rapidly after the conversion of Constantine the Great. Rulers like Theodosius I even staged themselves in a humble gesture. The author speaks openly of the "divine right" in late antiquity (p. 29). For the topic of the vol. The decisive point is the statement that only the unsuccessful pretender was considered a usurper (p. 33). Florian Eßer devotes himself to the Pisan Council. Twenty years after the outbreak of the Great Western Schism, 1408 cardinals of both obediences in Livorno agreed to hold a conciliar assembly. Everyone was aware that it could no longer be a question of the legality of the respective Pope. The two obediences should be the via cessionis To suggest to “their” respective Pope. One could approach one another because one moved away from automatically seeing a schismatic and heretic in the supporter of a “false” Pope (p. 50). Legal scholar Stefan Schima deepens this last aspect, the heresy implied the "danger of splitting the mystical body of Christ" (p. 55). Despite the principle that the great sedes there was not a lack of voices emphasizing that the Pope could be judged by the entire Church if he deviated from the right faith (p. 63). The next step was to postulate the superiority of the council over the pope in authors such as Johannes Teutonicus († 1245) or Henricus Bohic († 1350). The theologian and church historian Bernward Schmidt explores the question of how monastic theologians determined the foundations of authority. To this end, he analyzes four schools of thought, the abbot Gottfried von Vendôme (approx. 1065–1132), the Cistercian Bernhard von Clairvaux (1090–1153), the abbot of Cluny Petrus Venerabilis (approx. 1092–1156) and the canon regular Hugo von St Viktor (approx. 1097–1141) are represented. The first three authors in particular pushed ahead with the expansion of the papal primacy. Typical of the attitude of the monk authors is their appeal to "conversion, examination of conscience and penance", which are also recommended to all officials as a means of maintaining their authority (p. 86). Jochen Johrendt examines the outstanding character traits of a pope between the middle of the 11th century and the pontificate of Innocent III on the basis of the high medieval papal lives. What are the abilities of a “good Pope”? The papal vites, referred to as “semi-official papal historiography” (p. 94), are more diverse in this regard than one would think at first glance. Often there are virtues like justice and caritas at the top, the "Gesta Innocentii" celebrate the "maker" Innocent III. “The image of the Pope changed from a holy man to a church leader” (p. 107). The assistant scientist Benjamin Oskar Schönfeld investigates the "visual rhetoric" of the documents of the anti-popes. With the key words imitation (based on the example of the Reich Chancellery), improvisation (to which the popes were forced to choose scribes due to their constant travels) and innovation (in the design of the documents also as proof of their own legitimacy) the author brings his convincingly Insights to the point. The documents of the antipopes were subject (like this one!) To the damnatio memoriae and had a low chance of transmission (p. 111). The theologian Andreas Matena draws a wide arc from the 11th to the 15th century for his topic "The Pope as an Idol". The charge of idolatry has weighed heavily since Tertullian and became a popular term in times of schism. The illegitimate Pope was branded an idol, an idol. The argumentation of the article is not always completely linear, however, the interpretation of the Synod by Verzy (991) appears unclear (p. 129). Unfortunately, (typing) errors in the Latin and bibliographical information are also increasing in this article. BrittaMüller-Schauenburg examines the from the library of Benedict XIII. Originating collective manuscript BNF, Ms. Paris, lat. 1478. The papal book lover has combined writings here that allow deep insights into his theological-juridical self-image. A copy of Boniface's VIII Bull Unam sanctam can be found as well as the “Informatio seriosa” edited by Barbara von Langen-Monheim in 2004, the memorandum of the Aragonese Pope intended for the Council of Perpignan in 1408. Benedict XIII. saw himself as threatened by the French monarch as by the apostasy of his own cardinals. The affinity between Boniface VIII and Benedict XIII. was certainly also due to their mutual legal studies. Fatal for the Aragonese, however, was his unrealistic perseverance in the “fiction of a unity without a