The ancestors of the Japanese peoples were Mongolian

Online library

Mongols

[389]Mongols in the broadest sense od. Mongolian Race, also Turanians, is called one of the main races of the human race in almost all ethnological systems, because their characteristic body type is found most purely and most completely in the people of the M. (see below). According to Blumenbach, this race (see Menschenracen) includes all peoples of mostly wheat-yellow (partly boiled quince or dried lemon peel-like) color (hence also called the yellow race), short, tight, black hair, narrowly slit, as it were puffy eyelids, flat face with sideways protruding cheekbones. It has recently been divided into five groups: a) the Indochinese group with the Burmese, Shan peoples, Annamites and other smaller peoples; b) the central group with four subsections: aa) the Tibetan guild, in southern High Asia, which also has a monosyllabic language; bb) the Mongolian guild, which includes the actual M., the Kalmuks and the Bura, whose languages ​​belong to the Altaic or Turanic language tribes (agglutinating) cc) the great civilized people of the Chinese; dd) the Koreans, who, like the Chinese, have monosyllabic language; c) the Eastern group, which is the cultured people of the Japanese, whose language has a special place among the agglutinating (so-called Turanic in the broader linguistic sense); d) the Western Group, which includes the various Finnish peoples (s.d.) whose languages ​​form a family of the Altaic language tribe; e) the peoples of the Northern Group, who are related more by their degrees of culture and customs, as well as by their similarities in their physical constitution than by their languages, inhabit the northern and northernmost regions of Asia, and all of them with the exception of a very small part of the Tungus Belong to areas of Russian Asia. The most important are the Samoyed people belonging to the Altaic and linguistic tribes, the Tungus peoples, under which the Manchu have risen to a certain culture, the Ainos, on the Kuriles and Jesso and also in the earliest times on Nipon, the Kamchadals, the Jukagirs, the Korjaks with some of the Chukchi.

Throughout history, Mongols has been a popular name for people with very varied meanings. Because of the close relationship with regard to the physical type, the customs and the way of life, as well as in many respects the languages, which the indigenous peoples on the great rear Asian plateau between Siberia and China showed earlier in any case to an even higher degree than in Later, in historical times, it is easy to explain that Chinese historians could summarize them under the common name of Ta-tse or Tata. When those peoples of the Mongolian tribe of Genghis-khan also united into a political whole and incorporated neighboring nations of the Tungus and Turkish tribe into it, the reason for the confusion of names that has occurred since then was laid, so that people in the East as well as up to the most recent times in Occident under the designation M. or Tatars (originated from Tata), three completely different peoples: M., Turks and Tungus, understands and applies the same to one of the latter. The hordes of Timur, who largely belonged to the Turkish peoples, are called M. by the Persian historians of that time, as a result of which the name Great Mughal, Mogul for the Indian rulers from the tribe of Timurus, came into use.

