Who are Mongoloid

The history of the Mongols

The founding of the Mongol Empire by the Great Khan

The area of ​​Mongolia was first settled 500,000 years ago. The first known Mongolian people were the Central Asian Uighurs. They lived between 1600 and 1160 BC and have had a profound influence on the Mongolian culture of today. Temüdschin was born in 1155, the later one Great Khan, a Mongolian conqueror who had a major influence on the fate of his country . Even today he is a mystical symbolic figure.

In 1206 he becomes the khan of all Mongols. The great conquest of the Mongols began at this time. In its heyday, large parts of China, Korea, Indochina, Burma, Iraq, Iran, Asia Minor, Russia, Poland, Hungary as well as parts of Siberia and the Balkans belong to the Mongolian Empire.

From the Chinese invasion to the communist revolution

The expansion of the Mongol Empire ends in 1260. With the death of Genghis Khan, the disintegration of the empire begins. In 1650 the Chinese Qing Dynasty took control of Mongolia. In 1911 the country regained its independence. The head of state is Bogd Gegeen, one of the most important personalities in the History of Mongolia. The Chinese want to recapture the country in 1919. A Russian intervention thwarted this venture.

In 1921 the communist revolution broke out and Mongolia became the second communist country in the world after the USSR. After Bogd Gegeen's death in 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed. In 1935 the People's Republic had to defend itself against the Japanese invasion of Inner Mongolia. The USSR comes to the aid of Mongolia and the Japanese withdraw in 1939. In 1961 Mongolia became a member of the UN. Mongolia remains a loyal ally of Moscow and is generously supported.

The withdrawal of Russia and the opening to the world

When Russia ends its support and demands repayment of its $ 6 billion debt, the Mongolian economy collapses. A quarter of the population lives below the poverty line and thousands of unemployed are resuming nomadic life. Democratization slowly begins in the 1990s and the communist system is transformed into a capitalist system. An opening to the neighbors Japan and Korea is taking place without neglecting the political balance with China and Russia.

In 2006 the country celebrates 800 years of the Mongol Empire. The Mongolian economy owes its strong growth to the high demand from China for mineral resources such as coal, copper and iron ore. But the inequalities persist. You will notice this during your stay in the country.

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Updated November 10, 2015