Most hotels have stairs


Important stipulations are made in the Model Building Regulations (MBO) with regard to the number and design of escape and rescue routes. "For usage units with at least one lounge ... there must be at least two independent escape routes into the open on each floor" (Section 33 (1) MBO). This requirement for two independent escape routes from the building authorities is based on the assumption that, for example, in the event of a fire, one of the two escape and rescue routes could fail and it would no longer be possible to escape or rescue people and animals. The first escape route from the building authorities must always be constructed structurally, e.g. via an exit to the outside on the ground floor or stairs on floors that are not on the ground floor. The second escape route from the building authorities can either also be required as a structural escape route (e.g. in the case of special structures) or lead via fire brigade rescue equipment (ladders, aerial rescue vehicles). A second evacuation route is not required if people and animals can be rescued via a safely accessible stairwell into which fire and smoke cannot penetrate (safety stairwell).

Width of stairs
According to the Model Building Regulations (MBO) § 34 (5), the usable width of the flights of stairs and landings of the necessary stairs must be sufficient for the greatest traffic to be expected. This also applies to the necessary corridors. The minimum width of escape routes (stairs) for buildings that are not special structures, such as residential buildings, buildings with office or administrative use, can be determined according to Table 1 of the DIN 18065 building stairs - terms, measuring rules, main dimensions (introduced technical building regulations - ETB). The usable stairway width is the clear finished dimension, which is measured horizontally between the surfaces of the delimiting components or the inner edges of the handrail. The usable width of the necessary corridors should be chosen to be somewhat wider, e.g. ≥ 1.25 m in order to make openings with a shell dimension of 1.01 m (clear dimension approx. 95 cm) possible in the area of ​​doors.

Limit dimensions according to DIN 18065 building stairs

If doors in public buildings (sales outlets, hotels, authorities, etc.) are in escape routes, they must open in the direction of escape and close automatically. They are not allowed to hit the landings of stairs and there must be a distance of at least 100 cm in front of stairs or exits. Escape stairs on the outside of the building are permitted.

In buildings, with the exception of residential buildings with up to two apartments, the basement rooms must be separated from the stairwell by fire walls and self-closing fire doors, as accident statistics suggest that many fires will occur in the basement.

In high-rise buildings, i.e. buildings that are higher than the normal fire brigade ladders with 22 meters, safety stairwells can be required that have an anteroom closed with two fire doors and fire walls in front of the actual stairwell as a special smoke protection device. It must be possible to smoke this room through the arrangement of balconies, galleries, shafts, etc.

The escape routes in large buildings should not be more than 35 meters away from the furthest point of a lounge or a basement room to the door of a staircase that leads to the outside, unless other special guidelines speak against it. Longer buildings are therefore usually visibly subdivided in the facade by the rhythm of the necessary stairs.

Expertise on the subject

Types of stairs

Necessary stairs

The building regulations differentiate between necessary and unnecessary stairs. According to DIN 18065 building stairs are ...