In ethnography M. is the name of a certain people of the Altaic or Turanic people tribe, which finally mixes in the Mongolia named after him, the high terrace on Kuku-Nor, the plateau of the High Tatarei (between Muztagh, Belurtagh and Kien-Lün) inhabit parts of the Siberian and Caspian lowlands with other tribes. The three subsections of the Mongolian people or rather ethnic group are the Eastern Mongols or. M. in the narrowest sense, the Kalmyks (s.d.) and the Burrats (s.d.). The Eastern Mongols, the core of the whole group, have medium stature, large protruding ears, mostly crooked legs (the women are generally more delicate), which is also found in the peoples mixed with the M.; in character they are open, moderate, hospitable, gentle, but also indolent, dirty, proud. The women have to take care of domestic life and they live with the children separately from the men; Polygamy is allowed. The apartments are tents or yurts, which are preciously decorated on the inside of the noble. They shear their hair; only they leave a single crest on the crown of the head. Her clothes consist of a flat cap, wide long trousers, a light waistcoat, and a belt (in which the weapons are stuck); a cloak hangs over everything; the feet are wrapped in linen. Their main occupation is cattle breeding, their main wealth therefore consists in herds of sett-tailed sheep, two-humped camels and horses, also cattle and donkeys, which is why their main food consists of meat, milk, butter and cheese. From liquor drinks they prepare Kumiß or Arraki from milk, from honey meth, to which brandy has been added since the acquaintance with the Russians. Fields and horticulture are only rarely practiced; their industry is limited to the manufacture of leather, felt and furs; their minor needs are supplied to them by the Chinese, many of whom have settled among them individually, as in whole colonies. The M. are a pure nomadic people, which are divided into many, constantly moving tribes or aimaks and live under their own chiefs and hereditary princes, who were all subject to the Emperor of China, up to the last years the Kalkasmongols Russian supremacy recognized. The Mongol princes must obtain their enfeoffment in Beijing, pay certain tributes and appear at court at certain times. They are militarily divided into banners, regiments, etc., and have Chinese mandarins in the country, which, however, only exercise political control. The oldest religion of the M., of which much has survived, was shamanism, in which, as in all original religions, a distinction must be made between nature and spirit service. Heaven was revered as the supreme power of nature, which M. was primarily God, so that the designation for heaven and God (Tegri) also coincides in language; next to it sun, moon and stars, mountains, rivers and elements. On the other hand, they believed in the influence of demons on the course of natural events, on the well-being and health of humans and domestic animals; their priests (kami) knew how to conjure and banish spirits, sorcery and divination of all kinds. The spirits of the ancestors were considered to be beneficial household gods, as protectors of the hearth and flocks (the Ongod); they made pictures of them out of felt, canvas or other material, hung them on the tent walls, sacrificed them, etc., as all of this is still happening now. In addition to the Onggod, the Dzajaghatschi and Emegeldschi are named as household gods and guardians of the herds. However, the M. seem to have come into contact with other cults early on, such as fire service, as the name Chormuzda (i.e. Ormuzd) attests to, which they attach to the Tegri. Currently the M. profess Buddhism, which they received from Tibet in the form of Lamaism (s.d.). Although the first successors of Genghis-khan were favorable to Lamaism, they only received it through Chubilai (Kublai), who soon after his accession to the throne (1260 or 61) elevated it to the religion of the court and of course found many other followers . In the storms that followed, the new faith was almost entirely lost. The second more complete conversion took place under the rule of the Dalai Lama Sodnam Jamtso (from 1543); the real Apostle of M. is Arik or Aschik, who came to Mongolia in 1566 as a prisoner Altan-Chagghaus (died 1583). The last prince personally reached an agreement with the Dalai Lama in 1577 on the acceptance of Buddhism; the M. received a Kutuchtu to Kuku-khoto as the deputy of the Tibetan church prince, but a supreme patriarchate for Mongolia was not established until 1604 with the temple monastery of Kuren (Urga). The language of the Church and the cult of the M. is Tibetan; about their own language see Mongolian language. The M. disintegrate apart from several other smaller peoples and hordes: into the Khor or Tschanaigol Mongols, between Tibet and the Lesser Bukhari; in the inner or Scharramongols, south of the Kobi desert, and in the outer, sucked after the river Khalka. Kalkasmongolen, in the north of the Kobi desert; the total number may be about 21 million. Cf. Pallas, Collections on the Mongolian Nations, Petersb. 1776, 2 vol .; Neumann, The peoples of southern Russia, Lpz. 1847; Castrén, Ethnographic Lectures, Petersb. 1857.

