Can HIV be transmitted through small wounds

HIV transmission

HIV is relatively difficult to transmit. The virus cannot be transmitted in everyday life. Infection is only possible if viruses get into the body in sufficient quantities. This mainly happens during sex or drug use. You can protect yourself well against a transmission.

The most important information about HIV transmission in brief

  • HIV cannot be transmitted in everyday life: not even when kissing, coughing or using the same toilet.
  • Most commonly HIV is found in Vaginal or anal intercourse transfer. Condoms and femidomes, protection through therapy and PrEP protect against this.
  • With a successful HIV therapy the virus is no longer detectable in the blood. HIV can then even occur during sex not be transferred.
  • There is a high risk of HIV when sharing Syringes and needles for drug use. Safer use protects against this.
  • During the Pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding HIV transmission to the baby can be prevented.

#double knowledge

During HIV therapy drugs suppress the virus in the body. HIV cannot be transmitted even during sex. It has been scientifically proven. With our #knowledge doubling campaign, we want to make this fact better known.

When is there a risk of HIV?

HIV is one of the most difficult to transmit pathogens. The virus can be used in everyday life, in leisure time, at work or during sports Not be transmitted.

You are only at risk of HIV when body fluids that contain a large amount of virus enter the body:

  • during sex: via the anal and vaginal mucous membrane, the mucous membrane on the cervix (even if the body is not ejaculating) and the penile mucosa ("ligament", foreskin, urethral entrance).
  • with drug use: HIV gets into the blood through sharing syringes and needles.
  • during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding: through the placenta, through contact with blood or vaginal secretions, or through breast milk if the mother is not taking anti-HIV medication.

You can protect yourself from HIV protect well:

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The risk of HIV transmission is increased if there are a particularly large number of viruses in the blood and body fluids. That is, for example, two to four weeks after one fresh HIV infection the case, because the virus then multiplies particularly strongly. Most people do not yet know about their infection at this point, so find them in this phase most HIV transmission instead of.

A HIV therapy suppresses the multiplication of viruses in the body so much that after a while HIV can no longer be detected in the blood. HIV cannot then be transmitted even during sex.

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No risk of HIV in everyday life

In everyday life together, HIV transmission is impossible. No risk of transmission consists for example:

  • when kissing, shaking hands or hugging
  • when coughing or sneezing
  • when sharing plates, glasses and cutlery
  • when sharing toilets, towels or bed linen
  • in swimming pools or saunas
  • in working and living with people with HIV / AIDS
  • in looking after and caring for people with HIV / AIDS
  • for first aid services, provided that the hygienic regulations are observed (gloves, ventilation mask)
  • for medical and cosmetic treatments (dental treatment, foot care and so on), provided that the hygienic regulations are observed
  • when tattooing and piercing, provided that work is carried out under hygienic conditions
  • with insect bites

Why is there no risk?

The HIV amount in saliva, sweat, tear fluid, urine, or feces is not enough for infection. Also is intact skin is a safe barrier. In addition, HIV stays outside the body not infectious for long.

HIV transmission through sex

Not transferable under successful therapy

  • HIV therapy drugs suppress HIV in the body.
  • HIV cannot then be transmitted during sex.
  • That is scientifically proven.

Risk of HIV during vaginal and anal intercourse

Most commonly, HIV is passed on through unprotected anal and vaginal sex.

Contains semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood if you have untreated HIV infection a lot of viruses. The mucous membranes in the rectum, cervix and vagina are very sensitive and can easily absorb HIV, as is the inside of the foreskin and the urethra.

Since the vaginal and intestinal mucosa can contain many viruses, there are vaginal and anal intercoursealso an HIV risk for the intruding ("active") person.

Increase if HIV infection is untreated otherVenereal diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea or chlamydia the risk of HIV transmission: Through inflamed mucous membranes HIV can enter or get out of the body more easily.

At a treated HIV infection other STDs do not increase the risk of transmitting HIV.

Virtually no HIV risk from oral sex

With oral sex (sucking or licking the penis, vulva or anus) there is practically no risk of HIV, because the Oral mucosa is very stable. Even if semen or menstrual blood gets into the mouth, the risk of transmission is very low.

Worldwide are only few cases in which oral sex resulted in HIV infection.

The Ingestion of the pleasure drop poses no risk during oral sex There are also no known cases in which HIV was transmitted through the ingestion of vaginal fluid during oral sex.

Further information

Likelihood of HIV transmission through sex

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HIV is one of the difficult to transmit pathogens. You need one for HIV transmission during sex sufficient amount of virus and a suitable entry point into the body.

For transmission to occur at all, one must have sex with someone who is HIV-positive and who is not being treated with HIV drugs. In a single unprotected sexual contact, the risk of HIV is statistically very low. It increases with the frequency of unprotected contacts.

Basically, if you had a risk or are unsure, you should get advice and if necessary, take an HIV test.

Having unprotected sex with someone who is very likely to have HIV and who is not being treated with HIV medication can result in a Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) still prevent HIV transmission. A PEP should ideally begin within 2 hours, if possible within 24 and no later than 48 hours after the risk exposure.

HIV risk from drug use

There is a very high risk of sharing syringes and needles while using drugs. In this way, HIV can enter the bloodstream directly. The virus can persist for several days in moist blood residues in the syringe.

In addition, it is very easy to get infected with hepatitis if you use syringes and accessories together. Offers very good protection against HIV infection when using drugsSafer use.

HIV transmission through a syringe lying around?

An HIV infection through a needle lying around, for example in a sandpit, is not known worldwide become.

As a rule, in such cases it is small diameter needles with only one small amount of blood remains behind. The Dry blood residues also in the air and - unlike with drug consumption - are not brought back into a solution. An HIV infection is not possible in such a case, one Infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C. on the other hand yes. Therefore one should be examined by a doctor.

A Hepatitis B. can be achieved by vaccination and administration of immunoglobulins within 48 hours still prevent. A Hepatitis C. one can do well with medication treat and heal.

HIV transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding

HIV can be passed on to the child during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding through medication and other measures be prevented. That is why all pregnant women in Germany are offered an HIV test.

Further information

No risk of HIV from blood products

Blood and blood products, for example for surgery, are in Germany through various measures (especially tests) very sure.