schism” (p. 159) with a sweeping attack against his opponents, who were unceremoniously declared heretics. Robert Gramsch-Stehfest shows the opportunities and risks that were presented to the regional actors in the Great Occidental Schism. The author presents individual biographies such as that of the chronicler Gobelinus Person, who came from the Paderborn bourgeoisie. Illustrative material is above all the "Mainz Schism" that broke out in 1374 between the two pretenders to the archbishopric, Adolf von Nassau and Ludwig von Wettin. Adolf was even before Leopold III. the first clementist imperial prince. For Erfurt this brought the permission to found a university both by Clemens VII (1379) and - after Adolf's change to the Pope in Rome - by Urban VI. (1389). The founding universities in Heidelberg (1386) and Cologne (1389) were also beneficiaries of the “competitive situation of the schism” (p. 176). In such constellations, the “ambiguity” of the situation and the institutional chaos could be skillfully exploited by lawyers and benefice hunters. For his view of the controversial popes in the historiography of the 15th century, Jörg Bölling first analyzes the writings of Poggio Bracciolini (1380–1459), Antonio Agli (1400–1477) and Jacopo Zeno (1418–1481), and then turns to other chronological ones To pass works. This often shows a very individual approach to the counter-bishops and counter-popes. Even authors such as Bartolomeo Platina and Onofrio Panvinio show an astonishing reluctance with the latter, which Bölling, however, misses in the master of ceremonies Johannes Burckard, who the lifestyle of Alexander VI. Borgia distorted in order to "score" with his successor Julius II (p. 212). Finally, Martina Hartmann broadens the perspective of how Protestant historiography deals with the anti-popes. The polemical identification of the Pope with the Antichrist made the counter-popes the “stepchildren” of Protestant church historians for a long time. As Harald Müller himself finally remarks, the loss of unity and clarity in times of schism certainly invites further deepening. + TABRE + Andreas Rehberg

Jyri Hasecker, sources on papal press control in modern times (1487–1966), Paderborn and others. (Schöningh) 2017 (Roman Inquisition and Index Congregation 19), 667 pp., ISBN 978-3-506-78566-4, € 89.

La collana “Roman Inquisition and Index Congregation” si arricchisce di un nuovo volume, che compendia la normativa emanata nel corso dei secoli da pontefici, congregazioni e altre autorità della Roman Curia in materia di controllo della stampa. L'autore Jyri Hasecker - a lungo tra i collaboratori scientifici del progetto "Roman Inquisition and Index Congregation" dell'Università di Münster, diretto da Hubert Wolf - ha messo a frutto in modo eccellente la sua lunga esperienza di ricerca nell'Archivio della Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede, costruendo un esaustivo e approfondito itinerario tra le norme che hanno costruito, affinato, e modificato tale sistema di controllo della stampa nell'arco di cinque secoli: dal 1487, anno in cui Innocenzo VIII introdusse l'istituto dell 'imprimatur, al 1966, quando la riforma voluta da Paolo VI portò alla istituzione - in luogo del Sant’Uffizio - della Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede. Un sistema complesso, sfaccettato e pervasivo che non si esaurisce - come Hasecker osserva nella premessa metodologica (pp. 16-25) - nella sola censura dei libri denunciati alle congregazioni del Sant’Uffizio e dell’Indice, e nel loro ’inserimento nell’oIndex librorum prohibitorum, ma include altri e diversi strumenti, quali la censura previa, l’espurgazione, e le licenze di lettura. Di tale complessità dà conto l'ampia introduzione che precede la sezione documentaria (Introduction to the documents, pp. 27–153), in cui l'autore ricostruisce la storia del sistema elaborato dalla Chiesa di Roma, illustrandone i momenti fondativi, le fasi di consolidamento, l'organizzazione interna, le riforme introdotte nel tempo, con riferimento non solo al corpus normativo, ma anche a casi di applicazione - o talvolta, eccezione - documentati nelle carte dell’Archivio della Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede. Puntuale anche la presentazione del "Special case Rome", ovvero il controllo sulla stampa esercitato all’interno della città di Roma dal Magister Sacri Palatii. La seconda, e più cospicua parte del volume (Edition, pp155–425) comprende l’edizione di 69 documenti, tutti corredati di