The oldest history of the Mongols is very dark. The wild hordes which, before the appearance of Genghis Khan, flooded China, as well as the countries of central, southern, and western Asia, were in all probability, at least in part, of Mongolian tribe. Chinese historians mention the Hiong-nu, a Mongolian tribe of the Kobi desert, on the spot where the M. still have their headquarters, who became so terrible to the Chinese that the great wall was built against them, which they often climbed; they partly subjugated and partly exterminated all the other hordes in the greater part of High Asia, from the vicinity of the eastern ocean to the Irtish, from the Chinese to the Siberian frontiers. Under the Tanju (Son of God) Me-te they overpowered the Chinese armies and forced annual payments and tributes from selected girls. But the Chinese emperors incited the hordes subjected to the Hiong-nu. The Tanju, weakened by their apostasy and at the same time frightened by civil war, paid homage to the Chinese emperor. It is true that the power of the Hiong-nu revived for a short time; but the dispute over the Taujuat between Pu-nu and Pe completed the overthrow of the Hiong-nu. Pe, urged by Pu-nu, submitted to the Chinese emperor with the southern hordes, and now the northern Hiong-nu, pressed even harder by their brothers than by the Chinese, had to lose their independence, and that of the Chinese sien-pi who were agitated and mindful of old injustice made 93 AD. the 1300 year old empire of the Hiong-nu came to an end. Part of the Hiong-nu merged with the Sien-pi; another part moved south to the relatives who had long since lived under Chinese sovereignty; 58 hordes, barely 200,000 men, surrendered completely to China and were transferred to the northern border of the province of Shan-si. The vassal kingdom of the southern Tanju founded by Pe was also completely suppressed by the Chinese in the 3rd century. The bravest tribes of the northern empire sought a sanctuary in the west and were reinforced by the smaller hordes of the desert and those fleeing from the advancing Sien-pi. The gaze of the Chinese follows their wanderings through the steppes for another 2 years, until they finally disappear completely from their faces beyond the Imaus; they seem to have been the Huns who later invaded Europe. Later the Mongolian tribes are not mentioned as being unimportant until they regained world historical importance in the 13th century. Earlier they had divided into two main tribes. One, the Dörbön-Oiröt (i.e. the four allies) lived more towards the west (see Kalmüken); the other swarmed about as nomads in the 9th century on the north side of China and Korea; in the west or in what is now Mongolia the Mong-u (from which the name Mong-kos became M.), further east the Khitans (see Khitan) and above Korea to the sea the Njudschen or Kin . In the 10th century the khitans took control of the other two tribes and at the same time over northern China; but soon they revolted, called for help by the Chinese, and the Nyudis overwhelmed first the khitans, then the Chinese. The khitans now moved to little Bukhari, but the actual M. (Mong-u) remained, ruled by their own khan, subject to the Nyudschen.

One of the princes of the actual M., Temujin, later Genghis-khan, was driven by ambition alone in 1176, as a thirteen-year-old boy, ruler of 40,000 families, he used his luck and the influence that he possessed with the help of the priests The shaman Gökdschu acquired through his relatives, and until 1206 subjugated first the other small, real Mongolian tribes, then the Naimans, Kirghiz and Igurs and later a part of the Chinese. In the war with the Njudschen in northern China, Keschluck, Khan of the Naimans, in the west with the Kanglers, Kapchaks, Khitans and others. Peoples an outrage. Genghis-khan now handed the warfare in the east to his son Tuschi and himself moved west, triumphed over Keschluck, expelled the Sultan Muhammad from Khowaresmia and in 1218 conquered his capital Samarkand. Now Genghis-khan sent an army over the Oxus, which took Khorasan and drove the Khowaresmieschen sultan, Jelal Eddin, to India; the army under Tuschi conquered Korea and advanced into China; a third captured Derbend and defeated the Kapchaks; a fourth took Iran, advanced to Astrakhan over the Dnepr and in 1223 triumphed on the Kalka over the Polovzians and the Grand Duke of Kiev associated with them. In the meantime Genghis-khan himself went to India, advanced there too, but was compelled to turn back in 1225 by his troops, who refused to move on. In 1226 he suppressed the indignant Tangut and exterminated the royal tribe. On the point of attacking the Nyudis in China, Genghis-khan died in 1227, but his sons continued his conquests. For when the M. made campaigns of conquest, their riders rushed to the nearest people; If the prince asked for peace at the beginning of the war, he remained in the government, but had to declare himself liable to pay interest and immediately provide all his mounted crew, which united with the M. and plundered with them again in the next country and searing just like that. Only when a prince stubbornly resisted was he deposed or even executed and replaced by another prince from his or a related tribe, who now had to fulfill the same obligations. In this way the Mongol power rolled on like an avalanche, they devastated the flat land with fire and sword, they stormed lightly fortified cities, they abandoned more solid ones and continued their conquests in different trains to China, to Persia, against Greece, against India and through Russia against Europe, only reversing if disagreements broke out in the army, the general died or another region attracted them. Each army had a general who mostly came from the Genghis-khans family. The same had the command of the army and the supervision of the princes liable to pay interest, but depended on the orders of the great khan. With him there was a group of M., and individual M. were probably distributed among the subjugated peoples for supervision.

