What caused the Greek dark age

Islam and the Dark Age of Byzantium

By John J. O'Neill, translated of Deep roots.

TheIslamandtheDarkageofByzantium

The original "Islam and the Dark Age of Byzantium “was published on October 7, 2009 by Gates of Vienna.

In his book "Mohammed et Charlemagne" of In 1936 the Belgian historian Heri Pirenne argued in great detail that theDark

age Europe suddenly came in the middle of the 7th centuryanderts began and that this sudden and catastrophic decline of the

Civilization at the blockade of the Mediterranean by the Islam lay. Until then, as Pirenne showed, there was no evidence of one

Decline of Classical Culture. It is true, the The western Roman Empire disappeared as a political unit in 476anden, but the

literate, wealthy and urban civilization, which we call the "classic", literally went on uninterrupted. The

Goths and other "barbaric" peoples who ruled the provinces of the west after 467 did not attempt Roman civilization

and destroy civil society. In fact, as Pirenne showed in great detail, they did everything in their power to help them

preserve. They adopted the Latin language, took on imperial titles from the emperor in Constantinople and minted gold coins,

which were adorned with the image of the Eastern Roman emperor.

Nevertheless, this flourishing late classical culture came in the seventh centuryandto a rather sudden end: the City life went back

as well as trade; replaced a barter economy the previous monetary system, and what was used in coins was made of silver

minted instead of gold; literacy declined as the papyrus disappeared from Egypt and expensive parchment finds its place

ingested; and the power of kings waned when local "strong men" or "barons" took the reins of power in the provinces.

The Middle Ages had begun.

Pirenne's great book, the was published posthumously, received mixed approval. In the large and Whole was admitted

that he's on something of seemed to have met with great importance. Still there was criticism and the criticism only increased over the years.

One of the most telling arguments against Pirenne was the question ofByzantium. Historians hastened to point out that, while

the regions of the west between the seventh and the tenth centuryandert a Darks age may have experienced the both

Regions of the east was not the case. There was no decline in Byzantium, they said. When the Arab blockade of the Mediterranean

had strangled classic urban civilization in the west, why didn't it have the same effect in the east? This was one

Question that didn't seem to have an easy answer. Even Pirenne believed that Byzantium somehow better dealt with the Arabs

became than the West. In his day it was widely believed that classical civilization in the east had survived and

that the region has been less “medievalized” than the West. We will of the historians informed, or were the until

recently that the eighth, ninth and tenth centuryandert in Byzantium, after the words of Sidney Painter, “Three Glorious Yearsanderte "

were and that during this time "the Byzantine Empire was the richest state in Europe, the strongest military power, and which by far

Most Cultivated. ”(Sidney Painter,“ A History of the Middle Ages, 284-1500 ”). We are further informed that “during this

three centuriesandwhile Western Europe was a land of partially tamed barbarians, the Byzantine Empire a highly civilized state

was where a most happy amalgamation of Christianity and Hellenism produced a fascinating culture. "(Ibid.)

The above opinions, which lasted until the second half of the twentieth centuryanderts were common, were partially of Byzantine

Propaganda evoked that always strove to be Constantinople as the To depict "New Rome" and as the successor to the

first Christian emperor Constantine in an unbroken line of authority. But during the past six monthsanderts has the

Archeology proved that this picture was an invention.

Indeed, we now know that the once a proud eastcourt of was devastated by the Arab attacks. Same poverty and same

Illiteracy that we find in the west is now also found in the east. Cities are in decline and the science

and Philosophy of the Greeks and Römer disappears. In fact, it sinks like the west Darks age down. In the words

of Cyril Mango:

“One can hardly overestimate the catastrophic break that occurred in the seventh centuryandert took place. Everyone who made the report of the events

reads will be affected of the calamities that the Infested, beginning with the Persian invasion at the very beginning of the

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Centuryanderts, and continued with the Arab expansion some thirty years later - a series of Setbacks that the Empire of some

deprived of its richest provinces, namely Syria, Palestine, and Egypt and later North Africa - which makes it both in area and

Population has been reduced to less than half its previous size. But reading the narrative sources only gives one

a weak idea of the profound transformation that accompanied these events. ... She posed for the Byzantine

countries the End of a way of life - the urban civilization of antiquity - and the beginning of a very different one and clear

medieval world. ”(Cyril Mango,“ Byzantium, the Empire of New Rome ”, p. 4). Mango mentioned the literal job of the