regesto, bibliografia e note editoriali, e di cui è offerta - in una sezione conclusiva - la traduzione in lingua tedesca (pp. 429–621). Tali fonti normative sono distinte in tre classi. La prima raccoglie le norm rivolte alla Chiesa universale (Part A: Press laws for the universal Church, pp. 157-291), come gli atti fondativi dei dicasteri centrali del Sant'Uffizio e dell'Indice, o le disposizioni per la redazione dell'Indice dei libri proibiti. The seconda class include the norm of the application è limitata alla città di Roma e allo Stato della Chiesa (Part B: Press Laws for Rome and the Papal States, pp. 293–363), con una scelta non ovvia di bandi, decreti e lettere circolari emanati - accanto al Sant'Uffizio - da altre autorità: il già menzionato Maestro del Sacro Palazzo, il Governatore di Roma, il Camerlengo, il Cardinale Vicario, a conferma della vastità e capillarità di tale sistema di controllo. La terza classe individuata è relativa alle norm che hanno regolamentato nei secoli l’organizzazione degli organismi censori (Part C: Norms for the organization of the Roman “censorship authorities”, pp. 365-425): dalla costituzione License ab initio emanata il 21 luglio 1542 da Paolo III al motuproprio di Paolo VI Integrae servandae del 7 December 1965. Infine, Hasecker propone una estesa e aggiornata bibliografia (pp. 631–655), nonché un minuzioso indice (pp. 657–667), che agevola ulteriormente la consultazione di un volume già di grande chiarezza espositiva, destinato a diventare indispensabile strumento di consultazione per gli specialisti del settore. + TABER + Margherita Palumbo

Entrepôts et trafics annonaires en Méditerranée. Antiquité-temps modern, sous la direction de Brigitte Marin et Catherine Virlouvet, Roma (École française de Rome) 2016 (Collection de l'École française de Rome 522), VIII, 406 p., Ill., ISBN 978-2-7283 -1246-7, € 30.

Urban grain supply was the neuralgic point of internal politics from antiquity until well into the 19th century. In France, as is well known, the price of the baguette was not released until 1980. Before that, it was subject to government regulations, vividly remembering that the price of bread reached a record high on July 14, 1789. Hunger crises as a result of insufficient supplies and uncontrolled increases in costs endangered internal stability, made those in power hateful and inscribed themselves deeply in the collective memory. On the other hand, the authorities' repertoire of action was limited. They could set up public grain reserves and thus close supply gaps, prohibit exports, confiscate private reserves, set maximum prices for grain and force bakers to sell their products at their own cost. These measures were not particularly effective, either individually or in combination, so that in extreme emergencies only the Ultima ratio remained to procure foreign contingents - if available and affordable. Even that has not changed much in two thousand years. Such long arcs of time are the focus of this volume, which comprises nine individual studies on the annonary problems in the Mediterranean region - North Africa, Spain and Italy - between antiquity and the late ancien régime. The main focus is on technical aspects in the broadest sense: on the most important depots and the associated transport routes, on maritime trade routes, storage technologies and architecture, on ownership and property management, administrative structures and hierarchies, competencies and their overlaps. Unsurprisingly, from all these perspectives, continuities, not least those of deficit aspects and crises, stand out.Of particular interest to the specialist are the very detailed studies on the methods of above and below ground grain storage as well as the no less explicit explanations of the construction history of the depots. However, the contributions compiled here hardly venture into the tense terrain of social policy, to which all these individual activities and measures belong - the distribution struggles beyond the mere distribution mechanisms, which year after year in every city of some importance between landowners, involved professions such as Tenants, millers and bakers, lobbyists and decision-makers were fought out and the compromises that had to be negotiated anew between “market” and “state” are only marginally touched upon. In addition, the connections between the individual treatises are loose at best, a summarizing and balancing final evaluation is missing, German-language standard literature is consistently ignored.