Oktai, a son of Genghis-khan, was Great Khan; next to him, however, the kingdom of Kapchak existed under another son of Genghis-khan, Tuschi; he continued his father's campaigns of conquest, put an end to the kingdom of the Nyudschen, subjugated all of northern China and made war on Korea. With 300,000 men he penetrated southern China and let another army under his son Kaschuck and his nephews Manku and Batu advance to the west. These subjugated the Circassians and Avchafen, penetrated the Bashkiria, Kazan and the great Bulgaria, then flooded Russia and conquered Moscow here and destroyed cities in February 123814 alone. Most of all, Batu distinguished himself as an angry man; he advanced to Novgorod, but turned ten miles from it and moved against the Polotsk and Bulgarians on the Volga. Most of the Russian princes fled from him. In 1240 Kiev also fell. Thus, with the exception of Novgorod, all of Russia was subject to the M., who appointed governors everywhere without, however, ousting the princes, see below Russian Empire (history). Batu now invaded Hungary and devastated Transylvania, Serbia and Bosnia, while two other armies broke into Moravia, Poland and Silesia and won the great battle at Wahlstatt on April 9, 1241, but because of the great losses they suffered had suffered, did not consider a further advance in Germany advisable. Defeated in Moravia on June 21, 1241 near Olomouc by Jaroslaw von Sternberg, they devastated Hungary, but then returned, recalled by Batu, and since then they have spared Western Europe. A third main army penetrated via Circassia and Armenia in Asia Minor, conquered Erzerum and defeated the Sultan of Iconium in 1242, flooded Syria in 1243 and advanced to Aleppo. Oktai died in 1243. Under him the bonds of obedience had gradually begun to break, and everything heralded the dissolution of the Mongol Empire. After four years of intermediate empire, during which the wise Jeldschuzatsch, already under Genghis khan minister and others.Rathgeber des Großkhan, died, followed Oktai's son, Kaschuk (Gajuk), who is said to have been friendly to the Christians and whose mother Turakinah Khatun herself was a Christian, and made preparations to subjugate Europe, but he died in 1249. His cousin and successor , Mauku, destroyed the caliphate and subjugated the Sultan of Iconium and all of Asia Minor as far as the Bosporus, while his brother Koblasch fought the Song in China. [391] After Manku's death (1259) Koblasch or Kublai (Chusilai) became Greater Khan, he defeated the Song completely and conquered all of southern China and stayed here. The governors of the western provinces now tore themselves away, and the Mongol Empire split up into several states.

In China, the M. initially ruled under Koblasch until the domestic Ming dynasty drove them back to Mongolia in 1368 (see below China [Gesch.]), Where their descendants as Kalkasmongols still live under Chinese protection. In Iran (Persia to the Middle East), Genghis-khan's fourth son, Tulikhan (Toleg), had been governor since 1229; on the government of his son Hulaku and his successor see Persia (Gesch.). Their rule ended in 1395 by Timur. In Dschagatai the first governor was Dschagatai, after whom the country was now named and who resided in Bischbälig from 1227-1242; the last one was Kamar Eddin (until 1369), see below Turkestan (Gesch.).