Byzantine cities after the middle of the seventh centuryanderts, and the archaeological Fandthe location of these settlements

usually “a dramatic break in the seventh centuryandert, sometimes in the form of the literal abandonment of the settlement. "(ibid., p. 8)

With the cities and The intellectual class went to the papyrus supply from Egypt, which after the seventh centuryandert

was reduced to a “small clique” (ibid., p. 9). The evidence as Mango sees it is unmistakable: the "catastrophe" (as he

she calls) of the seventh centuryanderts "is the central event in Byzantine history. "(ibid.)

Constantinople itself, the mighty capital of the east with millions of millions, was until the middle of the eighth centuryanderts to a true one

Reduced ruin. Mango quotes a document from the time the an image of “abandonment and Ruin "conjured up. Again and

Again we learn that numerous monuments - statues, palaces, baths - once existed but were destroyed. Even more so, that

remaining monuments, of which many in the fourth and fifth centuryander must have arisen were no longer than the

understood what they were. You had a magical one and generally ominous connotation acquired. (ibid., p. 80)

So great was the destruction that even the bronze coins the everyday lubricants of economic life disappeared. Mango:

“At sites where there had been systematic excavations, such as Athens, Corinth, Sardis and others, it has been found that

Bronze coins, the Change used for everyday transactions throughout the sixth centuryandert and (dependent of local

Circumstances) until sometime in the seventh centuryander were abundant, after which they almost disappeared, then in the ninth

Centuryandert showed a slight increase and only in the late tenth centuryander have become frequent again. ”(ibid., pp. 72 - 73). Yet

must even the claim that some coins were in the ninth centuryandert showed up, should be treated with caution. Mango mentions

that at Sardis the period between 491 and 616 of 1,011 bronze coins is represented, the remainder of the seventh centuryanderts of

about 90, "andthe eighth and ninth centuryandput together of no more than 9. ”(ibid., p. 73) and“ has similar results

can be obtained from almost all Byzantine provincial towns. ”Even such poor examples as those from the eighth and ninth

Centuryandert survived (nine) are common of questionable origin, a fact that of Mango itself is mentioned that

noted that on closer inspection it often turns out that this is either from before the Darkn age originate or

from the time after.

If archaeological Fande in the middle of the tenth centuryandWhen they emerge again, the civilization they reveal is radical

changed: the old Byzantium late antiquity has disappearedanden, and we find one impoverished and semi-illiterate remnant; a

medieval Byzantium, strikingly similar to the medieval France, Germany and Italy, of which it was contemporary. Also

here we find a barter or semi-barter economy; a decline in population and Literacy and one

intolerant and theocratic state. And the break point is in Byzantium as in the west in the first half of the seventh centuryanderts -

what exactly the appearance of the Arabs and of Islams corresponds to the scene.

Archeology has therefore dramatically supported Pirenne, long after his death, and answered a question for him that he didn't

could answer. The effect of the Islamt was devastating to all of Christianity, both in the east and in the west. He was

the Event, the the classical civilization has ended. The destruction of classical culture in Europe lay largely, if not

totally, at the economic blockade of the Mediterranean by Muslim piracy. Still was the End of this culture in regions

like Egypt and Syria (formerly major centers of the classical and Hellenistic civilization) under the control of the Islams

got through the total contempt for the new beliefs towards cultures and the history of the peoples caused about the

he gained dominion. From the beginning, the Caliphate government in Egypt set up a commission whose purpose it was to dig graves

the time of the pharaohs to seek to plunder them. The destruction was so complete that it lasted little more than a yearandafter the

Islamic conquest no one in Egypt had any idea who built the Great Pyramid - this despite the fact that very much

extensive reports on this monument and the pharaoh who built it included in the works of many classical authors

were, especially with Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus. Immediately before the Muslim invasion were the libraries and Academies

of Egypt, Syria and Babylonia has been crammed with the works of these authors. Your disappearance andthe Disappearance of the

Knowledge, the they contained can only mean, as Christian polemicists did for yearsandhad long claimed that the Muslims

had purposely destroyed a large amount of classical literature.

In western Europe and in the east, in North Africa and in the Middle East, classical civilization came in the middle of the seventh

Centuryanderts to an end, and the Grand for their downfall can be summed up in one word: Islam.