Volker Reinhardt

Costanza Geddes da Filicaia / Marco Geddes da Filicaia, Pest. Il flagello di Dio fra letteratura e scienza, presentazione di Enrico Ghidetti, Firenze (Edizioni Polistampa) 2015 (Biblioteca di medicina e storia 13), XVI, 618, [16] p., Fig., ISBN 978-88-596-1501 -9, € 32.

Although the history of epidemics in Germany has experienced a noticeable quantitative and qualitative upswing since the 1990s, it still lags a long way behind the Italian, which occupies a leading position in international comparison. It is presumably not least a lack of language skills that have ensured that an intensive discussion of Italian research results in German epidemic historiography has so far only taken place very occasionally. The volume published by Costanza and Marco Geddes da Filicaia will in principle not be able to change this problem. Nevertheless, it provides a solid overview of the history of the plague and central literary sources that provide information about this history, based on the latest Italian, but also Anglo-American and French research. Enrico Ghidetti introduces this overview in a very conventional way by sketching with rough strokes the power that the Black Death (and what people thought it was) developed since the Old Testament period, which can hardly be overestimated. As Costanza and Marco Geddes da Filicaia show on the next 90 pages, this power of action was not based solely on the fact that the plague, often associated with war and famine, acted as a catalyst for social and political processes in the broadest sense. It also goes back to the fact that the Black Death left deep traces in the “immaginario collettivo” of Europe. In this way, the plague has been extremely productive in art and culture at almost all times. It was and is a never-ending source of inspiration, especially in literature. Costanza and Marco Geddes da Filicaia document this on a further 400 pages, which offer the reader a remarkable anthology of literary processing of historical epidemics. These epidemics range from the “Plague of Athens” (430–427 BC) to the “Plague of San Francisco” (1900–1905 AD). Not only do classics like Thucydides, Boccaccio and Manzoni have their say. You also get to know less well-known authors such as Marilyn Chase and John Hatcher. One focus of the anthology is on literary processing of the "Plague of Milan", which not only hit large parts of northern and central Italy (including Rome!) Around 1630, but also reached as far as the Holy Roman Empire and France. In addition, it should be positively emphasized that Costanza and Marco Geddes da Filicaia also depictions of lesser-known epidemics such as B. have taken into account the "plague of Tunis" (1818-1820). However, one misses texts on the plague epidemic that raged in the Baltic Sea region during the Third Northern War (1700–1721) and on the "Plague of Marseille" that raged in Basse-Provence from 1720 to 1722. After all, these two epidemics are the last major plague epidemics in Europe! This omission - even if the choice of text in such anthologies is of course necessarily always somewhat arbitrary - is perhaps the book's greatest weakness. The fact that the reproduced literary representations are not critically edited and commented, however, is hardly significant, since Costanza and Marco Geddes da Filicaia provide instructive “schede bio-bibliografiche” for each of these representations. The considerable amounts of text are sensibly supplemented and illustrated by numerous partly colored illustrations that show that the plague also had a lasting impact on the visual arts. All this together results in a reliable and also very stimulating manual, which not only appeals to the specialist historian but also to the interested layperson. And that, assuming appropriate language skills, can also be an important and helpful working tool for German historians. + TABER + Thorsten Busch

Carla Benocci / Marcello Fagiolo (a cura di), Il Gianicolo. Il colle "aureo" della cultura internazionale, della sacralità e della memoria, Roma (Artemide) 2016 (I colli di Roma 2), 474 p., Ill., ISBN 978-88-7575-245-3, € 70.

