Are Latinos the most discriminated against
The US population of Latin American and Hispanic descent is called "Hispanics" or "Latinos". At around 45 million, they make up almost 15 percent of the total population. They live particularly in the states of the South and Southwest. What they forge together are similar interests: recognition of US citizenship, improved working conditions, expansion of the health system, reduction of discrimination and preservation of one's own cultural identity. The Hispanics are the fastest growing population in the United States. They are increasingly influencing elections and governments, especially in Florida, New Mexico and Arizona.
The ancestors of the US black population came from sub-Saharan Africa. From there they were abducted as slaves. Between 1619 and 1808 around 500,000 negro slaves were shipped from Africa, mainly to the Caribbean and North America. To this day, Europeans, blacks and Hispanics as well as Asians have mixed with each other, so that there are no longer any clear boundaries between "whites" and "coloreds", African-Americans, Latinos and Europeans.
Afro-Americans are Americans whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa. Immigrants from Central America with black skin, on the other hand, refer to themselves as Haitians, Dominicans or Latinos. Immigrants have been coming from Nigeria, Ghana and Ethiopia since the 1980s. To this day, the White Supremacy ideology is widespread. Nevertheless, Barack Obama was sworn in on January 20, 2009, the first US president with African American roots.
Racial discrimination and poverty caused sustained great migration of African Americans from the southern states to the Midwest, Central Atlantic, southern New England and California in the early 20th century. Since the 1950s, the African American civil rights movement developed (Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael). Blacks are still disadvantaged in business and education to this day.
The indigenous people north of Mexico are called "First Nations" in Canada and "Native Americans" in the USA. 562 tribes are recognized in the USA and 615 in Canada. Culturally and sociologically, the Indian tribes differ greatly from one another. Since the middle of the 18th century, the Indians were strictly separated from the European immigrants. American presidents took the right to relocate Indian tribes at will. Thousands were killed in the process. The indigenous population was decimated by imported diseases, wars and massacres. Since the end of the 19th century, their remains have lived in reserves, on mostly worthless and inhospitable areas. Although the Indians got some of their rights back in 1968, they still live in poverty and discrimination today. In Canada and the USA, Indian children were torn from their families until after 1970, forcibly brought up in church boarding schools and brought to Christianity, whereby they were weaned from their language and tradition. Young Indian women were sometimes forcibly sterilized.
Today, 561 tribal governments are granted legal sovereignty in their territory. The Bureau of Indian Affairs is responsible for the reservation area of 225,000 square kilometers. The Indians' sources of income are tourism, handicrafts and gambling in casinos. Besides living on the reservations many Indians in the cities, their numbers growing.
The proportion of Indians living in cities (85 percent) is also increasing. There are said to be 87,000 Indians in New York alone. Today, more than 2.5 million Indians and over 1.6 million people of Native American descent live in the United States. More than whites, they suffer from poverty, disease and a lack of education.
Life in the reserves is marked by misery. Unemployment is high and health care is poor.
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