"Holy Warriors: Islam and the Demise of Classical Civilization ", of John J. O’Neill (the link to Felibri Publications from the original thread

unfortunately no longer works; d. Ü.)

Comments from the original thread on "Gates of Vienna":

Robin Shadowes:

This essay only confirms what I have prophesied several times. That if the Islam power in Europe, countless and

priceless treasures, artifacts, works of art, books, music and what else of total destruction and Fall to destruction

become. Rembrandt, Velasquez, Bach, Mozart, Goethe, Shakespeare and many many more will burn and be lost forever.

Like everything scientific, Einstein, Galileo, Hawking and so on. This is what is at stake. In contrast to the last time

we won't rise again Civilization as we know it will at best belong to a mythical past.

Just look at the civilizations they conquered in the past. The Persians once had a great civilization in ancient times.

What are they now, except fanatical mahoandians. In two or three generations, the surviving ethnic Europeans

be just as brainwashed. And with the passing of every new yearanderts they will continue to grow

illiteracy and Reverse barbarism. With the takeover mahoandThey are involved in ianic customs such as cousin marriage

enough time to be inbred products just like them. That is why I believe that we are all in an eternal dark age

Gonna slide where we have no hope of ever getting out

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Dymphna:

I don't share your dystopian view of the future. Yes, I am concerned, but we are not just going to be absorbed into a herd.

Maybe it feels different in Europe, but here there is the Feeling that we can handle this in time. My only

The concern is that the Saudis will be quick enough the Oil runs out to a lot of to prevent whereof you fear it

will happen.

Not every of God's problems is a Muslim. We have a ton of homegrown bad guys and stupid politician and

Laws more harmful than advancing the Islam.

The United States needs to clean up its house, reform itself and downsize our corrupt government andthe Advance

stop the law in private life.

S:

There is evidence of a whole subgroupandcity ​​in Turkey, as recently shown on the History Channel. Cavernous spaces that

were created to protect thousands from the robbers who attacked them. The rooms were of People created that

certainly were Christians after having religious works of art that of the Turks living above were disfigured when they were them

found. The people living above could in no way recreate these rooms. The engineering skill is beyond of all

what they understand. You can't look after anything but sheep.

I agree with Robin. How could the world change after that Islam revive? She wouldn't.

And the article says what I always say about the “great and glorious ”past of the Middle East suspected everything

Propaganda. It also strengthens my thoughts on the cruelty of the Inquisition. That they also have a reaction to the Islamic

Invasions was. It is no accident that the Christian leaders became ruthless only after the invasions in Italy, Constantinople, Spain, etc.

have become, in addition to the history of the Crusades. Most likely a reaction in the sense of the word of "if we the don't do there

there is no future. "

This also reminds me of the enormous gold hiding place, the recently found in the Middle Eastanden was made with coins dating from that time

come shortly after the founder of the Islams became powerful. When the soldiers of the Islams streaked, the owner hid the

Coin it, most likely in the hope that things would get better. Instead, he / she probably became

beheaded. In fact, there is just such a story in the hadiths.

In case you think that the Christianity will be able to revive, look at the place where the Christianity began. this is the

Future of Europe and of the west, if the Islam takes power.

If the western countries of the Islam cleaned will become do-gooders at some point in the future (most likely

Christians) trumpet what was done without understanding why, and they become the Islam welcome back with open arms

be called. Because after all it's Christian the to do. That is why there will never be a Christian Bethlehem again.

Hell_Is_Like_Newark:

I will tell the author about the beginning of the Darkn ages must contradict in the Western Roman Empire. The location was in

later 5th centuryandIt's pretty gloomy.

The best work I've read so far was "The Fall of Rome" of Bryan Ward-Perkins. It's pure architectural history, what one

dry reading material is what it is worth if one is interested in the essence of the early medieval period of the West

is.

The bottom line was that security had been lost and trade with her. The empire was - much like the United States is today - one

multinational economy that of Was dependent on goods from all over the empire. For example, were pottery and other ceramics

from Rome's British provinces of such high quality that they dominated the market. People heard all over the empire

on, pottery and Manufacture roof tiles, and bought the majority thereof from Britain. Even the poorest smallholders had

Plate of good quality, and modest houses had tile roofs (instead of thatched roofs).