Many people know that ancient Rome was built on seven hills. But what exactly these hills are about, and how they have developed over the centuries, there should be larger gaps in most of them. It will certainly be even more difficult if one asks about further hills beyond the canonical seven. The publication series “I colli di Roma” started in 2010 by the Centro di Studi sulla Cultura e l’Immagine di Roma, which is part of the Accademia dei Lincei and now also comprehensively presents the Gianicolo in addition to the Aventine and Monte Mario, is therefore all the more welcome. The editor of the series, the renowned Roman architectural historian Marcello Fagiolo, is responsible, together with the art historian Carla Benocci, for the present volume on the unofficial "eighth" hill of Rome. Together with 20 authors from the history of art, architectural history and other humanities and cultural scholars, they outline the diverse meanings of this unique hill in the west of the city, from the mythical figure of Janus and the crucifixion site of Petri to the present day. They work out the phases in which the Gianicolo became a place of dialogue and encounter, of war and peace, of military defense or retreat and leisure and also emphasize the role of the hill as the preferred territory of noble families, especially Tuscan bankers, the papal Close to the court. As the editors suggest in the title, they span the arc from the international culture of the early modern period and, above all, the numerous international institutes of the present, back to the sacredness of antiquity with the possible martyrdom of Peter in Rome, without all the long chronology forgetting the Roman Republic of 1849 and the commemoration of it to this day. "Hinc totam licet aestimare Romam": With the slightly modified motto of an epigram from Martial above the portal of the loggia in Villa Lante, today the seat of the Finnish cultural institute, it is already clear why the hill has been valued in many ways since ancient times and always is still appreciated. 30 contributions take up numerous facets of this millennia-old development, which has intensified since the Renaissance. In ten chronological-thematic chapters of different lengths, the reader can get a complete picture of the "golden" hill. These include topics such as myth and religion, panorama, the Tuscan hill, water pipes and fountains, fortifications, but also mental and physical health, the aforementioned Roman Republic of 1849, the presence of the great monarchies of Spain and France, the phase around 1900 and finally the international republic of the humanities and arts. The tenth and last chapter is by far the most extensive and presents a total of ten cultural institutions that have been active on the Gianicolo for a long time. A mostly early modern document appendix and a detailed bibliography round off this richly illustrated volume. The articles written at the cutting edge of current research offer not only initial information, but often also profound knowledge and, thanks to the critical apparatus, enable further deepening. All in all, the volume represents a real treasure trove for everyone who is interested in the history or just individual phases and aspects of the Gianicolo. + TABER + Jens Späth

Mariano Dell’Omo / Federico Marazzi / Fabio Simonelli / Cesare Crova (a cura di), Sodalitas. Studi in memoria di Don Faustino Avagliano, Montecassino (Pubblicazioni Cassinesi) 2016 (Miscellanea Cassinese 86), 2 full., LXXV, 1371 pp., Ill. ISBN 978-88-8256-086-7.