Timur, usually Tamerlan (Timurleng), allegedly a descendant of Genghis-khan, was prince (Begh) in Kasch near Samarkand, which principality he had received from his uncle, the imperial administrator Haji Berlas. During his military campaigns, a fanatic, Seid Bereke, a descendant of Muhammad, presented him with a flag as a token of his future supremacy; He beat his brother-in-law Hussein, took Balkh, his previous residence, had Kabul Sachh, who had held the title of Great Khan, executed and was solemnly consecrated as Sahib Kerem (ie the lucky one or lord of the world) in 1369 and chose Samarkand as his residence and capital. Then he began his campaigns of conquest; In 1371 Khowaresmia was subjugated, Kashgar in 1374 and 1375, Kapchak in 1376, in 1378 the now indignant Khowaresmia was conquered and its capital was destroyed; 1379 Khorasan and Herat conquered and in 1382 these indignant states subjugated again; then defeated Sedschestan in 1383. In 1384 and the following years Timur subjugated almost all of Persia, in 1386 Georgia, accepted the voluntary submission of the Prince of Shirvan, conquered Tauris and Armenia in 1387 and brought the robber Turkomans and Kurds to order. After he quenched several outrages, including defeating the rebellious Khan Tokhtamish of Kapchak and the Khowaresmians again (from 1387-91) and bringing them to submission and even after the victory over the former had penetrated to the Volga, he returned in 1392 returned to Samarkand and installed his grandson, Pir Muhamed, as governor of the southern provinces of his empire from Kabul and Gazna to the Indus. A new campaign against Persia was directed mainly against the Assassins and Guebern, whom it almost completely exterminated. During the year 1393 he also passed through almost all provinces of Persia and held triumphant marches in Shiraz and Isfahan. After defeating the Sultan of Baghdad and passing through Diarbekr, he went to Georgia in 1395, where he conquered Tbilisi. He defeated the indignant Khan Tokhtamish of Kapchak in a great battle and drove him across the Volga into the territory of the princes who paid interest to the Kapchaks, turned against the Dnieper and returned to Samarkand after he had burned Moscow and conquered Azov . In 1396 new wars were waged against Georgia. In 1398 he moved to the aid of his grandson Pir Muhamed, crossed the Ganges and Indus, defeated the Indians near Delhi, took this city and returned in 1399 to his homeland. In 1399 and 1400 he made new trains to Georgia; During the last year he received an embassy from the Greek emperor, who approached him for help against the Ottoman sultan in Asia Minor, Bajazet. At first Timur wanted to act as a mediator between the two, but since Bajazet answered proudly, Timur invaded Turkish territory and besieged and conquered Sebaste. Suddenly he turned against the Sultan of Egypt, who had murdered an ambassador from Timur, conquered Aleppo and defeated the Egyptians near Damascus, took the city and made the inhabitants prisoners, then moved against Baghdad, stormed it and others. then moved back to Georgia. In 1402 he took another train against Bajazet. At Angora (Ankyra) in Galatia the 800,000 (1,600,000) strong Mongolian army defeated the 120,000 (400,000) Turks, and Bajazet himself was captured. To. to this battle all of Natolia and Egypt submitted to the victor. In 1403–1405 Timur fought and defeated Georgia again. First. 1405 in Otrar on a conquest of China. Timur had the conquered lands, which were closest to the center of his empire, administered with almost unlimited power by his sons and grandchildren as governors. He already had to struggle with numerous revolts from these powerful people, but his. If the tremendous will no longer prevailed, the evil became even greater.