Then came the collapse. No one could safely transport goods anymore, so there was no way to get British ceramics

to buy. The British, who no longer had a market, stopped making pottery and To produce roof tiles, whereby the Knowledge of theirs

Manufacturing got lost in history.

Fast forward by handert years, and you have a nobility who live in houses without tiled roofs and Pottery of such

bad quality used that they handyears earlier of would have been rejected by a Roman smallholder. Back then was

Ceramics, of Amphorae that can be used for storage and for transport of Goods used until they are used as building materials (roofs,

Soils, water pipes) important for the Life. The Loss of fine ceramics meant loss of Comfort and the loss of

Civilization.

I'm sorry for the lengthy comment ... but think about what would happen if the Islam it would make the world

destabilize sufficiently that trade collapses. What would the West be like in a generation or two? After this

our knowledge is now on electronic media, what would happen if we lost the ability to use the media

to save and to read? Over a thousand years ago, the Church managed to save manuscripts created in the rediscovery of the

classical culture helped during the Enlightenment. What will happen if there is nothing like it on the one in the future

could support?

Civilization is troublesome. Barbarism is the natural state of man.

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4Symbols:

The crossing of the architecture of the Roman villa to simple Anglo-Saxon wooden and Thatched roof buildings is a terrifying one

Lesson for modern Europeans.

Arius:

Robin Shadowes, what you prophesied has already begun. Check out what Muslims have done in Kosovo and the

Muslim attacks against all institutions in Europe. TheIslam will eventually rule in Europe and do what he always does:

kill, suppress and to destroy.

Rollory:

Must agree with Newark here; the “crisis of the third centuryanderts ”is not some kind of anti-Christian fantasy. Just as little

it is the dramatic increase in appalling sectarian civil violence that surfaced as itself the Christianity spread (violence of

a variety completely unknown to pagan society). Neither did the depopulation of the formerly wealthy Westerners

Provinces. Or that the Western Empire granted independence to Britain voluntarily and thus admitting that it was no longer able to

was to defend the islands.

Claims that Roman culture of Antoninus until Justinian went on at the same level are just pretty

unfounded and stand against very easily verifiable facts.

Yes, the Gothic kingdoms after Augustulus tried of of Roman culture and Way of life to preserve what they could, but

it was a lot less thereof left, and Justinian's recaptures and took ruinous taxes the Last thereof path. The

The issue of coins clearly shows an increasing devaluation and Inflation all the time, what about the time of Diocletian and

Constantine reached ruinous rates. The economy was a mess - to the point that Diocletian decreed that people should not do their jobs

could switch more in an attempt to stabilize things (a crazy idea given by Ayn Rand in "Atlas Shrugged"). The

Islam expanded into a void created by the collapse; then as now he was one

opportunistic infection.

At that time we had a Karl Martell. We'll have another one now, sooner or later. The only question is how far to go

before a backlash to systematic murder begins.

Edward Gibbon is still very readable.

S:

When you compare history to what is happening now, there is one very important difference that all comparisons are wrong

makes. The depopulation of the west as a result of birth control. She changes everything. The barbarians do not control their population

and will eventually overrun the west.

1 or 2 children cannot stop the invasion. And the government doesn't want them to stop them.

Hell_Is_Like_Newark:

@ S: That the educated upper classes do not reproduce is nothing new. Emperor Vespasian saw with great horror that the

Knight (Grandowners, large farmers, business owners) and Senator classes had too few children compared to the “mob”. He was leading one

Policy of financial incentives, paid out of the government purse, to encourage the upper classes to have more children.

Similar measures are in Japan, Russia and other countries have been discussed facing a demographic bombshell

facing.

Dymphna:

Two things I read the other day (but I can't give links because my computer is doing some kind of update):

1) The birth rate in Iran is falling. It may already be below the maintenance level.

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2) Can't remember why her the need to do, but Saudi Arabia is trying to borrow money.

Rollory:

Right, Dymphna, Iran is now well below the conservation level. You had a baby boom just in time

to fuel the war against Iraq; now this generation is entering later adult life, another 20 years, and Iran will

laden with a crippling load of old people and no longer have enough young to sustain them and not enough technology

to make up the difference (which Japan certainly has, and what the US and Europe could create). Similar things everywhere else in

the Islamic world: birth rates plummeting everywhere. Actually, I think Afghanistan and Somalia (?) The two places that are

still have fairly high birth rates; everywhere else they are falling.