A tre anni dalla scomparsa di don Faustino Avagliano, monaco cassinese, direttore dell'Archivio abbaziale, nonché studioso di storia, paleografia e archivistica, questi due volumi vogliono onorare la sua memoria con ben 73 saggi elaborati da storici e ricorator studi hanno avuto in qualche modo contatto con l'Archivio di Montecassino e con il suo direttore. Dopo tre brevi testimonianze in memoriam steps da Cosimo Damiano Fonseca, Marco Palma e Mariano Dall'Omo, già pubblicate su alcuni giornali nei giorni successivi la scomparsa, la parte introduttiva è completata dalla bio-bibliografia completa di don Avagliano curata da Mariano Dell'Omo (pp. XXIII – LXXV ). I saggi che seguono sono per la grande maggioranza scritti in italiano, ma se ne contano anche otto in inglese, tre in francese e due in tedesco. In calce al secondo volume è posto un indice complessivo dei nomi di persona e di luogo. Gli argomenti trattati sono alquanto eterogenei, poiché il solo filone di studi cassinesi non esaurisce l’ampio spettro di temi trattati. Si segnalano per l’apporto di novità riguardo lo studio di alcuni codici cassinesi i saggi di Roberta Casavecchia / Marilena Maniaci / Giulia Orofino, Considerazioni intorno ai Casino. 85 e Casino. 115 (e ad altri codici in beneventana del XII secolo), pp. 43–96, e di Richard F. Gyug, Reconstructing a Beneventan Missal: Montecassino, Archivio dell’Abbazia. Compactiones VII other XXII, pp. 451-472; per lo stato dell’arte, arricchito da nuove acquisizioni, sullo studio delle architetture dell’abbazia nel secolo XI il contributo di Cesare Crova, I restauri medievali dell’abbaziale cassinese (1066-1071) e recenti acquisizioni sui resti della torre di Desiderio. Profilo storico e tecniche costruttive, pp. 163-194; per lo studio con edizione di un nuovo frammento di Rabano Mauro il saggio di Pius Engelbert, An early fragment of the Encyclopedia of Hrabanus Maurus, pp. 315–322; per la sintesi sulle acquisizioni archeologiche ottenuto dallo studio dei grandi monasteri altomedievali l’intervento di Federico Marazzi, Montecassino e S. Vincenzo al Volturno: ragionamenti sui criteri progettuali dei 'grandi monasteri ‘fra VIII e IX secolo, pp. 619; e infine si segnala lo studio di una particolare versione cassinese del carme di Paolo Diacono “Ordiar unde tuos”, dotato anche di notazione neumatica, nel saggio di Nicola Tangari, Un carme di Paolo Diacono in onore di s. Benedetto nel ms. Montecassino, Archivio dell’Abbazia, 272, pp. 1101–1118. Gli altri contributi contenuti nella miscellanea sono: Giancarlo Andenna, La filigrana con il biscione. Un precetto del 1455 di Bianca Maria Visconti per la stampa di carta filigranata, pp. 1–8; Martin Bertram, L ’Apparatus decretalium di Goffredo da Trani nel manoscritto Montecassino, Archivio dell’Abbazia, 266, pp. 9–16; Giovanna Carbonara, Questioni di restauro dell’architettura sacra, pp. 17–32; Maria Crescenza Carrocci, Don Faustino Avagliano, l’Archivio di Montecassino e le “carte” di Pontecorvo, pp. 32–42; Silvana Casmirri, Gabriele De Rosa docente di Storia contemporanea alla “Sapienza” (1974-1987), pp. 97-112; Paolo Cherubini, Ancora sul Chronicon Casauriense: l’immagine di Ludovico II secondo Giovanni di Berardo, pp. 113–132; Edoardo Crisci, Per lo studio delle maiuscole greche canonizzate. Qualche riflessione, pp. 133-146; Giuseppe M. Croce, Montecassino, i briganti e il papa: un dilemma dell’abate Carlo Maria de Vera (1863), pp. 147–162; Errico Cuozzo, Monasteri benedettini a Ragusa: S. Maria di Rabiata, S. Maria di Melata, S. Maria di Lokrum, pp. 195-220; Nicolangelo D’Acunto, Il sermone su s. Rufino di Pier Damiani come specchio dei conflitti nella Assisi del secolo XI, pp. 221–232; Edoardo D’Angelo, L’agiografia umbra tra Montecassino e Farfa, pp. 233–244; Pietro Dalena, Tommaso Leccisotti storico delle “colonie cassinesi” in Capitanata, pp. 245-254; Paolo De Paolis, Per una biografia di don Luigi Tosti, pp. 255-280; Flavia De Rubeis, Un copista insulare a Montecassino nel secolo VIII: il ms. Lond. Add. 43460, pp. 281-294; Mariano Dell’Omo, 1514: S. Lorenzo di Aversa nella Congregazione Cassinese. Il sermunculus dell’abate Vincenzo de Riso alla presa di possesso del monastero (Padova, Biblioteca Universitaria, cod. 1379 / II, cc. 281–284), pp. 295–314; Giustino Farnedi, Montecassino e l’abbazia di S. Pietro di Perugia, pp. 323–334; Paolo Fassera, “Accordi ed istituzioni” da doversi osservare nel monastero dei SS. Cosma e Damiano di Venezia, pp. 335–346; Laurent Feller, Un évêque face à la pauvreté et à la faim. Sur un miracle de Bérard des Marses (1080-1130), pp. 347-358; Cosimo Damiano Fonseca, La formazione del clero a Napoli alla vigilia della unificazione nazionale italiana (1837-1870), pp. 359-376; Alberto Forni, Montecassino francescana. Dante e la pietas degli alti monti, pp. 377-390; Manuela Gianandrea, Tra fedeltà al testo e concessioni alla creatività medievale. L'immagine del basilisco nel Rabano Mauro di Montecassino e della Vaticana, pp. 391-408; Paolo Golinelli, Il “Diario di viaggio a Montecasino” by Benedetto Bacchini (1696–1697), pp. 409–451; Richard Hodges, The 9th-Century Abbot’s House at S. Vincenzo al Volturno, pp. 473-490; Mario Iadanza, Due inni in onore di s. Lupo del ms. 5 dell’Archivio dell’Abbazia della SS.ma Trinità di Cava dei Tirreni (sec. XII), pp. 491-522; Teemu Immonen, De generibus monachorum. The Reading of the First Chapter of the Rule of St. Benedict in Monte Cassino under Abbot Desiderius, pp. 523-534; Thomas Forrest Kelly, Fragments of a Notated Breviary in Montecassino: Compactiones V, pp. 535-558; Katarina Livljanić, Les répons de l’office férial dans l’antiphonaire Montecassino, Archivio dell’Abbazia, ms. 542, pp. 559-578; Francesco Lo Monaco, “Litera Benaventana” a Bergamo, pp. 579-594; Graham A. Loud, I principi di Capua, Montecassino e le chiese del Principato, 1058-1130, pp. 595-618; Jean-Marie Martin, L ’Epitome chronicorum Casinensium: les Carolingiens vus du Mont-Cassin, pp. 647-658; Lina Massa, Benedetto Bonazzi e Gregorio Magno. Un’omelia recitata a Montecassino dall’arcivescovo di Benevento nel XIII centenario della morte del grande pontefice (604–1904), pp. 659–684; Corinna Mezzetti, Carte di Pomposa: un fondo diplomatico ferrarese nell’Archivio di Montecassino, pp. 685–696; Massimo Miglio, Gli alunni della Scuola storica nazionale e Pietro Fedele, pp. 697-706; Francesco Miraglia, La basilica di S. Maria in Foro Claudio a Ventaroli di Carinola: vicende costruttive e restauri novecenteschi, pp. 707-720; John Mitchell / Bea Leal, Art of Many Colors: the Dados of S. Vincenzo and Issues of Marbling in the Post-Roman World, pp. 721-756; Adolfo Morizio, Ad regulam congruentem convolare. 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Edoardo Manarini

Robert E. Lerner, Ernst Kantorowicz. A life, Princeton et al. (Princeton University Press) 2017, XV, 400 pp., Ills., ISBN 978-0-691-17282-8, GBP 32.95.

