What is the meaning of the setting


Buyer behavior

1. Term: Subjectively perceived suitability of an object (product, person, situation, etc.) to satisfy needs (motivation; motive). Is also known as image designated.

Hiring is considered to be "Hypothetical construct", that cannot be observed directly and immediately, but is usually inferred from verbal statements or open behavior (neo-behaviorism); a subject has a positive, negative, or neutral attitude towards an object.

The Recruitment concept proceeds from the individual to the object in a subjectively individualized form (subject perspective); Objects can be assessed differently from one person to another.

The Image concept on the other hand, starts from the object (object perspective) in an objectified assessment (person, store, company, country image of public opinion, image transfer); Several people (in the extreme case all) have the same or at least similar attitude towards an object, because the object has a certain, intersubjective image. Image can therefore be viewed as a generalized, stereotypical attitude towards the object in question.

2. Components:
(1) cognitive (cognitive) component, which expresses itself in the ideas, knowledge and opinions about an object;
(2) affective (emotional) component, which refers to an emotional posture related to the object;
(3) conative (action-related) component, which relates to a fundamental tendency to act (e.g. act of purchase). As a rule, all three components are consistently coordinated with one another: The consistency of thinking, feeling and acting towards an object characterizes an attitude

See also cognitive dissonance.

3. Measurement problems: As part of the research into buyer behavior, the main question is whether positive attitudes towards a purchase object can be used to infer or forecast purchase intentions or actions; There is a large number of studies on this, some of which provide contradicting results. Experimental (e.g. disruptive factors) and measurement methodological difficulties (e.g. one- or multi-dimensionality) are responsible for this.

See also advertising research.

Employment Law

1. Term:
(1) Conclusion of an employment contract;
(2) the related integration of the employee into the company, i.e. the starting work. If the conclusion of the employment contract and the start of work fall apart, the first point in time must be taken into account (str.).

2. The setting is subject to §§ 99-101 BetrVG of Co-determination of the works council in companies with more than 20 employees entitled to vote. Hiring within the meaning of § 99 BetrVG also includes continued employment beyond the agreed age limit, the continuation of a fixed-term employment contract and the employment of temporary workers in the hiring company (§ 14 III AÜG).

3. The employer must inform the works council in good time about the planned hiring, submit the required application documents and provide information about the person involved. He must obtain the approval of the works council for the planned hiring and also provide information about the effects of the hiring.

4. Approval of the works council: The works council can refuse its approval according to § 99 II BetrVG for five reasons listed in detail (e.g. hiring violates a law). The refusal of consent must be made in writing, stating the reasons, within one week of being informed by the employer; otherwise the consent is deemed to have been given. The employer can apply to the labor court for the To replace consent (Section 99 IV BetrVG). The decision is made in the decision-making process.

5. The employer may, if this is urgently necessary for objective reasons, the recruitment perform provisionally; however, if the works council objects, it must appeal to the labor court within three days and, in addition to replacing the consent, apply for a declaration that the employment was urgently required for objective reasons (Section 100 BetrVG).

6. If the employer carries out the hiring without the required consent of the works council, the labor court must, at the works council's request, inform the employer that Actually cancel the setting. If the employer contravenes such a legally binding decision, a fine can be imposed on him (Section 101 BetrVG).

Commercial law

Cessation of business operations: cessation by the Inherit is necessary if the company continues if the liability for the earlier business liabilities should be excluded. It must be clearly recognizable that it is not intended to continue, e.g. by selling the company without Company. There is no discontinuation if the business is initially continued under the old company and then sold without a company or continued under a new company. For the departing heirs, the setting already lies in the inheritance dispute.


Suspension means that enforcement will not be continued, but enforcement acts that have already been carried out can remain in place (Section 775 ZPO).

1. Hiring and suspension takes place:
(1) if the enforcement is expressly declared inadmissible or its final suspension is ordered by a court decision;
(2) if a decision is presented which revokes the enforcement order;
(3) if the debtor submits a public document about the security required to avert enforcement;
(4) The foreclosure is also to be stopped if the debtor presents a public document or a certificate issued by the obligee about the satisfaction of the obligee or a deferment authorization or proof of payment from a bank or savings bank concerning the payment of the amount owed.

2. Temporary suspension: can be ordered in a number of cases as a provisional measure against or without the provision of security, e.g. in the case of objection, reminder, appeal, enforcement counterclaim and third party action for objection (§§ 707, 719, 732, 769 ZPO).

See also protection from enforcement.

3. Termination of the foreclosure auction: permissible a) with the approval of the obligee; b) at the request of the debtor up to six months, if
(1) there is a prospect that the discontinuation will avoid the auctioning of a property
(2) the non-fulfillment of the obligation is based on circumstances that are justified in general economic circumstances and
(3) the cessation can be expected of the obligee (§§ 30 ff. ZVG).

Bankruptcy law

Suspension of insolvency proceedings, early termination of the proceedings ordered by decision of the court:
(1) at the request of the debtor with the consent of all insolvency creditors after expiry of the registration period or before it expires if the debtor assures that there are no other creditors apart from the consenting creditors (Section 213 InsO);
(2) as soon as it emerges that there is no bankruptcy estate covering the costs of the proceedings, unless a sufficient advance payment is made (Section 207 InsO). The cessation will take effect when the public announcement is made. The admissible complaint against the decision (two weeks) does not inhibit its effectiveness. The suspension ends the bankruptcy, but does not reverse the opening.

Civil service law

Establishment of an official relationship. This requires appointment. The appointment is made by handing over a certificate of appointment (§ 8 II Civil Service Status Act).