Even the Mexican invasion of the US might not be such a big deal in the long run; given current birth rates

Mexico will run out of people before they can flood the majority of the US.

This article in the Brussels Journal is relevant I think:

http://www.brusselsjournal.com/node/4095

http://www.brusselsjournal.com/node/4106

As today, the enemies of civilization were an informal chaotic mob who were good at knocking down but having it all

tore down, they faded away. Those who survived the collapse were able to do something better and Stronger

to rebuild.

Defeatism is wrong. All that is necessary is to stay on the ball, to build stable patriarchal families and raise the children like this

that they see clearly and are loyal to the law and their own people. This naturally leads to victory

surrender.

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By John J. O'Neill, translated by Deep Roots. The Islam and the Dark Age by Byzantium The original " Islam and the Dark Age of Byzantium" was published on October 7, 2009 by Gates of Vienna. In his book "Mohammed et Charlemagne" from 1936 the Belgian historian Heri Pirenne argued in great detail that the dark age Europe quite suddenly in the middle of the 7th century and erts began and that this sudden and catastrophic decline of civilization at the blockade of the Mediterranean by the Islam lay. Until then, as Pirenne showed, there was no evidence of a decline in classical culture. It is true, the Western Roman Empire was and en as a political entity in 476, but the literate, prosperous and urban civilization that we are Calling “classic” literally went on uninterrupted. The Goths and other "barbaric" peoples who ruled the provinces of the west after 467 did not attempt to destroy Roman civilization and civil society. In fact, as Pirenne showed in great detail, they did everything in their power to preserve it. They adopted the Latin language, accepted imperial titles from the emperor in Constantinople and minted gold coins adorned with the image of the Eastern Roman emperor. Nevertheless, in the seventh century, this flourishing late classical culture and ert came to a rather sudden end: city life declined, as did trade; a barter economy replaced the earlier monetary system, and what was used in coins was made of silver instead of gold; literacy declined as papyrus disappeared from Egypt and expensive parchment took its place; and the power of kings waned when local "strong men" or "barons" took the reins of power in the provinces. The Middle Ages had begun. Pirenne's great book, which was published posthumously, received mixed acclaim. On the whole and it was admitted that he appeared to have encountered something of great importance. Nevertheless, there was criticism, and the criticism only increased over the years. One of the most telling arguments against Pirenne was the question of by Byzantium . Historians hastened to point out that while the regions of the west were and a dark s between the seventh and the tenth centuries Era may have experienced that was not the case with the regions of the east. There was no decline in Byzantium , they said. If the Arab blockade of the Mediterranean had strangled classic urban civilization in the west, why didn't it have the same effect in the east? This was a question that didn't seem to have an easy answer. Even Pirenne believed that Byzantium somehow got on with the Arabs better than the West. In his day it was widely believed that classical civilization had survived in the east and that the region had been less "medievalized" than the west. We are informed by the historians, or were the until recently, that the eighth, ninth and tenth centuries and ert in Byzantium , according to the words by Sidney Painter, "three glorious years and erte" were and that during this time " the Byzantine Empire was the richest state in Europe, the strongest military power, and by far the most cultivated." (Sidney Painter, "A History of the Middle Ages, 284-1500"). We are further informed that “during these three centuries and ier, while Western Europe was a land of partially tamed barbarians, the Byzantine Empire was a highly civilized state where a most fortunate one Merging of Christianity and Hellenism produced a fascinating culture. ”(Ibid.) The above opinions, which and erts were common, were in part caused by Byzantine propaganda, which always sought to portray Constantinople as the "New Rome" and as the successor to the first Christian emperor Constantine in an unbroken line of authority. But over the past six months and erts, archeology has proven that this image was an invention. Indeed, we now know that the once proud Ostrom was devastated by the Arab attacks. The same poverty and the same illiteracy that we find in the west can now also be found in the east. Cities are in decline, and science and philosophy of the Greeks and Romans are disappearing. Indeed, like in the West, a Dark s Age is falling. In the words of by Cyril Mango: “One can hardly overestimate the catastrophic break that took place in the seventh century and ert. Anyone who reads the account of the events will be struck by the calamities that the empire, beginning with the Persian invasion at the very beginning of the 1st century AD