The attention that Lerner's monograph received in the features section shows what a fascinating sound the name Ernst Kantorowicz (1895–1963) still has. This interest is by no means solely due to his scientific importance, because with three monographs and a series of high-quality articles, most of which revolve around the topic of medieval rule ideology, his oeuvre is kept within manageable limits. The life story of the Jewish emigrant and his colorful personality contributed to Kantorowicz's glory not insignificantly. The dandy-mannered demeanor, the aesthetic inclinations of the ardent George supporter, his openly lived bisexuality, the political swing of the committed war participant and free corps fighter from right-wing patriot to liberal humanist - all of this lifted him out of the rather gray representatives of his guild. Lerner has redrawn these life stages. What privileged position Kantorowicz occupied in the George circle, the controversy about his monograph on Friedrich II, which was written entirely in the spirit of the master, his call to a full professorship at the University of Frankfurt (without habilitation and only placed fourth on the list) October 1938, a few days before the pogrom night, received his passport back, which still allowed him to leave the country, his concern for the relatives who were left behind, the endless efforts that were necessary until he was given a permanent professorship in Berkeley in 1945 after five and a half years of teaching , the well-known dispute over the Californian oath of loyaltyKantorowicz refused, which was acknowledged with his dismissal in 1950, his role in the denazification process by Percy Ernst Schramm, his late successes at Princeton - much of this was not entirely unknown according to Eckhart Grünewald's monograph (1982) and essays by other authors, However, it is presented here in a very exciting way with a new level of accuracy. To this end, Lerner viewed thousands of private letters and university documents and conducted a large number of interviews with contemporary witnesses and their survivors. There is also an endless series of lovers, friends and companions - from the George circle, from the aristocracy, business and finance, including later resistance fighters - from colleagues and students who are presented in lively short portraits. Gerhart Ladner shows that Kantorowiczʼ "social competence" was not only admired when he accuses him in his "Memories" (1994) of having also granted his friendship to people whom Ladner did not feel deserved. Lerner brings up the character weaknesses of his protagonist nonetheless: His lack of honesty, the cynical judgments based on personal antipathies, the interference in the private life of his American students and even his tasteless, sexist jokes are not withheld from the reader. Individual aspects of greater historical importance could sometimes have been more sharply defined. If Lerner ignores the role of the George Circle as a pioneer of National Socialism, which Karl Löwith (one of the few contemporary witnesses the author does not seek) at an early stage, it is perhaps out of a certain apologetic tendency, as Norman Cantor, who started the early Kantorowicz had moved too close to the Nazi ideology, shines through as a hidden adversary in many places of the statements. Do the correspondence help (all German passages are translated, which means that some puns are lost) to track the circumstances surrounding Kantorowicz’s path as a scientist, they only affect the content of his scientific work to a limited extent. On the contrary: too much of what the author brings to light falls within the scope of gossip and anecdote. Kantorowicz's early love affair with Fine von Kahler is examined in detail, as is the analysis of the “Laudes regiae” (1946). Several pages are devoted to Kantorowiczʼ anger over the delayed printing of his student Robert Benson's dissertation; what Benson's book ("The Bishop-Elect", 1968) is about remains unsaid. The author adopts the familiar, conversational tone of the letters for his own account: EKa met Baby ..., EKa wrote to Lieschen ..., EKa went on vacation with Vera ... That would be less disturbing if Kantorowicz's intellectual achievement wasn't behind the all-too-human would step into the shadows. His essays and lectures are summed up, but not located in the respective scientific discourse. One of the few attempts in this direction, the examination of the essay on the wooden doors by S. Sabina ("The King's Advent", 1944) goes completely wrong, because the continuity of late antique and early Christian iconography recognized by Kantorowicz by no means anticipates a research trend of the late 20th century. Century, but it corresponds completely to the approach of the thirties (Grabar, Kollwitz, Weisbach). Lerner succeeds at best in classifying the history of science appropriately for the monograph on Friedrich II. (1927–1931), where he can rely on various preparatory work. Otherwise, many questions remain unanswered. The small number of successors to the “Laudes regiae” may also be related to the fact that a thoroughly German research discourse was taken up here. The late success of "The King’s Two Bodies" (1957) remains remarkable, especially in view of the criticism that the book received from medieval studies (Horst Fuhrmann's opinion should also have been taken into account here). The effect of the work, which serves so numerous disciplines, seems to have been greater in the long term outside the field than within. As not only Lerner recognized, Michel Foucault and the new interest in body history may have acted as catalysts in this regard. But Erwin Panofsky, who made the reference to Kantorowicz an ominous but still current fashion of iconographic research, made his contribution here. Further research into the reception of the book would be worthwhile. The question raised by Carl Landauer and others, to what extent the hope expressed in "The King's Two Bodies", that the ideal "body politic" may outlast the "body natural" of even the most incapable of rulers, reflects Kantorowicz's strategies of coping with his own political experiences, should also be discussed again. - Anyone looking for an entertaining read on the history of academic emigration will be happy to fall back on Learner's monograph. A intellectual biography looks different, however. + TABER + Ingo Herklotz