Although he had appointed his eldest grandson, Pir Muhamed, to succeed him in the supremacy of the M., when he died, Pir Muhamed was far away in his governorship in Gazna, and Kalil, another grandson of Timur, seized Samarkand and was the first to rule in the name of Pir Muhamed, then as an independent prince. Although Pir Muhamed pulled against the usurper, he could not do anything, rather he was defeated in 1406. At the same time Ideku broke loose with Kapchak, and both the Karatatars and the Turkoman hordes marched against Samarkand, but this time they were driven back. Kalil, meanwhile, sank into softness. Outrages took place, Khodaidad Hussein, leader of the Turkomans, was summoned against Kalil, and Kalil fell into captivity in 1409 when he went into the field against him. In Kalil's name, Khodaidad occupied Samarkand, plundered Timur's palace, but fled to Turkestan when Shah Rokh, Timur's son and governor in Khorasan, advanced against him, but took Kalil with him. But when Khodaidad tried to bring together an army under the M. in Kalil's name, he was captured and killed by them, and Kalil now voluntarily entered the power of Shah Rokh, who ruled in his name, but later poisoned him let. During these unrest, Achmed, Prince of Baghdad, and Kara Jussuff, Prince of a part of Iraq, who had never been completely defeated, had revolted and re-conquered the territory that had been taken from them. The latter took his property from the first and got Rokh with Shah, but his son Eskander was finally defeated. Shah Rokh st. 1446. Under his son and successor Ulug-Begh, the sons of his brother made themselves independent, Alla od-Dawlet tore off Khorasan, Muhamed part of Persia, KassemBaberMazenderan and Gorgan on the Caspian Sea. Although he defeated and subjugated the former again, he was defeated and executed by his own son Abdallatif in 1449. But already after 6 months the parricide was murdered by his warriors. His cousin Abdallah now ascended the throne, but was chased away and killed with the help of the Uzbeks by Abusaid, Muhammad's son, in 1457 after an already unsuccessful attempt to take the throne. After numerous, mostly happy wars, in which he again forced some of the fallen governors to obey, Abusaid was also captured and executed in 1468 on a procession against the Turkomans from the WeißemHammel under Hassan-Beg (Uzum Kassan). He is usually considered the final ruler. viewed from TimursReiche. After his death, the individual governors tore themselves away completely, and his eleven sons also made themselves partly independent, so that only the Great Bukhari (Dschagatai) remained with the eldest, Ahmed. He was followed by his firstborn, Massud, against whom his brothers revolted. In 1494 Babur came to the government, conquered Samarkand, but soon afterwards had to flee to Khorasan, at war by his brother, but later conquered his country again. Chased away by an invasion of the Uzbeks in 1500, he went to Gazna and from there to India, where he met the Sultan of Delhi and others. expelled, fought a new empire and thus founded the empire of the Grand Mughal (s.d.). Lost outside India. the M. now all world-historical importance. Splintered into individual khanates, the rulers fought with each other and were partly (the westernmost) conquered by the Turkish sultans and Persia, partly (the eastern) by the Chinese, partly they (the northern) came in the beginning of the 17th century . of Russia. Others withdrew from Chinese rule in the 17th century and went over to Russia until this empire committed itself by a treaty not to accept any more Mongol defectors. Only in the great Bukhari or Dschagatai did the M. maintain their independence, and there, descendants of Genghis Khan and Timur still rule under the name of the Great Khans, but hardly known from the rest of the world. See Hüllmann, Gesch. the M. to 1206, Berl. 1796; d'Ohsson, Hist. des Mongoles depuis Tschingiz-Khan jusqu'à Timour-Lene, Par. 1824; Hammer-Purgstall, History of the Golden Horde, Pesth 1840; The same, story of the Ilchane, Darmst. 1842, 2 vols. Beresin has begun a collection of the most important oriental source works on the history of M.Bibliothèque Mongole, Kazan 1849 ff., Calculated on 6 vols.). About the historians under the M. themselves, see Mongolian language and literature.